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(No. i. Vol. XIX.) 



PROCEEDINGS 



MorrFsffr !5orirtg of 3£nHquifg, 



FOR THE YEAH 1903. 



Volume XIX. 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

1903. 
u. s. a. cxxvn. 



CONTENTS, 



Proceedings Three Hundred and Seventy-Eighth Meeting 



Page. 

7 



Champlain's Voyages and the Founding of Quebec and 

Montreal :'' ;. . . . 11 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Seventh-Ninth Meeting 34 

School-Day Peminiscences . . .... . . . . . 35 

List of Members . . 59 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ttloroxfrr gorirtg of JtnHquilg, 



Volume XIX. 




Wmt$ttx f Pw, 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

1903. 
U. S. A. CXXVII. 



1239979 



OFFICERS FOR 1903. 



President: 
Lyman Adelbert Ely. 

First Vice-President: 
Mander Alvan Maynard. 

Second Vice-President: 
Mrs. Daniel Kent. 

Treasurer: 
Benjamin Thomas Hill. 

Secretary: 
Walter Davidson. 

Librarian: 
Ellery Bicknell Crane. 



COMMITTEES FOR 1903. 



Executive Board and Committee. 



Lyman A. Ely, Mander A. Maynard 

Mrs. Daniel Kent, Benjamin T. Hill, 

Walter Davidson. 

Standing Committee on Nominations: 

Frank E. Williamson, Charles B. Eaton, 

Charles F. Darling. 



Archaeology: 

William T. Forbes, William F. Abbot, 

Owen W. Mills. 



General History: 

Zelotes W. Coombs, Mrs. C. Van D. Chenoweth, 

Joseph Jackson, Helen A. Goodspeed, 

William T. Harlow. 



Local History and Genealogy: 

Mrs. William T. Forbes, Albert Silvester, 
Georgie A. Bacon, Marvin M. Taylor, 

Charles A. Geer. 



Committees. 5 

Military History: 

Frederick G. Stiles, Matthew Bonner Flinn, 

William H. Bartlett, Alfred S. Roe, 

Theodore S. Johnson. 

Ancient Manuscripts, Publications, Paintings and 
Engravings: 

Nathaniel Paine, George M. Rice, 

Mrs. L. G. White. 

Library and Collections for the Same: 

Frank E. Williamson, John E. Lynch, 

Miss M. Agnes Waite. 

Museum and Articles for the Same: 

Jerome Marble, Frank H. Rice, 

Mrs. H. K. Merrifield, George C. Rice, 
John P. K. Otis, Mrs. George M. Woodward, 

Frances C. Morse, Mrs. F. E. Kimball, 

Mrs. H. C. Graton. 



Publications of the Society: 

Ellery B. Crane, George Maynard, 
Mander A. Maynard. 



Membership Biography and Resolutions: 

Harrison G. Otis, Henry F. Stedman. 

Anna M. Moore. 



6 Worcester /Society of Antiquity. 

Marking Historical Places: 

Mrs. R. B. Dodge, Chauncy G. Harrington, 

Mary Louise Trumbull Cogswell, A. K. Gould, 

Henry Brannon, George E. Arnold, 

Ledyard Bill, Charles E. Burbank. 

Photographic Work: 

Charles F. Darling, Miss M. E. Reed, 

Corwin M. Thayer, Katie Darling, 

Charles E. Staples. 



Auditors: 

Charles A. Chase, Lewis C. Muzzy, 

Thomas G. Kent. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-EIGHTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, JANUARY 6, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Crane, C. A. Chase, Davidson, Darling, Fowler, 
Gould, Hill, Hutchins, D. Kent, M. A. Maynard, George 
Maynard, Paine, G. M. Rice, Sheehan, Williamson, Nutt, 
Mrs. Dr. Bray, Mrs. Fowler, Mrs. Hildreth, Miss Smith, Mrs. 
Sheehan, Miss M. A. Waite, Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Harlow, 
Mr. Hildreth, Mr. McAleer, G. H. Rice and several others. 

The reported additions to the Society's collections during 
the past month were : one hundred and six bound volumes, 
ninety-three pamphlets, thirty-one papers and twelve mis- 
cellaneous articles, the latter for the museum. Special 
mention was made of the generous contributions of Mr. G. 
Stuart Dickinson, of twenty-five bound volumes and 
twenty-two pamphlets ; also of a very old gun of rare work- 
manship, presented by Mr. George McAleer of this city. 

On report of the Committee on Nominations Edwin H. 
Crandell, Jr., Edgar A. Johnson and Julia V. Midgley Mur- 
ray were elected to active membership in the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Crane, the committee chosen October 
7 last to consider and present candidates for the office of 
Librarian were discharged from further service, the office 
having been filled at the late annual meeting. 



8 | Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

President Ely then addressed the meeting as follows: 
Fellow members of the Worcester Society of Antiquity: 

Thanking you for the very cordial and unanimous election 
as President of this Society, I will now briefly address 
you, reviewing the work accomplished by the Society 
during the past year, and make a few suggestions and 
recommendations for carrying on the affairs of the Society 
the ensuing year. 

The contributions to the library the past year have been 
unusually large: 1,092 bound volumes, 1,495 pamphlets, 
313 papers; and for the museum, 100 miscellaneous arti- 
cles. Many of the books received are of special value, 
furnishing complete sets of standard works on various sub- 
jects, including family history, biography, town history, 
Revolutionary, Civil and Spanish wars. 

The rapid growth of the library the past few years and 
the continual^ increasing use of the same by members and 
their friends, clearly necessitates a more comprehensive 
system of cataloguing and classification in order that best 
results may be obtained. It certainly will be a great ad- 
vantage to those visiting the library to be informed whether 
the books wanted are in the library and where they can be 
found. 

The library now contains 18,492 bound volumes, 32,500 
pamphlets and in the museum about 6,000 articles on ex- 
hibition. The cases in the museum are inadequate to 
properly display many very valuable and interesting arti- 
cles which have been contributed and packed away await- 
ing proper cases. I trust that this deficiency may be 
speedily remedied, as a proper display of articles contributed 
will naturally induce other contributions. 

About two thousand visitors have been entertained 
during the past year; nearly one-half of the number were 
pupils from schools within the city and neighboring towns. 

The department of Local History and Genealogy has 



Proceedings. 9 

been given special attention. The papers on the Grout 
Family, Manchester Street Fire, Chestnut Street about 1840, 
The Stone Family, The Huguenots, Homes of the Soldiers 
of the Revolution, History of the Jo Bill Road, The North 
End of Main Street and the Daniel Henchman Farm, Pearl 
Street and Vicinity about 1840, also the Parker Family 
are valuable contributions to our department of Local 
History. 

The department of General History has also received a 
valuable article on the Manners and Customs in the New 
England Colonies before the Revolution, and an account of 
a trip to Colorado. 

The exhibition of Antique Musical Instruments last April 
gave very general satisfaction, as did also the concert given 
for the purpose of bringing into use some of the rare old 
instruments of bygone days. A complete catalogue of this 
exhibition may be found in No. 2 of Volume XVIII. 

The annual field-day at Quincy was not less enjoyable 
than usual, although the weather was not all that might 
be desired. The kindness of our friends, however, who 
received and guided our party compensated in a large 
degree for the occasional downpour of rain that deprived 
us of our afternoon investigations. 

The Society was first instituted January 24, 1875, and 
incorporated March 22, 1877. Mr. J. G. Smith was elected 
Librarian, continuing till 1883, when Mr. Thomas A. Dick- 
inson was elected and held the position until 1902, when 
he resigned, having been in service about eighteen years. 
It is gratifying to know that his faithful and valuable 
services rendered the Society were appreciated, as shown 
by a unanimous vote of thanks accorded him at a stated 
meeting of the Society. 

The Society is fortunate in securing the services of the 
Hon. Ellery B. Crane as successor to Mr. Dickinson, who 
assumes the position of Librarian with a thorough knowl- 
edge of the traditions of the Society and as an exponent 



10 Worcester /Society of Antiquity. 

of the original ideas of its founders, having been an enthu- 
siastic and valuable worker in the interests of the Society 
from its foundation; and with the earnest co-operation of 
every member of the Society the ensuing year, excellent 
results may be realized. 

I have believed for some time, in common with many 
members of the Society, that a change of name of the 
Society would be for its best interests. The work already 
accomplished by the Society clearly demonstrates to my 
mind that its scope is much more historical than antiquarian 
in character. Would it not be well to consider a change 
in the name and thereby more clearly indicate an historical 
society and eliminate somewhat the confusion which has 
existed to a much greater extent since the Society of An- 
tiquity became so near neighbor to the American Antiqua- 
rian Society? I have known many intelligent people in 
Worcester who have not been identified with either Society, 
who have been at a loss to distinguish them apart. The 
confusion experienced by post-office, express, telephone, 
telegraph, etc., is considerable. 

President Samuel E. Staples in his annual address before 
the Society, April 6, 1875, said, "The Society of Antiquity 
is designed to encourage historical research. That there is 
a necessity for such an organization in this community, 
may be seen when * * * there is no other institution of 
this kind to meet the popular demand * * * . Historical 
research and the preservation of historical matter is the 
underlying principle that should prompt us in our efforts 
for the attainment and dissemination of knowledge." 

I hope that this matter may be carefully considered by 
members and that an opportunity will be given for a full 
and free discussion, and that the action taken will be for 
the best interests of the Society. 

I trust that the chairman of each of the working com- 
mittees will call his committee together within one month 
from date in accordance with Sec. 8 of Article 4 of the 



Champlairfs Voyages. 11 

Constitution and By-Laws and organize by appointing a 
secretary, and prepare for a vigorous campaign. 

At the close of his address, President Ely announced the 
committees for the ensuing year in the order as they appear 
on the foregoing pages of this number of the Society's 
proceedings. 

On motion of Mr. Paine the question of duties, services 
and compensation for such services, both of the Librarian 
and Secretary, were discussed, and on motion of Mr. Chase 
the matter of compensation in each case was left to the 
Executive Board to consider and recommend such action 
as they might deem wise, at the next regular meeting of 
the Society. 

Hon. Ellery B. Crane was introduced and read the fol- 
lowing: 

CHAMPLAIN'S VOYAGES AND THE FOUNDING OF 
QUEBEC AND MONTREAL. 

Samuel de Champlain was the son of Antoine de Cham- 
plain, a captain in the marine, and his wife Marguerite 
le Roy. There appears to be no record of the exact day 
or even year of his birth. As near as can be ascertained 
he was born about the year 1567, in the village of Brouage 
in the ancient province of Saintonge. This village, of 
great antiquity, is situated in a low, marshy region on the 
southern bank of an inlet or arm of the sea, pji the south- 
western shores of France, opposite to that part of the 
Island of Oleron, where it is separated from the mainland 
only by a narrow channel. 

From Champ] ain's birth throughout the whole period of 
his youth, and until he entered upon his manhood, the 
little town within whose walls he was reared was the fitful 
scene of war and peace, of alarm and conflict, caused by 
the civil contentions that raged in that province for a 
period of nearly forty years. During all these busy scenes 



12 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

the village of Brouage became a military post of consid- 
erable importance. The military and commercial enter- 
prise of the place brought the subject of our sketch into 
daily contact with men of the highest character in their 
several departments. Distinguished officers of the French 
army were frequently there, it being a rendezvous for the 
young nobility. It became more or less a training school for 
those entering the military profession, and gave young 
Champlain an opportunity for cultivating and acquiring 
that firmness and strength of character he so largely dis- 
played in after years. From his writings we must, however, 
infer that his education was rather limited and rudimentary, 
but through his associations with educated men he acquired 
a general knowledge of his native language, and became 
more or less proficient in the art of drawing. 

In his youth, and certainly during the early years of his 
manhood, he appears to have been engaged in practical 
navigation, for in his address to the Queen, he says, "Of 
all the most useful and excellent arts, that of navigation 
has always seemed to me to occupy the first place, for the 
more hazardous it is and the more numerous the perils and 
losses by which it is attended, so much the more it is es- 
teemed and exalted above all others, being wholly unsuited 
to the timid and irresolute. By this art we obtain knowl- 
edge of different countries, regions and realms; by it we 
attract and bring to our own land all kinds of riches; by 
it the idolatry of paganism is overthrown and Christianity 
proclaimed throughout all the regions of the earth. This 
is the art which from my early age has won my love and 
induced me to expose myself almost all my life to the im- 
petuous waves of the ocean, and led me to explore the 
coasts of a part of America, especially of New France 
where I have always desired to see the lily flourish, and 
also the only religion, Catholic, Apostolic and Roman. This 
I trust now to accomplish with the help of God, assisted by 
the favor of your majesty, whom I most humbly entreat 



Champlain' s Voyages. 13 

to continue to sustain us, in order that all may succeed 
to the honor of God, the welfare of France, and the splendor 
of your reign, for the grandeur and prosperity of which I 
will pray God to attend j^ou always with a thousand bles- 
sings." 

About the year 1592, he was appointed quartermaster in 
the royal army in Brittany, a province on the western 
coast of France, and continued in office until by the peace 
of Vervins in 1598, the authority of Henry the Fourth was 
firmly established throughout the kingdom. 

This war in Brittany was the closing scene of that mighty 
struggle which had been agitating the nation, wasting its 
resources and its best blood, for more than half a century. 
It began back in the decade following 1530, when the 
preaching of Calvin in the kingdom of Navarre began to 
make known his transcendent power. The new faith, which 
was making rapid strides in other countries, easily awakened 
the warm heart and active temperament of the French 
people. The effort to put down the movement by the ex- 
termination of those engaged in it proved quite unsuccessful. 
In the year 1599, Champlain was placed in command of 
the St. Julian, a large French ship of five hundred tons 
burden, which had been chartered by the Spanish authori- 
ties for a voyage to the West Indies. Sailing from St. 
Lucas in the early part of January, passing the Canaries, 
they touched at Guadaloupe, winding their way among the 
group called the Virgins, passed Margarita, then famous for 
pearl fisheries, and thence sailed to St. Juan de Portorico. 
From this point, Champlain coasted along the northern 
shore of the island of St. Domingo, and after touching the 
southern coast of Cuba they at length cast anchor in the 
harbor of San Juan d'Ulloa, the island fortress near Vera 
Cruz. While here Champlain made an inland journey to 
the City of Mexico, where he remained a month. Return- 
ing to his vessel he sailed to Havana, from which place 
he was commissioned to visit, on public business, Carta- 



14 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

gena, within the present limits of New Grenada on the coast 
of South America, Returning to Havana he again set 
sail for Saint Lucas, reaching there early in March, 1601, 
after an absence from that port of a little more than two 
years. On Champlain's return to France he prepared an 
elaborate report of his observations and discoveries. This 
interesting document remained in manuscript two hundred 
and fifty-seven years, when it was first printed in London 
in an English translation, by the Hakluyt Society, in 1859. 
This valuable tract gave a lucid description of the peculiar- 
ities, manners and customs of the people; the soil, moun- 
tains and rivers; the trees, fruits and plants; the animals, 
birds and fishes; the rich mines found at different points; 
with frequent allusions to the system of colonial manage- 
ment; together with the character and sources of the vast 
wealth which these settlements were annually yielding to 
the Spanish crown. 

It was on this trip that he visited the Isthmus of Panama, 
and suggested that a ship canal across this Isthmus would 
be a work of great practical utility.* 

The ability displayed by Champlain in this report of his 
voyage among the Spanish colonies, caused his sovereign, 
Henry IV., to assign him a pension to enable him to reside 
near his person, and occupy a place within the charmed 
circle of the French nobility. While residing at court 
Champlain had abundant opportunity for observing the 
efforts at colonization on the coast of North America, and 
after frequent interviews with the famous commander, De 
Chastes, on the subject, the latter decided to send out an 
expedition to the northern portion of North America, which 
was then claimed by France, and invited the zealous Cham- 
plain to join the exploring party. The consent of the King 
was obtained by De Chastes for the young navigator to 
accompany the expedition, provided he should bring back 



*Now after the lapse of 300 years his suggestion of a ship canal across the Isthmus 
has been revived with a prospect of realization. 



Champlain 9 s Voyages. 15 

a faithful report of the voyage. March 15, 1603, the party- 
set sail from Hornfleur for the New World. 

At this time no settlements had been established on the 
northern coasts of America, although these regions had been 
frequented by European fishermen under employment, who 
carried home only meagre information concerning the 
country along the shores they were permitted to coast. 
The two barques, of about fifteen tons each, with their 
passengers through the assistance of favorable winds 
soon reached the banks of Newfoundland; passing into 
the river St. Lawrence they left their vessels at Tadousac, 
a trading post, and proceeded up the stream in a small 
boat to a point above the present site of Montreal, 
casting anchor at the Falls of St. Louis. Excursions in 
various directions were made, enabling Champlain to note 
the general features of the country and make rude draw- 
ings or maps for a more full description of what they 
witnessed. After securing, through exchange, a valuable 
collection of furs from the Indians, who also exhibited 
specimens of native copper, the expedition prepared to 
return to France. But before the departure from Tadou- 
sac one of the sagamores asked that his son might accom- 
pany the party to France, there to see some of the wonders 
of the Old World. An Iroquois woman who had been 
captured in war and was about to be sacrificed as one of 
the victims at a cannibal feast, was also presented, as well 
as four other natives; and in the month of August the 
return trip was commenced, arriving at Havre on the 20th 
of September, after an absence of six months and six days. 
The report of this voyage, "Petit Discours," as Champlain 
called it, contained a very complete account of the character 
and products of the country, its trees, plants, fruits and 
vines; a description of the native inhabitants, their mode 
of living, clothing, food and its preparation, their banquets, 
religion and method of burying their dead; with many 
other particulars relating to their habits and customs. 



16 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Although commander De Chastes did not live to witness 
the return of his expedition, the report brought by Cham- 
plain so interested Henry IV. that he promised to continue 
his royal favor and patronage on the undertaking. And 
in less than two months after the return of the De Chastes 
expedition the King granted a charter to a nobleman, De 
Monts by name, constituting him the King's Lieutenant in 
La Cadie, with all powers to establish a colonial settlement. 
De Monts's first grant included the territory lying be- 
tween the fortieth and forty-sixth degrees of north latitude; 
but finding the line not far enough north, it was extended 
so as to include the whole region of the gulf and river St. 
Lawrence. Soon the third exploring party in which 
Champlain took part was ready to sail, he having been 
invited by De Monts to attend this expedition in the same 
capacity as the previous one. April 7, 1604, the vessels 
sailed from Havre with about one hundred and twenty 
artisans, soldiers and laborers, for the purpose of establish- 
ing a French colony. On reaching the river St. Lawrence, 
while the principal portion of the fleet was employed in 
the fur trade with the Indians, Champlain was sent with 
a party to explore the coast towards the west, touching 
at various points along the shore ; doubling Cape Sable they 
entered the Bay of Fundy, explored St. Mary's Bay and 
discovered several mines of both silver and iron. Return- 
ing to the fleet, Champlain made a minute report to De 
Monts. Later the latter with Champlain and a few attend- 
ants skirted the whole coast as far south as the river St. 
Croix, and fixed upon De Monts Island as the seat of their 
colony. In the autumn of 1604, Champlain was deputized 
with the command of a party to explore the coast still 
farther south. This trip occupied just one month, during 
which time a careful examination of the present coast of 
Maine was made and many places named by Champlain, 
one being Monts Deserts, which has been Anglicized into 
Mount Desert. 



Champlain' s Voyages. 17 

In June, 1605, Champlain headed another party for 
further exploration of the coast to the southward from De 
Monts Island, finding their way as far south as the present 
Nauset harbor, spending Saturday night July 16, in what 
is now Boston harbor. 

The place selected for the settlement of their colony had, 
through the winter months, proved to be exceedingly cold 
and uncomfortable, and these explorations southward were 
made with the hope of finding a more acceptable location 
in La Cadie than the region about the mouth of the St. 
Croix had furnished. September 5, 1606, another trip 
south was entered upon, reaching as far as the present 
Chatham and Martha's Vineyard; returning, arrived at their 
late headquarters (Annapolis Basin), November 14, 1606. 
This was the last time Champlain trod the soil of New 
England. 

De Monts's colony was soon broken up and called home 
to France. But for three years Champlain had been faith- 
fully serving as geographer to his King, and in his charts, 
maps of the coast and rivers, together with his voluminous 
notes on customs, character and manners of the aborigines, 
climate of the country, etc., had produced a most valuable 
record, which proved to be the most careful and accurate 
survey of this region, down to the establishment of the 
Plymouth colony in 1620. 

On September 3, 1607, Champlain and his associates left 
the coast of La Cadie for France, reaching Saint Malo 
October 1. De Monts, still hoping to retrieve some of his 
lost fortune, obtained letters-patent from the King for ex- 
tensive right to trade in America for the space of one year; 
and fitting out two vessels for the trip, appointed Champlain 
lieutenant of the expedition. Leaving Hornfleur April 13, 
1608, he arrived at Tadousac on the St. Lawrence River, 
the third of June following, and at once began the renewal 
of his explorations in that vicinity. The lofty mountains, 
beautiful vales, dense forests, enchanting little bays and 



18 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

inlets, were all carefully examined and noted in his journal. 

July 3, 1608, he located and began laying the founda- 
tions of Quebec. Soon after beginning improvements here, 
a plot was discovered among some of the men to assassinate 
Champlain and confiscate the property. But the scheme 
having been discovered the prime movers were brought to 
an account and the life of our zealous navigator saved. 
The winter of 1608 and that of 1609, proved very severe; 
twenty out of his twenty-eight men died of disease and 
exposure. But the warm sun of spring came and with it 
a fresh arrival from France, and plans were laid for further 
explorations. June 18, 1609, Champlain with eleven men 
and a party of Indians began the ascent of the river St. 
Lawrence. At the Falls of Chambly he dismissed a portion 
of his associates, ordering them to return to Quebec while 
he with two companions were to proceed with the Indians 
as guides. Continuing up the river they came to the lake 
which now bears his name. This they entered with their 
canoes, but were obliged to pass the daytime in thickets 
on shore, travelling only by night in order to escape the 
notice of hostile tribes within whose country they were ex- 
ploring. 

On the evening of July 29, while gliding noiselessly along 
near the point where Fort Carillon was afterwards erected 
at Ticonderoga, they suddenly came upon a collection of 
heavy canoes, containing not far from two hundred Iro- 
quois warriors. Champlain with his allies drew away an 
arrow shot from the shore, and fastened their canoes to- 
gether by poles. The Iroquois were asked if they desired 
to fight, to which they replied nothing would suit them 
better. But as it was then dark, sunrise in the morning 
was chosen for the time hostilities were to begin. All night 
long each party entertained the other with charges of 
cowardice and weakness, declaring they would prove the 
truth of their assertions on the coming morrow. Scarcely 
had the sun touched the mountain-tops when all were ready 



Champlain' s Voyages. 19 

for the fray. Champlain and his two comrades, armed with 
hand guns or arquebuses, went on shore with their Indian 
allies, and taking their proper position in line, marched to 
within thirty paces of the enemy, when the battle began. 
The destruction of the hand guns, which were new to the 
Iroquois, caused such terrible slaughter they soon turned 
and fled, leaving many of their dead and wounded behind 
and also their canoes and provisions. The latter with ten 
or twelve prisoners were soon started down the lake in 
company with the victorious combatants on their home- 
ward voyage. 

In September, Champlain decided to return to France 
and arrived at Hornfleur October 13, 1609, where with the 
assistance of De Monts two more vessels were supplied 
with articles most necessary to strengthen the colony at 
Quebec. On account of sickness of Champlain the expedi- 
tion did not leave France until April 8, 1610. At the end 
of eighteen days ■ the vessels reached Tadousac and the 
twenty-eighth day of April found them at Quebec, where 
the little colony were enjoying good health and spirits. 

Hostilities then existing between the neighboring tribes 
of Indians became a barrier to Champlain's plans for further 
exploration, and owing to the reported assassination of 
Henry IV. on May 14, and other troubles at home, he de- 
cided to return to France, where he arrived the 27th of 
September, 1610. During the autumn, while residing in 
Paris, Champlain became attracted by the presence of 
Helene, daughter of Nicholas Boulle, Secretary of the King's 
chamber, she being quite young, the marriage contract was 
subscribed to December 27, but the marriage was not to 
take place within at least two years. 

With a determination evidently of winning success in his 
colonization scheme, he again set out from Hornfleur for 
New France, arriving at Tadousac May 13, 1611. During 
this season he selected a spot within the present city of 
Montreal on which to locate a trading-house and permanent 



20 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

settlement. In September he returned to France for secur- 
ing more powerful personal influence towards building up 
and sustaining the settlements in his chosen territory. He 
succeeded in doing this and returned to Tadousac April 29, 
1613, and to Quebec May 7, where he found everything 
in good order. Twenty days later Champlain with four 
Frenchmen and an Indian guide started on a trip up the 
Ottawa River, covering a distance of two hundred and 
twenty-five miles into that northern country, and on his 
return was accompanied by a large delegation of Indians, 
bringing loads of furs to exchange for other merchandise 
at Montreal. The season having been spent he set sail 
for France, arriving at St. Malo the 26th of August, 
1613. 

The year 1614, Champlain passed in France, adding new 
members to his company of associates and devising means 
for the establishment of the Christian faith in the wilds of 
America. Thus far no missionary had found his way to 
the region of the St. Lawrence River. But through the 
efforts of Champlain, four Recollet friars set sail with him 
from Hornfleur, April 24, 1615, for Quebec, from where, 
after their arrival, they were assigned various points in the 
territory at which to begin their Christianizing work among 
the native tribes. On reaching Montreal, Champlain met 
representatives from various Indian tribes, demanding that 
he accompany them and help in subjugating or annihilating 
their common enemy, the Iroquois. So strongly did they 
plead, that in order to retain them as his allies he was 
forced to join them in their scheme, and at once set out 
for their homes near Lake Huron, where it merges into 
the River St. Lawrence, there to collect an army that 
should march upon the stronghold of the despised Iroquois 
and put them to death. 

The journey was made, the fortress besieged and many 
of the Iroquois killed. But Champlain found the Algon- 
quins and Hurons too hot-headed to obey his commands, 



Champlain' s Voyages. 21 

and a retreat was in progress before he could rally them 
for another attack. 

Not being able to procure an Indian escort back to 
Montreal, Champlain was forced to remain with the In- 
dians through the winter, during which time he was com- 
pleting his records, and map of the country over which he 
traveled. 

About the 20th of May, 1616, our navigator in company 
with Le Caron, one of the missionaries, left the Huron 
capital with an Indian escort, for their return to Quebec, 
where they arrived July 11, amid great rejoicing, the settlers 
having imagined Champlain had perished at the hands of 
the savages. Ten days later he left for France, where he 
arrived September 10. He made visits to his little colony 
on the banks of the St.* Lawrence, both in 1617 and 1618. 

Some of his associates in the enterprise merely hoped 
for the gain to be derived from trade with the Indians, 
but Champlain labored to develop a self-sustaining colony, 
consequently certain discords arose in the management of 
the company's affairs. But through the intervention of 
Duke de Montmorency, the new viceroy of France, the 
difficulties were settled, and Champlain, accompanied by 
his wife, sailed from Hornfleur early in May, 1620, arriving 
at Tadousac two months later. He soon pushed on to 
Quebec, where he was received with great cordiality; a 
sermon composed for the occasion was preached, and his 
arrival otherwise celebrated. 

After a sojourn of four years, he with his wife visited 
France in October, 1624. Two years later they returned 
to Quebec and he devoted his time to repairing the com- 
pany's buildings and trying to settle disputes among the 
Indian tribes. 

Nearly twenty years had elapsed since the founding of 
Quebec and still it remained but a trading-post, which fact 
proved quite discouraging to Champlain. A new company 
was now formed including one hundred and seven wealthy 



22 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

merchants, but still discouragements continued. The little 
colony was not only beset by savages, but a fleet of English 
war vessels, in 1629, sailed up the St. Lawrence and de- 
manded the half starved, terror stricken colony to surrender. 
Already the larger portion of the French had taken passage 
for France, and it only remained for Champlain to sur- 
render to the English vice-admiral (David Keith), at the 
head of two hundred armed men; thereby securing a safe 
transport for himself and those who wished to accompany 
him from Quebec to France. 

On reaching England it appeared that peace between 
England and France had been established three months be- 
fore the surrender of Quebec, so that in due time, through 
the treaty of St. Germain, the property was again returned 
to the French company; and March 23, 1632, Champlain, 
having been commissioned Governor of New France, again 
sailed for Quebec, arriving on the 23d of May. Again his 
coming was celebrated amid great joy and the booming of 
cannon. Two years soon passed away, while the numerous 
cares and demands of the little colony were being attended 
to. In the early part of October, 1635, Champlain, stricken 
with disease that was fast undermining his hitherto iron 
constitution, lay in his chamber in the little fort on the 
crest of that rugged promontory at Quebec, where, on 
Christmas day December 25, 1635, he closed his earthly 
career, surrounded by many friends who deeply mourned 
their loss. 

It appears that under the patronage of this company of 
French merchants trade with the natives was continued, 
and in 1642 they acquired right to the soil by charter. 
Their traffic with the Indians assumed a ratio of no mean 
proportion, annual fairs or sales were held, usually begin- 
ning in the month of June, sometimes lasting three months. 
These gatherings became so popular that Indians in great 
numbers patronized them, many coming with their furs and 
articles for trade a distance of a thousand miles to spend 



Champlairfs Voyages. 23 

a week or more at Montreal and Quebec in true holiday- 
fashion. They flocked there not only from the region of 
New York State, but even from the Mississippi River coun- 
try, and the far north. In the year 1663, the charter to 
this company of French merchants was revoked, and the 
following year Canada (it is said) was assigned to the 
control of the West India Company. But it continued the 
center of trade for the Indians; there could be had every- 
thing they desired, from the spirit-reviving firewater to 
guns and ammunition. 

Through the means of unrestrictive trade the Indians were 
easily drawn to the side of the French when war was de- 
clared; with them they had found a ready market for 
their entire product, receiving in return whatever articles 
they might select; fully appreciating freedom of choice, 
they considered those their best friends who gave them 
their liberty of selection without restriction, as was not the 
custom with the English. Again, should the English pre- 
vail in the contest, the Indians might lose their most 
desirable market, therefore they rallied to the side of the 
French and against the English. Count Frontinac was 
appointed Governor of Canada, and in the month of January, 
1690, organized several parties and sent them to operate 
against the English settlements. One was ordered to 
Albany, but turned aside to Schenectady, reaching that 
place at eleven o'clock Saturday night, February 8; found 
the inhabitants asleep, to be awakened by the glaring flames 
consuming their homes, every house in the place being on 
fire. It was a complete surprise. Amid the din that fol- 
lowed men, women and children were murdered. Sixty 
persons perished in the flames, twenty-five were taken 
prisoners, while the remainder of the inhabitants, half naked, 
fled to Albany, the nearest place to afford them protection. 
They were overtaken by a furious storm on their way, and 
among those who reached Albany, twenty-five suffered the 
loss of limbs from the cold. 



24 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

Another party of French and Indians fell upon Salmon 
Falls in New Hampshire, killed twenty-six men, burned 
the town and took away fifty prisoners. The third party 
made an attack upon Casco, Maine, where they killed and 
captured ninety-five persons. Measures were immediately 
set in motion to check these bloodthirsty invasions. An 
army was despatched from New York, but reaching Lake 
Champlain, and not finding boats with which to cross, 
were obliged to return. Sir William Phips with a fleet of 
thirty-two vessels sailed from Boston, and with his army 
made an unsuccessful attack, upon Quebec. For seven years 
under the guise of international warfare, the most dreadful 
and heart-rending scenes were enacted, one after the other. 
Dec. 10, 1697, a treaty of peace was made between Great 
Britain and France, which gave a material check to the 
fierce atrocities perpetrated. But war clouds were of com- 
mon experience, no sooner than one disappeared, another 
came, and for more than sixty years trouble to the colonies 
came from this quarter. Not until the armies under Wolfe, 
Amherst and Johnson had been declared victorious was this 
terrible warfare brought to a close by the ceding of that 
territory held by the French to the British crown Feby. 
10, 1763, at which time there were about 65,000 French 
people residing there, principally along the banks of the 
river St. Lawrence and its tributaries; also a large repre- 
sentation of Indians — Mohawks, Senecas, Iroquois, Chippe- 
was, Delawares, Massasaugas, Tuscaroras, Hurons and 
others. In conclusion, there are two questions that with 
your permission, I would like to consider although briefly. 
Why were so many Indians found fighting on the side of 
the French? And why was this expedition under Sir 
William Phips unsuccessful? 

Some of the early historians place considerable stress on 
work done among the Indians by Catholic missionaries, 
and would have us believe it was largely through that in- 
fluence that those savages were drawn to the side of the 
French. 



Champlain's Voyages. 25 

But the English had their Eliot, Gookin, Rawson, May- 
hew, Brainerd and others spreading their gospel among 
those heathen, and perhaps some genuine good may have 
been done by both factions. Yet from the pages of history 
we find very little to convince us that the Indians stopped 
to consider the divine laws as they relate to moral character 
and conduct, or displayed the least sign as having been 
imbued with Christian precepts, as they swung the bloody 
tomahawk and scalping knife, carrying death and destruc- 
tion to many a peaceful, happy home among French as 
well as English. It could hardly be expected that the 
intellect of the Indian could grasp those theological prin- 
ciples as readily as others more common and practical in 
their application. The English took possession of the soil 
under authority granted by the crown. No consideration 
or provision was made for the care of the natives. They 
were completely ignored. The rights of the Indian were 
left to be adjusted by settlers as they saw fit, some paid 
them something, others did not. There were special cases 
where natives were paid several times for the same lands; 
but as a rule they were peace offerings, some trifling, others 
of considerable value. There were exceptions; full value 
was paid for lands taken by the English in some instances, 
but in the main those payments were trivial. 

Boundary lines in some of the Indian deeds were very 
indefinite in their description: viz., " as far as a man could 
walk in a day" (or day and a half) ; " as far as a man could 
ride on horseback in two days;" "as far as a man could 
travel in two summer days on horseback;" or " as far as a 
man can go in two days' journey," etc. Laws were passed 
forbiding settlers buying lands of the Indians without con- 
sent of the government. Under the law the English claimed 
that the Indian could retain only the soil he actually oc- 
cupied and tilled (as a home). He could roam and hunt 
in the forests and wilderness for game, but that was to 
be in common with the Englishman or White man. After 



26 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

a time encroachments were made upon the homes of the 
natives, then an effort was made to pay a fair price for 
the purchase. But to suppose the Indian a match for the 
Englishman in such a transaction would not be placing a 
high estimate on Yankee intelligence. The only solicitude 
the Englishman had for the Indian was his conversion to 
Christianity. In 1664, Charles II. sent a commission to 
investigate the condition of the colonies, hear claims and 
complaints. Massachusetts opposed any interference with 
purchases made of the Indians. 

When it came to trade, the English would buy the furs 
and other articles for sale, but would not sell the Indian 
certain articles he called for. In other words the English 
treated the Indians more as masters while the French 
received and met them as equals; encouraged them to 
join them in their settlements; protected them in their 
rights; assisted in defending them against their enemies; 
allowed free and unrestricted trade in dealing with them; 
encouraged them to bring to market whatever they desired 
to sell, giving in exchange whatever they might select. 
Market places were provided, special days, weeks and 
months were set apart to meet Indians who came from 
long distances for the purpose of trade. And, as for many 
years commerce was the chief object of the French at 
Quebec and Montreal, the meetings of these people were of 
mutual benefit. The French took possession of the soil in 
the name of the Crown, established their settlements in a 
formal yet peaceable way, invited the natives to come under 
and accept the King of France as their ruler over their 
territory and people, they living and enjoying the same 
rights as formerly, and in common with the French, to come 
together as one people. If natives were obstinate and re- 
fused obedience they were to be controlled by force of arms. 
No proposition was made to buy their lands. But posses- 
sion seemed based on mutual good will and profit. And 
the policy adopted by the French in their treatment with 



Champlairfs Voyages. 27 

the Indians is considered to have been the most just and 
humane of all the other powers. When the struggle came 
between the French and English the Indians naturally 
joined the French to save their market and help those who 
furnished them unrestrictive trade, their mutual friends. 

So frequent had become invasions upon the frontier 
settlements that the English people felt no real security 
either in life or property. And while hostilities existed be- 
tween France and England the colonists seized upon the 
opportunity in the year 1690, to plan (as they hoped) a 
decisive campaign that should, if possible, result in removing 
one element that caused them no little trouble. Therefore, 
March 20th it was resolved (by the commissioners of New 
York and New England) that one thousand soldiers from 
New York and Connecticut, to be joined by fifteen hundred 
Indian allies, were to proceed by land and capture Montreal, 
while Massachusetts was to send a large fleet from Boston 
that should capture Quebec. Fitz John Winthrop, eldest 
son of Governor John Winthrop of Connecticut, was com- 
missioned Major-General and given ■ command of the land 
forces. He was born in Ipswich, Mass., in 1638, educated 
in England, and for a time held a commission under Crom- 
well; was Major in King Philip's war and Governor of 
Connecticut, 1698, and to the time of his death, in Boston, 
Nov. 27, 1707. 

In April a small vessel was despatched to England to 
apprise the home government of the plan, and to secure 
ammunition and arms, also several frigates to more fully 
equip the expedition. Winthrop and his English soldiers 
arrived near the falls, at the head of Wood Creek in August 
and pushed on up along Lake Champlain, about one hun- 
dred miles, only to meet disappointment. Where he looked 
for fifteen hundred Indian warriors, he found but seventy. 
On reaching the point where he intended to cross the Lake, 
there were not a sufficient number of canoes in readiness 
to safely carry the army to the opposite shore and that 



28 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

dreaded disease small-pox had made its appearance in 
camp. Filled with disappointment and mortification, Win- 
throp and his soldiers retraced their steps to Albany. The 
unsatisfactory termination of this part of the expedition 
engendered bad feeling. Some of the officers became ill- 
tempered, harsh words ensued, and Acting Governor Jacob 
Leisler arrested Major-General Winthrop and confined him 
in the fort at Albany. This act so enraged the Connecti- 
cut soldiers they were about to attack the fort to release 
him, when the Mohawk Indians performed that service for 
them, thus Winthrop was given his liberty, and the Connec- 
ticut men returned home. The command of the fleet w 7 as 
given to Gen. Sir William Phips. The day of departure 
was delayed, hoping for the arrival of the vessel on her 
return from England with the much needed supply of arms 
and ammunition. But as the season was fast advancing 
and report of the proposed expedition was liable to reach 
the enemy they hoped to surprise, it was decided to set 
sail without hearing from the despatch-boat. 

The fleet consisted of thirty-two vessels, divided into 
three squadrons, twelve in the Admiral's squadron, ten in 
the Vice-Admiral's squadron and ten in the Rear-Admiral's 
squadron, manned with about 2,500 soldiers and marines, 
44 great guns and 200 men. 

admiral's flagship. 
*Six Friends, Capt. Gregory Sugers. 

John and Thomas, " Thos. Carter. 

Return, a fire ship, " Andrew Knott. 

Lark, " John Walley. 

Batchelor, " Thos. Gwynne. 

Mary, " John Raynsford. 

Elizabeth and Mary, " Caleb Lamb. 
Mary Anne, " Gregory Sugers, Jr. 

Hanny and Mary, " Thos. Parker. 

Friendshipp, " Windsor. 

Ebijah, " Elias Noe. 

Swallow, " Thos. Lyzenby. 



Cham/plain's Voyages. 



29 



VICE-ADMIRAL S SQUADRON. 



Swann, 



Capt. Thos. Gilbert (Vice Admiral). 



Swallow, ' 


1 Small. 


Samuel, 


1 Sam Robinson. 


Delight, ' 


' Ingerston. 


Mary, l 


' Jonathan Balston. 


Begining, ' 


' Samuel Elsoe. 


Speedwell, ' 


' Barger. 


Mayflower, ' 


' Bowdick. 


Boston Merchant, l 


' Michael Shute. 


William and Mary, l 


' Peter Ruck. 


REAR ADMIRAl/S SQUADRON. 


* American Merchant, Ca 


?t. Jos. Eldridge (Rear Admiral). 


l 


■ Febershear. 


Lark, ' 


1 Walk. 


Union, ' 


1 Brown. 


Adventure, ' 


' Thos. Barrington. 


Kathrine, ' 


' Thos. Berry. 


Fraternity, l 


' Elias Jarvis. 


' 


' William Clutterbuck. 


Successe, ' 


1 John Carlisle. 


Batchelor, ' 


1 Edward Ladd. 



August 9 the fleet sailed from Hull and anchored in the 
channel between Orleans, the south and north shore, and 
Quebec Town, on Oct. 5. The run to the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence was made in reasonable time. But from the 
last of August to September 26, when the ascent of the 
river was begun, the time was consumed in securing plunder 
along the shores, and capturing a number of fishing vessels, 
while (as was said) waiting for favorable weather to pro- 
ceed up river. By a council of officers it had been decided 
to first demand the surrender of the forts and castles to 
the crown of England, and the formal message was delivered 
under a flag of truce by Capt. Lieutenant Ephraim Savage 
October 6th. The French Governor Count — Frontenac 



*Gun ship. 



30 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

replied (by word of mouth) that no answer might be ex- 
pected from him except that given from the mouth of his 
cannon. 

Another council of officers of the fleet was held at four 
o'clock on the morning of Oct. 7, when it was decided to 
prepare for landing a portion of the soldiers; and they 
were ordered into the small vessels standing in near the 
shore, one of which (a French barque captured a few days 
before), with Capt. Savage and his company of sixty men 
on board, grounded on the north shore about two miles 
from Quebec, the weather being too rough for landing. 
The French, taking advantage of the low tide which left the 
barque high and dry upon the flats, made an attack upon 
Savage and his men. But with the assistance of a few 
shots from the big guns from two of the larger vessels* Capt. 
Savage and his men drove the French back from a large 
rock on which they had posted their field-pieces. With 
the returning tide the barque floated into deep water. Al- 
though the engagement was quite spirited the English 
escaped with only a few bullet holes through their clothing. 

The place selected for landing the troops was near and 
just below where the barque had grounded and little below 
Charles River that comes in north of Quebec. Here the 
boats were brought near the shore and about one o'clock, 
on October 8, by wading in places the depth of three feet, 
the men reached land and the order was given to form 
into line upon the river bank. No sooner had the order 
been executed when about seven hundred Frenchmen who 
were in ambush a few rods away in a swamp, opened fire 
upon them ; their first shots passed overhead. The English 
immediately gave battle and drove the French from the 
swamp up through the North Town, where they scattered 
in various directions, their losses were several, including 
officers and privates ; in all from thirty to fifty killed and 
several wounded. The English had eight killed and several 

*Six, Friends and American Merchant. 



Champlairts Voyages. 31 

wounded, among the latter Major Nathaniel Wade, Capt. 
Ephraim Savage and Lieut. Knowlton. 

Thus far the English had apparently been successful but 
for some reason they failed to follow up the advantage so 
unexpectedly gained. The surprise in ambush seemed to 
strike terror to the heart of the Lieut.-General commanding 
the land forces, as Major John Walley was styled. Many 
of the men were anxious and even craved the opportunity 
to proceed with the attempt to capture Quebec, but as one 
of the enthusiasts who was on the spot writes, "What is 
an army of lions when they must not go on except a frighted 
Hart shall lead them." Certainly it appears on this 
occasion that Major Walley was very careful of his men, 
a commendable trait in a commanding officer. He no 
doubt felt justified in the course adopted. 

It does not appear that the officers of this division of 
the expedition had heard from General Winthrop and his 
men, who were to attack Montreal. But from French cap- 
tives it was learned that Earl Frontenac and the Governor 
of Montreal were together, that there were not less than 
3,000 men in Quebec, therefore, it was fair to suppose that 
General Winthrop was not where he could render this 
portion of the expedition any immediate assistance. There- 
fore, Walley may have concluded (and with good reason) 
that his land force of 1,400 men was too small to capture 
3,000 protected by fortifications, even with the fleet of 
armed vessels to assist them. Another discouraging fea- 
ture was lack of ammunition. With a scanty supply at the 
start the fleet had been using from it during the month 
of September while capturing prizes, and now at the mo- 
ment when it was most needed the stock in the magazines 
was found to be surprisingly low. Nevertheless General 
Phips expecting General Walley would on the afternoon 
of Oct. 8th order his men to attack the main town, 
sailed close up to the fortifications with his fleet and from 
four to eight o'clock poured in his shot and shell, at the same 



32 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

time the forts were returning the fire; and the following 
morning the firing was resumed for a short time. The flag- 
ship Six Brothers was struck many times by shot from the 
fort, General Phips running her within pistol shot of the 
fortifications. One man was killed and six wounded, two 
of them mortally. At the close of the firing, October 9th, 
General Phips sent on shore to learn of the conditions 
there. Finding the general attack had not been made; 
that many of the soldiers were suffering from frozen limbs 
gained through exposure during the three nights they had 
lodged on shore; the small-pox having also made its ap- 
pearance among the soldiers, — he ordered all on board ship 
for rest, hoping to renew the attack the following day. 
But during the night a severe storm arose and with it a 
heavy fall of snow, the fleet became scattered by the high 
winds, and the severe cold weather made it seem to the 
commanding officers unsafe to remain longer in the river. 
In the face of all the discouragements it was decided best 
to leave the taking of Quebec for some future time. And 
after a treaty for the exchange of captives had been con- 
summated, reluctantly, with hearts bleeding with disappoint- 
ment, the fleet, on the 15th of October, was headed towards 
Boston, where about one-fourth of the ships arrived Nov- 
ember 19. Less than twenty men were lost in engagements, 
but about one hundred and fifty died of small-pox and 
malignant fever, among them persons of great worth to 
the colony. 

Thus terminated the most formidable expedition thus far 
planned by the New England colonies. To fit out and 
man a fleet of thirty-two vessels to co-operate with an 
additional land force of 1,000 or 1,500 men was no small 
undertaking at that period of our colonial history. For 
fifteen years prior to the sailing of this expedition these 
people had been severely taxed in defending their homes 
against invasions from the cruel and relentless savages. 
Many lives had been sacrificed; a large amount of property 



Champlairts Voyages. 33 

destroyed; a large number of men were of necessity kept 
under arms, thereby greatly diminishing the productive 
agency of the colonies; the treasury was well nigh if not 
quite empty. But the exigency of the time demanded it, 
therefore the sacrifice was made, resulting in a miserable 
failure, due principally from lack of organization and proper 
discipline. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-NINTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 3, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Crane, Davidson, Darling, C. A. Chase, Gould, B. 
T. Hill, Harrington, Hobbs, C. P. King, M. A. Maynard, 
George Maynard, H. G. Otis, J. P. K. Otis, Nath'l Paine, 
George M. Rice, Raymenton, Salisbury, Stiles, C. E. Staples, 
Wheeler, Williamson, Mrs. Darling, Mrs. Hildreth, Mrs. 
Daniel Kent, Mrs. Waldo Lincoln, Miss Reed, Miss M. A. 
Smith, Miss M. Agnes Waite, E. M. Barton, Waldo Lincoln, 
A. C. Munroe, D. B. Williams, Dr. Flagg, Miss Boland, 
Miss Barrett, Miss Chase, Mrs. Crane, Miss Hopkins, Mrs. 
Paine, Mrs. Stiles and others. 

The Librarian reported additions to the collections for 
the past month: twenty-six bound volumes, forty-two 
pamphlets, seventy-four bound volumes of newspapers and 
two articles for the museum, from twenty-two contributors. 

Special mention was made of a basket made by Indians 
while camped at Pine Meadow about eighty years ago, 
for Sarah, daughter of Peter Slater, a soldier of the Revo- 
lution; also a bed-mat made of strips of wood that was 
used to place between the rope and the tick to save the 
latter from wear. Both these articles were donated by 
Mrs. Harriet E. Fay, granddaughter of Peter Slater. 



School-Day Reminiscences. 35 

On nomination of the Standing Committee the following 
persons were elected to active membership: George Henry 
Rice and Mary E. Whipple. 

The Executive Board reported the proposition to change 
a former vote of the Society whereby the amount necessary 
to be paid by the Treasurer's check was fixed at five dol- 
lars, to three. But after considerable discussion on the 
subject, on motion of Mr. Salisbury, it was voted to leave 
the amount at five dollars as formerly. 

On the recommendation of the Executive Committee 
and on motion of Mr. Paine, it was voted to fix the salary 
of the Librarian at six hundred dollars per annum provided 
he does the arranging and cataloguing; also that the Sec- 
retary be paid twenty-five dollars for his services during 
the year. 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq., was then introduced and read 
the following: 

SCHOOL-DAY REMINISCENCES. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

In a previous paper, written about eighteen years ago, 
entitled " Random Recollections of Worcester, 1839-1843," 
I gave reminiscences of my boyhood and my recollections 
of Worcester at that part of the town situated within 
three-quarters of a mile of Church street, between Front 
and Mechanic streets, where I was born and lived for 
several years. 

I trust you will bear with me if my remarks appear to 
be largely personal, but as I am to speak, to a great 
extent, from my own recollections it can hardly be 
otherwise. I purpose in this paper to speak of the schools 
that I attended, with brief remarks as to the teachers and 
studies of the period, say from 1836 to 1847 or '48, and 
also of some of the games and amusements of school boys 
at that time. 



36 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

My earliest recollection of going to school is that I at- 
tended one for very young children, under the charge of 
Miss Thankful Hersey, located in a small, one-story wooden 
building in Bigelow court, on the spot where one of the 
fire department buildings now stands. This school was 
probably a fair example of what was known as an infant 
school at that time, and Miss Hersey, prim, precise and 
intent upon impressing upon her pupils the importance of 
learning to read and spell well, represented the average 
teacher of the younger children. 

I can remember but little about this first school, but I 
do recall that the wooden benches, most of them without 
backs, were very tiresome and that recess was a welcome 
respite to all. % 

When, in 1842, the Second Advent or Millerite excite- 
ment was at its height, Miss Hersey, like many others, 
became a firm believer that the end of the world was near 
at hand, and gave up teaching, in the belief that but little 
time was left to prepare for an ascension to a higher sphere ; 
and there were many others who gave up business and 
disposed of their property, believing that they would have 
but little more need of it. Whether Miss Hersey was one 
of those who donned their ascension robes and got upon 
the roof of some high building to be ready for the expected 
flight, I do not know, but, much to the regret of parents 
in that part of the town, she did not resume her former 
earthly vocation. 1 

From the infant school in Bigelow court, I went to the 
"South Boys' Primary School," located on the southeast 
corner of the Common. It was in a moderate sized wooden 



1 The brick building now standing on Front street at the southwest corner of 
Bigelow court is all that is left to recall the location as it was in my school days, 
and this has been modernized by making stores in the lower story. This house was 
built and occupied by Reuben Monroe, who with Abijah Bigelow laid out Bigelow 
court about 1829. Later, Joe Turner, a noted wag of the town, resided there. At 
one time the house was occupied by Mrs. Joseph W. Rose, who was Harriet Paine, 
a daughter of Dr. William Paine, the loyalist, and one of the founders of the 
American Antiquarian Society. A daughter of Mrs. Rose was the late Mrs. 
George Chandler. 



School-Day Reminiscences. 37 

building, fronting towards Park street, with the burial- 
ground on the west, the town pound on the north and 
what was then called the Baptist hill on the east. This 
name was for many years applied to what is now known 
as Salem square because of the fact that the First Baptist 
meeting-house, built in 1813, was on the east side of the 
square.* 

This school was, in my day, under the charge of Miss 
Caroline M. Corbett, a daughter of Otis Corbett, who was 
one of the school committee and a highly respected citizen, 
in the watch and jewelry business on Main street. Miss 
Corbett was connected with this school for many years, 
retiring about 1845, and was considered by the committee 
as a very competent and faithful teacher. 

About 1840 a brick schoolhouse was built on the north- 
east corner of the Common, fronting on Front street near 
the present site of the soldiers' monument. There were 
two or three schools for girls in this building, and opening 
on the square was a room used by the Hook and Ladder 
Company. 

From the South Boys' Primary School I was promoted 
to the Second Boys' English School in the old Thomas street 
school building. From about 1840 to 1844 Austin G. Fitch 
was the teacher in this school. I recall him as a pleasant 
gentleman, a lover of music, and that he played the violin 
at the devotional exercises, then required in all the public 
schools at the opening in the morning. This school was 
on the second floor and was where Mr. C. B. Metcalf (the 
founder of the Highland Military Academy), afterwards 
taught. On the first floor of the Thomas street school 
building was the Latin Grammar School and the First Boys' 
English School, the last named presided over for many 
years by Warren Lazell. Among the teachers of the Latin 
Grammar School, were Charles Thurber (afterwards a manu- 
facturer of revolvers), John Wright and Rodolphus B. 

* This building was destroyed by an incendiary fire, May 21, 1836. 



38 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Hubbard. After the erection of the Classical and English 
High School building on the south side of Walnut street, 
in 1845, the Latin Grammar School was discontinued. Just 
before I entered the high school, I was a pupil at Mr. La- 
ze] Fs. He was considered as quite severe in discipline, but 
I think had the confidence of the school committee, and 
after giving up teaching was for some time a member and 
secretary of the School Board. His duties in the last 
named office were much like those of the Superintendent 
of Schools to-day. I will say in passing, that Mr. Lazell 
was apparently a believer in the old adage, " Spare the rod, 
spoil the child," for it was not an uncommon thing to see 
the rawhide used with a good deal of power, and many 
boys who were pupils could have borne testimony to its 
severity. 

After leaving the Thomas street school I entered the 
Classical and English High School, which was opened in 
August, 1845. It was the first public school in Worcester, 
except those of the lower grade, to adopt the plan of co- 
education of the sexes. 

Elbridge G. Smith was the first principal, and the late 
Wm. E. Starr had charge of the English department. 
Other teachers at this time were Mr. Hasbrouck Davis, son 
of Gov. John Davis, Miss Anna F. Brown, Miss Marianne 
Willard, Miss Martha K. Baldwin and Mary R. Harris. 
In 1847, Nelson Wheeler, who had been at the head of 
the Worcester County High School (now the Worcester 
Academy), became the principal, and associated with him 
were George P. Fisher, afterwards a professor at Yale 
College and an able writer on ecclesiastical subjects, Henry 
Hitchcock, lately deceased, who removed to St. Louis and 
became a leading member of the Bar of Missouri. Other 
assistant teachers during Mr. Wheeler's time, were Miss 
Harriet Binney, Miss Maria M. Hunt, Miss Caroline Hen- 
shaw, teacher of French, and Miss Abbie D. Goodell, who 
succeeded Miss Henshaw in 1848. When the first high 



School-Day Reminiscences. 39 

school building was erected on the south side of Walnut 
street, it was considered one of the finest and best 
equipped schoolhouses in New England, and visitors came 
from other cities and towns to inspect it. Mr. Smith, the 
head master, was especially proud of the interior and 
made great effort to keep it in good condition. Boys 
were not allowed to wear boots or shoes in the school- 
rooms, but were required to change them for slippers before 
going up-stairs. 

Another custom inaugurated the first year, which would 
seem strange to the scholars of to-day, was to set apart 
an hour or more, two or three times a year for polishing 
the desks. Boys and girls were expected to rub them with 
wax and to polish with cloths till you could see your face 
in them. Then too the floors were cleaned with sandpaper 
by the boys at an hour set apart for the purpose. I re- 
member that it was the practice for boys to request leave 
to take time during school hours for sandpapering the 
stairs and halls, possibly for a chance to get away from 
study, rather than from a love of cleanliness. 

For a very short time I was a boarder and pupil at the 
Worcester Manual Labor High School, located on the east 
side of Main street, nearly opposite the Oread Institute. 
Established in 1832, about sixty acres of land were pur- 
chased and buildings erected, it being expected that pupils 
would pay a part of their board by manual labor on the 
farm. There were some paying pupils who were supposed 
to have a better table than those who worked. My recol- 
lection is that at the head table, where one of the teachers 
presided, we had tea, coffee and doughnuts, which were 
not given the second table. The name was afterwards 
changed to the Worcester County High School and was so 
called in 1844, at the time Nelson Wheeler was the prin- 
cipal, and the manual labor department was given up. 
It is now the Worcester Academy, and under its present 
principal has come to be one of the best and most popular 
educational institutions of our growing city. 



40 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

There was one custom in vogue among the schools of 
Worcester in my early school days which may be worthy 
of mention. In April or May there came what was known 
as Anniversary Day, why so called I do not know. On 
that day the scholars of all the public schools of the town 
with their teachers assembled on the Common, all dressed 
in their best, and with a band of music paraded in Main 
street and then went to some one of the churches, where 
an address was delivered by a member of the school com- 
mittee. This custom was inaugurated in 1825 by Rev. Aaron 
Bancroft, pastor of the Second Parish (Unitarian) Church, 
and he delivered the first address. Among the speakers 
were Stephen Salisbury and Ira M. Barton. William Lin- 
coln, the Historian of Worcester, delivered the address 
in 1836. This celebration was kept up for nearly twenty 
years. At this time there were twenty-seven public schools 
in town, including the African school for colored children, 
with about 1,200 pupils. 

School Committee. 

A few words about the school committee of fifty or sixty 
years ago may be of interest. 

At that time members of the school board were selected 
because of their special fitness for the position, by reason 
of their character and education, and not because they 
sought the office, with the idea perhaps that it might be 
a stepping stone to some higher position, or because they 
saw some personal profit therein. 

The gentlemen usually selected to have charge of the 
schools of the town, were professional men, ministers, law- 
yers or physicians, and they were retained in office as long 
as their services could be had. Politics had very little 
part in the selection of candidates for an office considered 
so important. The standing and ability of the candidate 
and his fitness by education were the prime factors in his 
chances of election. 



School-Day Reminiscences. 41 

I will mention the names of a few gentlemen who were 
members of the school board in my day, which I think 
will sound familiar to those of my hearers who are ac- 
quainted with Worcester history: Dr. Aaron Bancroft and 
Dr. Alonzo Hill of the Unitarian Church, Dr. Seth Sweetser, 
Dr. Elam Smalley and Rev. Geo. P. Smith of the Orthodox 
Church, Elder S. B. Swaim and Rev. John Jennings of the 
Baptist Church. Then there were prominent lawyers of 
the town, Benjamin F. Thomas, Samuel M. Burnside, 
Stephen Salisbury, Alfred D. Foster, Thomas Kinnicutt 
and Alexander H. Bullock; also Dr. Wm. Workman, Sam- 
uel F. Haven of the Antiquarian Society, Anthony Chase, 
the county treasurer; and many others might be named 
who were highly respected and well qualified for the posi- 
tion. 

Pupils in the public schools were taught to look up to 
and respect the committee, and I remember that it was 
the custom in some of the primary schools on the entrance 
of a committee man for all the children to rise and in con- 
cert bid him good day, which was repeated when he left 
the room. It was expected that the scholars would be 
asked questions by the committee, which they were to 
answer. I think this is not common in Worcester to-day, 
perhaps because the average school committee man might 
think neither teacher or pupil could answer him satisfac- 
torily. 

In addition to the regular school committee there was 
what was called the prudential committee, composed of 
practical business men, selected from the different school 
districts. This committee had charge of the school build- 
ings, looked after the necessary supplies and the general 
maintenance. 

Once a year there were public examinations of all the 
schools, the parents of the children were present in large 
numbers and thus manifested their interest in the work 



42 Worcester ^Society of Antiquity . 

being done, and their appreciation of the services of faithful 
teachers in the instruction of their children. 

After the adoption of the City Charter and the selection 
of the school committee from the several wards, politics 
began to play a prominent part, and as a rule the persons 
nominated were not apt to give the time to visiting and 
looking after the schools under their charge, as had been 
customary under the town system of government. 

School Books. 

A few words about the school books in use in the public 
schools of the town. I shall not attempt to give a com- 
plete list, but will speak of those I can recall. In the 
infant schools the " Franklin Primer/ ' " Leavitt's Easy Les- 
sons" and " Emerson's North American Intellectual Arith- 
metic for Young Learners" were used. The last named 
was illustrated with cuts of familiar objects likely to 
attract the attention of the child and help him to under- 
stand simple addition and subtraction. Here is a sample 
of the plan adopted by the maker of the arithmetic to give 
a child his early instruction in mathematics. A picture 
shows a ten-barred gate, with one bird on the top rail, 
two on the second, and so on to ten on the lower rail. 
The question was, "See this flock of black birds, they 
have lighted upon the bars of a gate, and are all singing 
together, Find how many of them are on each separate 
bar, how many in all." Another was "An Indian shot 
six arrows at partridges, and four at wild turkeys, how 
many did he shoot away?" Although the picture shows 
the partridges and turkeys to be of the same size, that fact 
apparently did not trouble the maker of the arithmetic, 
and the infant mind probably grasped the idea even if 
the picture was not scientifically correct. 

Boys who attended the primary schools of the time will 
perhaps recall the "Mount Vernon Reader, a course of 



School-Day Reminiscences. 43 

reading lessons selected with reference to the moral influence 
on the hearts and lives of the young," by the Messrs. 
Abbott, 1836-1840, Lee's Spelling Book, Peter Parley's 
Geography, and Colburn's Intellectual Arithmetic upon the 
inductive method of instruction, published in Concord, N. 
H., in 1837 and earlier. This book was a terror to many 
a scholar, as well as a puzzle to parents, and its questions 
in fractions were hard for a beginner. What practical use 
many of the problems could be to the average boy in the 
future, aside perhaps from the exercise for the mind, it 
might be hard to tell. 

Here is a sample of some of the sums proposed: "A 
man driving his geese to market was met by another who 
said, Good morning master, with your hundred geese. 
Says he, I have not a hundred but if I had half as many 
more as I now have and two geese and a half I should 
have a hundred. How many did he have?" I think the 
average boy of to-day would be likely to inquire as to his 
being able to drive half a goose to market. 

Here is another in fractions: A man owning five-sixths 
of a share of a Boston bank sold one-third of it; what 
part of a share did he sell? Or this, How many times is 
24.583 contained in 63? 

Here is another important question for the young student 
to solve. "A man and his wife found by experience that 
when they were both together a bushel of meal would last 
them only a week, but when the man was gone it would 
last his wife five weeks. How much did both consume 
together? What part did the woman consume in one week, 
and what part did the man alone consume in one week? 
How long would it last the man alone? The boy of to-day 
might reply that he did not live on meal and that he did 
not care how much more his father ate than his mother, 
provided he got enough for himself. I think many of the 
examples given in that Arithmetic would puzzle some of 
the scholars in even a higher grade school of to-day. 



44 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

"The Good Scholar's Easy Lessons in Arithmetic/' by- 
Pliny E. Chase, was used in some of the lower-grade schools 
and was a decided improvement on the last named. 

In the Boys' English Schools and in the high school, I 
mention but a few of the books in use: " North American 
Arithmetic for Young Learners," — Fred. Emerson, Boston, 
1839; New Arithmetic, in which the principles of operating 
by numbers are analytically explained and synthetically 
applied," By Daniel Adams, M. D., Keene, N. EL, 1840; 
Smith's Arithmetic; Chase's Common School Arithmetic, 
designed for learners of every class, Pliny E. Chase, pub- 
lished in Worcester by Andrew Hutchinson. Then there 
were Worcester's & Mitchell's Geography, Comstock's 
Natural Philosophy, Greenleaf's Arithmetic, Davies' Alge- 
bra, and Parker's Progressive Exercises in English Com- 
position, Alger's Murray's Grammar. In the classical 
department, I call to mind Andrews and Stoddard's Latin 
Grammar, Bowen's Virgil and Andrews' Caesar. 

The Rhetorical Reader, by Ebenezer Porter, D. D., was in 
use in the Worcester schools for several years. It was from 
this book that many of the boys selected their pieces for 
declamation day, which came on Saturday, and that exer- 
cise was considered by many as the hardest part of their 
school duties. Many a boy, otherwise a good scholar, 
would fail in speaking on the stage before his fellow pupils. 
Even if he had committed his part to memory beforehand, 
when the time came to go upon the platform his wits 
seemed to desert him and he had to make his bow and 
retire in confusion. 

If there are any of the boys of 1840 and thereabouts 
here to-night they will recall selections often made for de- 
clamation. 

Byron's lines, beginning : 

There was a sound of revelry by night, 

And Belgium's capital had gathered there 

Her beauty and her chivalry, and bright 

The lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men. 



School- Day Reminiscences. 45 



or, Campbell's: 



On Linden when the sun was low 
All bloodless lay the untrodden snow, 
And dark as winter was the flow 
Of Iser rolling rapidly. 

Marco Bozzaris, by Halleck: 

At midnight in his guarded tent, 
The Turk was dreaming of the hour, 
When Greece in suppliance bent, 
Should tremble at his power. 

Casabianca (liked by all the boys) : 

The boy stood on the burning deck 
When all but him had fled. 
The flames that lit the battle's wreck, 
Shone round him o'er the dead. 

On the " Burial of Sir John Moore " : 

Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, 
As his corse to the ramparts we hurried, 
Not a soldier discharged a farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our Hero was buried. 

I recall the address of Mark Antony, from Shakespeare's 
play of Julius Caesar, that was recited with great unction by 
one boy who seemed to have a natural gift for oratory. 
It began, " Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your 
ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil 
that men do, lives after them, the good is oft interred with 
their bones," etc. This boy did not become a great orator, 
but became the English correspondent of the New York 
Tribune and achieved a reputation as a brilliant writer 
and essayist. In this connection I will mention that a 
less intelligent boy began this speech in a slightly different 
way. He said, " Friends, Romans, Countrymen give me 
your ears." 

There were other school books in use at the period of 
which I am writing that might be mentioned but time 
will not permit. 



46 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Games and Amusements. 

I will now call your attention to some of the games and 
amusements indulged in by the Worcester boys of fifty 
or sixty years ago. 

One of the first games that boys of my day indulged in 
was marbles. As soon as the frost was out of the ground 
in the spring they got out their marbles, counted up the 
alleys, blood alleys, agates and Chinese marbles that they 
had on hand and were ready to begin operations. It was 
the custom before taking part in a game to announce 
whether the play was to be in fun or in earnest; if the 
latter, the best player was pretty likely sooner or later to 
come in possession of his opponents' marbles. Good boys 
always played in fun and kept their stock in nice little bags 
made for them by mother or sister, while the bad boys just 
carried theirs in their pockets like so much small change. 
The different ways of playing are so well known that it is 
not necessary to take up your time by any description. 

Mumblety-peg, sometimes called stick-knife, and Jack- 
stones, or five stones, were common games among the boys 
in my school days. 

A game much liked, and perhaps peculiar to this locality, 
was called barbaree, as near as I can recall it. Wm. Wells 
Newell in his interesting book on the games of children does 
not mention it, and in a letter received from him a few years 
ago, said he had never heard of a game by that name, but 
he thought it must be much like the "Hare and Hounds " 
of the English schools of Eton and Rugby. Any number 
could take part in the game, one or two starting out in any 
direction they thought best, through private grounds, over 
fences and stone walls, and after a stated time the other 
players started in pursuit, doing their best to keep track 
of the leaders. The game often lasted a long time and the 
run extended over a wide extent of territory. 

"I-Spy" or " Hi-Spy " was as popular a game in my 



School-Day Reminiscences. 47 

day as I presume it is now; while a little like barbaree, it 
was understood that those who were to hide were expected 
to do so within a reasonable distance of the goal, and to 
return to it as soon as they thought it could be done with- 
out being seen. The boy who was "It" had to close his 
eyes and wait till he had counted a hundred before he 
started to search. Sometimes the short method of count- 
ing was adopted, that is, " Ten, ten, double ten, forty-five, 
fifteen " ; but this was not considered fair. 

Other games were " tag," " cross-tag," " thread the 
needle," and " snap the whip," which I suppose all the 
boys of to-day are familiar with. 

" Hop scotch/' played in all parts of the world, was a 
common game in my boyhood and I presume is so to-day. 

The most common way of deciding who was "It," or 
the one to remain at the starting place while the others 
dispersed for hiding, etc., was by counting out. The 
counter, beginning with himself or the boy on his right, 
pointed to the others as they came in line using a word for 
each; the one to whom the last word came was considered 
out and the counting went on in the same way till all but 
one had been counted out and he was "It," or the boy to 
remain at the goal till the others had time to hide, etc. 

There were many forms of counting out in vogue, and 
they varied in the different States. Newell in his book gives 
over thirty forms used from Maine to Georgia. I will 
mention a few of these counting out forms common in 
Massachusetts sixty years ago. One that was very common 
here is not mentioned by Newell; it was, "Eggs, cheese, 
butter, bread, stick, stack, stone dead." 

Others common in Worcester were: — 



"Onery, uery, ickery, Ann, 

Filisy, folasy, Nicholas John 

Queevy, quavy, Irish Mary, 

Stingaium, Stangulum Johnny Co Buck.' 



48 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Another : — 

Enny, meny, mony my, 
Tusca, lena, bona, stry, 
Hallibone, crackabone 
OUT spells out. 

Intery, mintery, cuterjr corn, 

Apple-seed and Apple-thorn 

Wire, briar, limber lock. You are out. 

A variation of this was : — 

Intery, mintery, cutery, corn 
Apple seed and Apple thorn 
Wire, briar, limber lock 
Five mice in a flock. 
Catch him Jack 
Hold him Tom 
Blow the bellows 
Old man out. 

Here is one given by Newell as used from Maine to Geor- 
gia, but I do not recall it as in vogue in Worcester : — 

Monkey-monkey, bottle of beer 
How many monkeys are there here, 
12 3 You are he. 

Another, common about Salem, was: — 

" One's all, zuzall, letterall taun, 
Bob tailed vinegar, little Paul ran, 
Harum, scarum, merchant, masum, 
Nigger, turnpike, toll-house, out." 

Apropos of the counting out games, the following verses 
from the St. Nicholas Magazine may be of interest: — 

"ANA, MANA, MONA, MIKE." 

In the empty room we three 

Play the games we always like, 
And count to see who " it " shall be — 

Ana, mana, mona, mike. 

Round and round the rhyme will go 

Ere the final word shall strike, 
Counting fast or counting slow — 

Barcelona, bona, strike. .^ 



School-Day Reminiscences. 49 

What it all means no one knows. 

Mixed up like a peddler's pack, 
As from door to door he goes — 

Hare, ware, from, frack. 

Now we guess and now we doubt, 

Words enough or words we lack, 
Till the rhyming brings about, 

Welcomed with a farewell shout — 
Hallico, ballico, we-wi-wo-wack, You are out. 



There were other games common to spring and summer, 
which I will not mention, and there were also many games 
played indoors by boys and girls, but it is not my purpose 
to speak of them. 

There were various games of ball played in my day. I 
remember barn-ball, two and 'three old cat, and round 
ball. This last was very much like baseball of to-day, 
sides were chosen, the leaders deciding by hands on the 
bat who had the first choice of players. This was done by 
tossing the bat from one to the other. The tosser places 
his hand on the bat over that of the catcher, who in turn 
follows with his over the left hand, and so on till the one 
who gets the last firm hold has the first choice. There were 
bases or goals, and instead of catching out, the ball was 
thrown at the player when running bases and if hit he knew 
it at once and was out. The balls were hard and thrown 
with force and intent to hit the runner, but an artful 
dodger could generally avoid being hit. 

On Fast Day there was always a game of ball on the north 
side of the Common, played by men and older boys, and 
this attracted a large crowd of interested lookers on. There 
were some players who were looked upon as proficient in 
the game and were as much admired by the spectators as 
are the experts of to-day. I remember a boy, now living 
at the age of threescore and ten, who was one of the star 
players. He has since held a prominent office in Worcester 
by appointment of the President of the United States, 



50 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

and perhaps would hardly remember his reputation among 
his schoolmates as a superior ball-player. 

Football was also a popular game, but was not so danger- 
ous as it seems to be to-day ; only a few kicked shins, which 
were taken as a matter of course. The game was played 
on the Common, and by the boys of the Thomas street 
school on a vacant lot north of the County jail. 

Other games or sports sometimes engaged in by the boys 
of my day were sending up balloons, and throwing fire- 
balls. This last was played at night, large balls of tow 
or cloth well saturated in turpentine were lighted and 
tossed from hand to hand, the boys usually protecting 
their hands with gloves or mittens. A favorite place for 
this was at the south end of Chestnut street, which then 
extended only to Pearl street. There was a large open 
space between the gardens of F. H. Kinnicutt and William 
Brown; and at the south lots fronting on Pleasant street. 

Of course most boys went in swimming in the summer, 
even if it was against the wishes of their parents, for there 
was a sort of hazard and excitement about it that very 
strongly appealed to the average boy. Among the places 
selected for swimming by the younger boys were what 
were called Stillwater and Mosquito ponds. 

Stillwater pond was in the south part of the town, as near 
as I can remember not far from Cambridge street, I think 
it was not considered as safe a place for the boys to bathe 
as the Mosquito, which was a small sheet of water in the 
north part of the town, near Salisbury street, the location 
being now covered by the grounds and buildings of what 
is best known to us as the Washburn & Moen Wire Works. 
Salisbury pond was also a favorite place for swimming, and 
good swimmers went to Long pond, although that was 
considered out of the way to go to often. 

In the winter time coasting and skating were indulged 
in by all boys. Hockey, or shinney, was a game we used 
to play on the ice. My first attempts at skating were on the 



School- Day Reminiscences. 51 

frog pond which was on the left hand side of what is now 
Union street, at the foot of the hill from Mechanic street. 
The embankment of the Boston & Worcester Railroad, on 
the south side of the tracks, caused the water to accumu- 
late there, making a shallow pond which when frozen made 
a perfectly safe place for skating. Passing under the rail- 
road bridge at this place we came to quite a tract of meadow 
land, extending from the stables on Foster street and the 
rear of Daniel Waldo's garden on the west to the Blackstone 
canal on the east, and the Merrifield shop on the north. 
This meadow was often covered with ice and used for skat- 
ing. The canal was another place for skating, it being 
common for skaters to go to Quinsigamond and sometimes 
to Millbury, the only inconvenience being that they had to 
go ashore and walk around the locks. At the time I went 
to the Thomas street school, going across the meadow was 
the nearest way. There were two or three brooks running 
through it, which I crossed on boards or took the risk of 
getting a wetting by jumping. Other places for skating 
were Salisbury pond, Peat meadow and the meadow at the 
foot of Newton hill which was flooded in the winter from 
Pleasant street nearly to Highland street and was a popular 
place for skating. Long pond, or Lake Quinsigamond, was 
also much used, not only for skating, but for the trotting 
of horses on the ice. Curtis pond at New Worcester was 
still another skating place. Among the games played on 
the ice were hockey and Hill-Dill or Lill-Lill. 

A popular coasting place for the boys of the south end 
was the Baptist hill, before alluded to; starting in front 
of the church on the east side of the square we could slide 
to Front street, going by the barn connected with the old 
Eaton Tavern, which stood at the corner of Front and 
Trumbull streets. 

Powder house hill, south of Park street, and near Willard 
Brown's soft-soap factory, was another place where the 
boys used to coast. The first Home for Aged Women was 



52 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

on Orange street, nearly on the site of the old town powder 
house. I think that fifty years ago Belmont and High- 
land streets were often used for coasting, as was also 
Walnut street. Other places will occur to boys who lived 
in other parts of the town. The Union street hill just 
spoken of made another place for the boys of the neigh- 
borhood to coast. 

I will now say a few words about the amusements which 
were enjoyed by the boys of the period of which I am talk- 
ing. School sleigh-rides were common, girls and boys of 
the different schools going to a neighboring town, in a four- 
horse sleigh, with a supper at Grafton, Northboro, Millbury 
or Holden. 

Fourth of July was celebrated as now, by the average boy 
in getting up at a very early hour in the morning and dis- 
turbing the town by the firing of pistols and crackers, and 
they were pretty sure to be in evidence at the firing of the 
national salute on the Common at sunrise by Isaac Bartlett, 
the town gunner. Think of the excitement to-day if it 
were the custom to fire cannon on the Common with the 
crowds of women and children and the many horses in the 
streets ; but at that time no one but near neighbors to the 
Common objected. 

The annual Cattle Show was a source of great amusement 
to all boys as well as to older people. Man3^ expedients 
were resorted to in order to have extra spending money 
for that day, — peddling molasses candy, and fruit in the 
work shops or at town meetings in order to get the necessary 
ninepence to pay for a bowl of hot oysters, which most 
boys thought they must indulge in on cattle show day. 

Another way of earning the necessary funds was to act- 
as crier for the auctions which took place two or three 
evenings a week at either Bancroft's or Selby's auction 
rooms. A boy could earn from a ninepence to twenty cents 
an evening by taking a big bell and going through Main and 
Front streets ringing it most vigorously and then announce 



School-Day Reminiscences. 53 

in a loud voice that there would be a large and valuable 
collection of jewelry, books and fancy articles, etc. on sale 
by auction at 7:30 o'clock. 1 After a time we were expected 
to return to the auction room and ring the bell for a while 
and invite the passer-by to come in. Boys in my neighbor- 
hood used to earn a little money by blowing the organ 
at the Union Church for Albert and Ben Allen, then young 
men in practice for their future profession. 

This was before dimes and half dimes were so common, 
fourpence, hap-penny and the ninepence (12J cts.), being 
largely in evidence. This was very likely owing to the fact 
that for the twenty-two years from 1806 to 1828 no half 
dimes were coined and for eleven years of that period no 
dimes, and for several years after only a moderate number. 

As-you are undoubtedly aware, the Cattle Show at that 
time, was held on the Common, the pens for showing the 
cattle, sheep and swine being set upon the north side ad- 
joining Front street. There were four or five rows of pens, 
extending from the railroad track across the Common 
nearly to Salem square. The exhibition of farm implements 
and products was in the lower town hall. On the south 
side of the Common, were dealers in cheap jewelry, whips 
and other articles, many of which were sold by auction. 
There were fakirs with all sorts of expedients for getting 
money from the pockets of the countrymen who came in 
crowds from the surrounding towns. Then there was the 
drawing match on the Baptist hill, where carts loaded with 
stone were drawn and backed up the hill to try and secure 
the coveted ribbon given to the owner of the successful 
yoke of oxen. 

Between Front and Mechanic streets, west of the Nor- 
wich & Worcester Railroad tracks, was an open space 
where hucksters provided for the inner man, hot oysters, 



1 T. W. & C. P. Bancroft's auction room was at the corner of Main and Exchange 
streets, now the location of Mr. F. H. Dewey's Central Exchange block. Selby's 
auction room was in the Hobbs block at the corner of George street. 



54 Worcester /Society of Antiquity. 

pies, cake and the popular baker's ginger-bread. Some- 
times there would be an exhibition in a tent near by, a 
two headed calf, a mammoth horse or ox, with an occa- 
sional minstrel show. 

I might mention that the boys living in the neighborhood 
of the Common got a good deal of fun before Cattle Show 
Day in climbing and vaulting over the pens, starting at 
one end of a row and going through to the end. 

The annual muster of the militia companies of Worcester 
and vicinity was another day looked forward to with 
pleasant anticipations. The camp was on a vacant field 
now covered by the buildings and tracks of the Boston 
& Albany R. R. Co. and attracted visitors from all parts 
of the county. 

The boys of the town were familiar with the names of 
the officers of the brigade and regiment. Very likely some 
present may recall the military titles of well known citizens : 
Wm. C. Barbour, Adjt. of First Brigade Sixth Division, 
Gen. Jonathan Day of the same division, Col. Samuel D. 
Spurr, Col. Calvin Foster, and in 1843 Lieut. Col. (after- 
wards Gen.) George Hobbs. Maj. Gen. Hosmer of West 
Boylston, the Commander of the Sixth or Worcester County 
Division of the Militia, Col. Putman W. Taft, Col. Edwin 
Howe, Gen. Jonathan Day, Col. Sam'l D. Spurr. In 
1840, Daniel Waldo Lincoln was captain of the Light 
Infantry, the only militia company in town for several 
years previous to that date. The infantry was composed 
partly of Whigs and partly Locofocos, Capt. Lincoln being 
a Whig. In the great excitement incident to the Harri- 
son presidential campaign, when ''Tippecanoe and Tyler 
too" was the cry, all the Whig members of the Light 
Infantry withdrew and the Worcester Guards was organized 
with George Bowen as Captain. 

At the close of the muster, it was common for the com- 
panies to march through Main street, firing salutes from 
time to time, much to the terror of small boys and timid 



School-Day Reminiscences. 55 

women. Such an exhibition would not be allowed now, 
but at that time it seemed to be acquiesced in by the 
public. I remember a rifle company from Milford with 
hunting shirts and leggins, instead of the ordinary military 
suit, which was a great attraction to the boys. 

For many years the selectmen of Worcester declined to 
license a circus to exhibit in town, as it was considered 
immoral and therefore should not be encouraged. Hence 
those who enjoyed equestrian sports were obliged to go to 
some town not so strict, like Holden or Millbury, where 
the officials felt there was no danger of their townsmen 
being contaminated. 

A caravan or menagerie was quite another affair. The 
selectmen probably considered such a show as instructive 
and beneficial to the young, for such an exhibition was 
often licensed. 

I remember an exhibition of this kind given on the 
Common in 1839, which advertised that the giraffe, the 
tallest and most singular animal in the known world, would 
be on exhibition. Also the gemsbok or ibex of the- ancients, 
two mocoes from South America and the dark eyed ga- 
zelle. All exhibited from 1 till 9 p. m. for twenty-five 
cents, children half price. 

In 1843 at cattle show time there was advertised a grand 
caravan or menagerie to be exhibited by Raymond & Co. 
on the grounds near the lunatic asylum. The advertise- 
ment stated " that there would be presented to the citizens 
of Worcester an exhibition that has not been equalled 
since the days of Nebuchadnezzar, or since those times 
when Daniel was in the lion's den, and Samson carried off 
the gates of Gaza. Herr Driesbach the famous lord of the 
brute creation accompanies the menagerie. He enters the 
dens of the lions, tigers, and leopards and communes 
freely with them." I think this can hardly be excelled by 
the announcement of trained animal shows to-day. It was 
currently reported at the time that a man had followed 



56 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

the caravan about in the hope that he might see the lion 
bite off the head of Herr Driesbach, who at each exhibition 
placed his head in the lion's mouth. The annual visit of 
blind Dexter, with his van containing an exhibition of " life- 
size and life-like" (?) representations of Gens. Washington 
and Jackson and other notables, and the murder of Jane 
M'Crea by the Indians was looked forward to with great 
anticipation by the small boy. In reading Dickens's de- 
scription of Mrs. Jarley's wax-works I always call to mind 
Dexter's show and his exhibition van under the big elm-tree 
near the town hall, but there was no little Nell. 

Brinley Hall in the third story of the block which formerly 
stood on the site of the State Mutual Life Assurance build- 
ing, was for many years a popular place of amusement. 
Here were given the much admired concerts of the Men- 
delssohn Quintette Club. 

Richard Eastcott of the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, who was teacher of the piano in Worcester for a 
few years, advertised a grand concert at Brinley Hall, at 
which he was to be assisted by Edward Kendall, known 
to boys of that day as the leader of the Boston Brass Band, 
Emory Perry (who played the big fiddle at the Unitarian 
Church, and Alexander Hamilton (whose name was 
afterwards changed to Edward Hamilton), well known 
teachers of music and singing. Fisher Flagg the flutist, 
Jason Collier of double bass-viol fame and Jones the harpist. 
The hours for concerts and lectures at this time was seven 
o'clock, doors open at 6:15 o'clock. 

At this popular hall Harrington & Signor Blitz, the 
noted ventriloquists and magicians, gave their exhibitions 
to the delight of all who patronized them. 

It was also the place for lectures; here Emerson, John 
Weiss, Wendell Phillips and other speakers used to delight 
their hearers. Fowler, the famous phrenologist, gave a 
course of lectures in Brinley Hall at twelve and one-half 
cents a lecture. Here too Smith and Weaver, the dancing 



School-Day Reminiscences. 57 

masters, taught the boys and girls their steps, playing the 
violin accompaniment. 

Later theatrical entertainments were common, usually 
given in Brinley Hall and advertised under some less ob- 
jectionable name than a theatric, perhaps as a dramatic 
entertainment or moral exhibition. 

Among the attractions for boys of the early forties the 
fire companies were not the least. The annual parade of 
the fire department was waited for with great interest and 
we all had our favorite tub, usually according to location. 
The boys of New Worcester shouted for Rapid No. 2 and 
we of the south end for Torrent No. 4, located under the 
town hall. Washington No. 5, located at Lincoln square, 
was the favorite of the north enders and Lafayette No. 
6, on Exchange street, also had its admirers. I am afraid 
I have already taxed your patience and will not allude to 
other attractions, like the Lyceum lecture, and the Monday 
evening temperance lectures, when John B. Gough was the 
star attraction. It should be borne in mind that at the 
period that I have been talking of, Worcester was not a 
large town, its population in 1840 being less than 7,500 
and in 1846 only reached about 12,500. 

In the preparation of this paper I have had occasion to 
consult the newspapers of the town and have been struck 
with the lack of notice taken by them of important local 
affairs and happenings. To-day when the papers have per- 
haps a surplus of such information, announcing as they do 
personal affairs of very slight interest to the majority of 
readers, the contrast is very great. A notice of local 
events with the detailed statements as given by our news- 
papers of to-day, would have been of the greatest inter- 
est and value to the writers of Worcester history at the 
present time. 

Probably it was taken for granted by the editors of the 
newspapers of the period, that everybody in town was well 
acquainted with local happenings, and if to-day we think 



58 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

that our papers print too much that is of a personal nature 
yet many of the details now given and which seem to us 
as uncalled for may prove of great value to the future 
historian of our city. 

As an illustration of the way our newspapers reported 
local happenings, which at the time were considered as of 
great importance and interest, I will mention one known 
as the " great fire " which occurred in School street in 1838. 

The Massachusetts Spy's account of this fire was taken 
entire from a Boston newspaper without comment, except 
that in the same issue it was announced that George L. 
Brown, afterwards a painter of some eminence, had 
painted a picture of the fire on fifty square feet of can- 
vas. This painting was exhibited at Brinley Hall for the 
benefit of sufferers by the fire and afterwards engraved 
for the certificate of membership to the Worcester Fire 
Department. 

Our esteemed fellow citizen Loring Coes now living at 
over ninety years of age and still in active business was 
an assistant to the chief engineer, Gen. Nathan Heard, at 
this fire. 

There are many other things which interested and amused 
the boys of fifty or sixty years ago that might be alluded 
to, but I have already taxed your patience with my some- 
what rambling remarks and will close by thanking you for 
your kind attention. 

Following the reading of the paper, remarks were made 
by Major Stiles, George M. Rice, Charles A. Chase and A. 
C. Munroe. 

Major Stiles stated that Governor Lincoln was a charter 
member of the Worcester Light Infantry and that some 
member of the Lincoln family had been a member of the 
same organization continuously for one hundred years. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



George E. Arnold, 
Miss A. E. Anthony, 
Gardner S. Allis, 
Herbert L. Adams, 
Nelson Adams, 

Mrs. S. H. T. Bennett, 
William H. Bartlett, 
T. C. Bates, 
Mrs. T. C. Bates, 
John G. Brady, 
F. S. Blanchard, 
Dr. Francis Brick, 
Henry Brannon, 
Mrs. Henry Brannon, 
C. C. Baldwin, 
Mrs. C. C. Baldwin, 
Mrs. Eliza A. Barrett, 
O. M. Ball, 
Dr. Amanda C. Bray, 
Julius E. Bacon, 
Miss Georgie A. Bacon, 
Wilford A. Bailey, 
Edwin A. Brewer, 
Alexander Bclisle, Jr., 
Mrs. John S. Brigham, 
Hon. Ledyard Bill, 
Mrs. H. H. Bigelow, 
Mrs. Irving E. Bigelow, 
George L. Brownell, 
Mrs. George L. Brownell, 
Edwin Brown, 
Mrs. Edwin Brown, 
Mrs. E. D. Buffington, 
A. George Bullock, 
Mrs. A. George Bullock, 
Charles E. Burbank, 
Charles H. Burleigh, 



235 Pleasant St., 
252 Main St., 
Care Drew Allis Co., 
17 Wellington St., 
20 Brace St., 

30 Apricot St., 
187 Pleasant St., 
29 Harvard St., 
29 Harvard St., 
City Hall, 
49 Wachusett St., 

8 High St., 

485 Southbridge St., 
485 Southbridge St., 
11 Cedar St., 
11 Cedar St., 
29 Salem St., 
154 Lincoln St., 

9 Walnut St., 
39 Dean St., 
39 Dean St., 

4 Ripley St., * 
19 Oxford St., 
86 Portland St., 
16 Institute Road, 

11 Elm St., 

14 John St., 
14 John St., 
70 Elm St., 
70 Elm St., 
33 Chestnut St., 
48 Elm St., 
48 Elm St., 
8 William St., 
27 Oread St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Paxton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



60 



Worcester /Society of Antiquity . 



Prof. Alexander F. Chamberlain, 12 Shirley St., 
Mrs. Alexander F. Chamberlain, 12 Shirley St., 
Gen. R. H. Chamberlain, 116 Summer St., 

Mrs. C. W. Chamberlin, 372 Pleasant St., 

Miss Harriet E. Clarke, 9 Chestnut St., 

F. J. Charbonneau, 68 Chatham St., 

T. A. Callahan, 494 Grove St., 

Mrs. T. A. Callahan, 494 Grove St., 

Edwin H. Crandell, Jr., 340 Main St., 

Mrs. C. Van D. Chenoweth, 
Edward I. Comins, 1194 Main St., 

Mrs. Edward I. Comins, 1194 Main St., 

W. F. Cole, 1 Lincoln Place, 

Mary Louisa Trumbull Cogswell,Massachusetts Ave. 
Zelotes W. Coombs, 32 Richards St., 

Arthur F. Curtiss, 



Walter Davidson, 
H. PI. Dayton, 
C. F. Darling, 
Mrs. C. F. Darling, 
John E. Day, 
F. H. Dewey, 
Miss M. N. Dewey, 
Mrs. Mabel N. Denholm, 
Mrs. Samuel F. Dickinson, 
Benjamin J. Dodge, 
Mrs. Benjamin J. Dodge, 
Thomas H. Dodge, 
Mrs. R. B. Dodge, 
Mrs. John J. Donelson, 
Mrs. Sarah L. Drury, 
George Stuart Dickinson, 



34 Lancaster St., 
12 Crown St., 
76 West St., 
76 West St., 
179 Pleasant St., 
124 Main St., 

6 State St., 

14 Claremont St., 
The Lenox, 
18 Congress St., 
18 Congress' St., 
766 Main St., 

48 Wachusett St., 
18 West St., 

7 Cedar St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Pittsfield, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



C. B. Eaton, 
Mrs. T. K. Earle, 

Miss Caroline Earle, 
Edward Tuckerman Estey, 
Robert Pegrum Estey, 
Albert Everett, 



5 Lagrange St., 
23 Edward St., 
23 Edward St., 
90 Elm St., 
90 Elm St., 
31 Winfield St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



Charles A. Fletcher, 
Clifton H. P'ay, 
R. B. Fowler, 
Mrs. R. B. Fowler, 
Dr. M. Bonner Flinn, 
Mrs. M. Bonner Flinn, 



21 Westland St., 
815 Main St., 
3 Tuckerman St., 
3 Tuckerman St., 
15 King St., 
15 King St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



List of Members. 



61 



William T. Forbes, 
Mrs. William T. Forbes, 
Marcus L. Foster, 



23 Trowbridge Road, Worcester, Mass. 
23 Trowbridge Road, Worcester, Mass. 
18 Cottage St., Worcester, Mass. 



Dr. Homer Gage, 


8 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass 


Mrs. Homer Gage, 


8 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass 


Charles E. Grant, 


1 Tuckerman St., 


Worcester, Mass 


Mrs. H. C. Graton, 


39 Providence St., 


Worcester, Mass 


Dr. Ray W. Greene, 


21 West St., 


Worcester, Mass 


Charles A. Geer, 




Millbury, Mass. 


A. K. Gould, 


14 Larch St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Dr. Helen A. Goodspeed, 


14 Lincoln Sq., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Alice N. Gross, 


23 May St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. F. P. Goulding, 


44 Harvard St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Elbridge G. P. Guy, 


14 Harvard St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


William T. Harlow, 


39 Oak Ave., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Chauncy G. Harrington, 


972 Main St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


James P. Hamilton, 


35 Fruit St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Adaline E. Harrington, 


8 Norwood St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


0. B. Hadwen, 




Worcester, Mass. 


Benjamin T. Hammond, 


9 Cedar St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Gilbert H. Harrington, 


1014 Main St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Silas W. Hobbs, 


15 Chandler St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Benjamin Thomas Hill, 


Ill Salisbury St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. A. P. Hildreth, 


32 Merrick St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


A. A. Hixon, 


18 Front St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Edwin H. Hill, 


12 Channing St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Ava Gertrude Hovey, 


49 Austin St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Miss Sarah B. Hopkins, 


60 William St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Fred L. Hutchins, 


101 Locust Ave., 


Worcester, Mass. 


J. Fred Humes, 


45 Abbott St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Joseph Jackson, 


15 Woodland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. M. V. B. Jefferson, 


40 Harvard St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Theodore S. Johnson, 


8 Bowdoin St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Theodore S. Johnson, 


8 Bowdoin St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Edgar A. Johnson, 


6 Farnum St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Charles R. Johnson, 


3 Norwood St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Thomas G. Kent, 


35 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Thomas G. Kent, 


35 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Daniel Kent, 


656 Main St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Daniel Kent, 


656 Main St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Edward P. King, 


26 Downing St., 


Worcester, Mass. 



62 



Worcester Society of Antiquity. 



C. A. King, 
Mrs. C. A. King, 
F. E. Kimball, 
Mrs. F. E. Kimball, 



54 Chatham St., 
54 Chatham St., 
8 John St., 
8 John St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



Mrs. F. D. Lamb, 
Mrs. Waldo Lincoln, 
James Logan, 
A. S. Lowell, 
John E. Lynch, 



58 Cedar St., 
49 Elm St., 
222 Salisbury St. 
Brattle St., 
19 Benefit St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



George Maynard, 

David Manning, 

M. A. Maynard, 

Mrs. M. A. Maynard, 

Jerome Marble, 

Mrs. Jerome Marble, 

Miss Nella Marble, 

George W. Mackintire, 

Miss Adaline May, 

Mrs. H. K. Merrifield, 

Owen W. Mills, 

Rev. Daniel F. McGillicuddy, 

Miss Lizzie McFarland, 

Miss Anna M. Moore, 

Miss Fannie C. Morse, 

C. II . Morgan, 

Mrs. C. H. Morgan, 

Mrs. Emma DeF. Morse, 

Philip W. Moen, 

L. C. Muzzy, 

Mrs. L. C. Muzzy, 

Mrs. A. C. Munroe, 

Mrs. Julia V. M. Murray, 

Arthur J. Marble, 

Charles F. Marble, 

Mrs. Charles F. Marble, 

Frank A. Marston. 



28 Pleasant St., 
64 Woodland St., 
19 William St., 
19 William St., 
23 Harvard St., 
23 Harvard St., 
23 Harvard St., 
131 Lincoln St., 

58 Cedar St., 

Grafton St., 
117 Thomas St., 
58 Wachusett St., 
57 Chatham St., 
28 Catharine St., 
28 Catharine St., 
845 Main St., 
60 Elm St., 
126 Elm St., 
126 Elm St., 
30 Hollywood St., 
Knowles Building, 
36 Birch St., 
4 Marble St., 
4 Marble St., 
4 Hancock St., 



Worcester, Mas3. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Leicester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Millbury, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



Dr. Charles L. Nichols, 
James A. Norcross, 
O. W. Norcross, 
Mrs. O. W. Norcross, 
Miss Edith J. Norcross, 
Charles Nutt, 



38 Cedar St., 
May St., 

16 Claremont St., 
16 Claremont St., 
16 Claremont St., 
Spy Office, 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 



List of Members. 



63 



Harrison G. Otis, 


41 Harvard St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Miss M. Elizabeth Otis, 


18 William St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


J. P. K. Otis, 


26 Downing St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. J. P. K. Otis, 


26 Downing St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. T. A. O'Callaghan, 


24 Oread St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Nathaniel Paine, 


72 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Abbie Prescott R. Parsons,55 Austin St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


John C. Pellett, 


6 Jaques Ave., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Gen. Josiah Pickett, 


26 Chatham St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Rev. J. J. Putnam, 


23 Fruit St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Charles E. Parker, 




Holden, Mass. 


Dr. W. H. Raymenton, 


810 Main St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Charles Ranlet, 


9 Ashland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Miss M. E. Reed, 


6 Silver St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Edgar Reed, 


60 Woodland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


George M. Rice, 


4 Eden Terrace, 


Worcester, Mass. 


William E. Rice, 


41 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. William E. Rice, 


41 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Frank H. Rice, 


340 Main St.,Rm.509 Worcester, Mass. 


George C. Rice, 


8 Lincoln Sq., 


Worcester, Mass. 


George Henry Rice, 


2 Rice's Square, 


Worcester, Mass. 


Hon. A. S. Roe, 


5 Dix St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. George I. Rockwood, 


62 Summer St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Nellie F. Rogers, 


28 High St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


John M. Russell, 


188 Institute Road, 


Worcester, Mass. 


A. P. Rugg, 


488 Pleasant St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. A. P. Rugg, 


488 Pleasant St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Thomas C. Rice, 




Worcester, Mass. 


Col. Edward J. Russell 


656 Main St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


A. B< R. Sprague, 


30 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. A. B. R. Sprague, 


30 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


William H. Sawyer, 


107 Lincoln St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. William H. Sawyer, 


107 Lincoln St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


James A. Saxe, 


35 Cedar St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Charles E. Staples, 


31 Lancaster St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Charles E. Staples, 


31 Lancaster St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Miss Lucy F. Sawyer, 


31 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Henry F. Stedman, 


17 Bowdoin St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


James C. Stewart, 


75 Lancaster St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


J. W. Sheehan, 


22 Trowbridge Road, Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. J. W. Sheehan, 


22 Trowbridge Road 


, Worcester, Mass. 


George A. Smith, 


136 Burncoat St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. F. B. Smith, 


34 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Hattie T. Smith, 


24 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 



64 



Worcester Society of Antiquity, 



Miss Mary A. Smith, 


47 West Boylston St 


., Worcester, Mass. 


Albert E. Smith, 


96 Woodland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Albert E. Smith, 


96 Woodland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Woodbury C. Smith, 


435 Pleasant St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Walter J. Stone, 


36 May wood St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Elijah B. Stoddard, 


15 Ashland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. J. B. Stone, 


185 Vernon St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Louis W. Southgate, 


8 Windsor St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Louis W. Southgate, 


8 Windsor St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Jeanie Lea Southwick, 


6 Home St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


E. P. Sumner, 


48 Fruit St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. George Sumner, 


6 Bowdoin St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


John B. Syme, 


43 Lancaster St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Albert H. Silvester, 


14 Montague St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Charles T. Tatman, 


7 Lenox St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Cor win M. Thayer, 


15 Sudbury St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Charles M. Thayer, 


15 Cedar St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Miss Anna G. Taft, 


4 Franconia St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Lucian A. Taylor, 


8 Dean St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Marvin M. Taylor, 


35 Freeland St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Mrs. Rhoda A. Thwing, 


24 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Edgar E. Thompson*, 


5 Jaques Ave., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Edward Thomas, 


35 Chestnut St., 


Worcester, Mass. 


Miss Helen G. Turner, 


13 Elm St., 


Worcester, Mass. 



Hon. Charles G. Washburn, 
Justin A. Ware, 
Miss M. Agnes Waite, 
Miss Alice E. Waite, 
Miss Emma F. Waite, 
Herbert Wesby, 
Henry M. Wheeler, 
Samuel E. Winslow, 
Mrs. Samuel E. Winslow, 
Harvey B. Wilder, 
Eli J. Whittemore, 
M. J. Whittall, 
F. E. Williamson, 
Mrs. F. E. Williamson, 
Mrs. L. G. White, 
Mrs. W. F. Whipple, 
Miss Abbie M. White, 
Miss Mary Ella Whipple, 
E. M. Wood, 
P. W. Wood, 



44 Elm St., Worcester, Mass. 

Spring Hill (Barnstable Co.), Mass. 
48 Lincoln St., Worcester, Mass. 

18 Trowbridge Road, Worcester, Mass. 
18 Trowbridge Road, Worcester, Mass. 
34 Bowdoin St., Worcester, Mass. 

Andover, Mass. 

Leicester, Mass. 

Leicester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
692 Southbridge St., Worcester, Mass. 



12 Walnut St., 
776 Main St., 



58 Wachusett St, 
58 Wachusett St. 
47 Harvard St., 
2 Oak St., 

18 Oread St., 
6 Ripley St., 
9 Shattuck St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Farnumsville, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 






List of Members. 65 

Horace Wyman, 20 Harvard St., Worcester, Mass. 

Miss S. Louise Wood, 21 Harvard St., Worcester, Mass. 

Mrs. Cyrus G. Wood, 21 Harvard St., Worcester, Mass. 

Mrs. Franklin Wyman, 77 Lincoln St., Worcester, Mass. 

Mrs. George M. Woodward, 831 Main St., Worcester, Mass. 

Duane B. Williams, 15 Catharine St., Worcester, Mass 



66 



Worcester Society of Antiquity. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



W. F. Abbot, 
Francis E. Blake, 
Charles A. Chase, 
Levi B. Chase, 
Hon. Ellery B. Crane, 
Thomas A. Dickinson, 
Lyman A. Ely, 
George L. Estey, 
Nathaniel Paine, 
Burton W. Potter, 
Franklin P. Rice, 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, 
Eben Francis Thompson, 
Ephraim Tucker, 
Henry Pratt Upham, 



38 William St., 
95 Milk St., 

39 West St., 

14 Lincoln Square, 
363 Plantation St., 
80 Salisbury St., 
27 William St., 
72 Elm St., 
Otsego Road, 
17 Abbott St., 
Highland St., 
84 Elm St., 
58 Laurel St., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Sturbridge, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
St. Paul, Minn. 






List of Members. 



67 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Hon. Henry Clark, 
Bishop Thomas J. Conaty, 
Richard O'Flynn, 
Hon. George F. Hoar, 
Joseph Jackson Howard, LL.D. 
Hon. Joseph W. Lawrence, 
Hon. James H. Phelps, 
Hon. John E. Russell, 
Rev. Carlton A. Staples, 
Major Frederick G. Stiles, 
Hon. Joseph H Walker, 
Hon. Byron Weston, 



Los Angeles, 

31 Grosvenor St. 

Oak Ave., 



Harrington Ave., 



Rutland, Vt. 
California. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
London, Eng. 
St. Johns, N. B. 
West Townsend,Vt. 
Leicester, Mass. 
Lexington, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Dalton, Mass. 



G8 



Worcester Society of Antiquity. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Charles C. Baldwin, 
Phineas Bates, 
George L. Faxon, 
James F. D. Garfield, 
Rovert Hovenden, 
Thomas S. Knowlton, 
Nathan B. Lewis, 
Charles A. Morgan, 
Edward H. Rice, 
Charles H. Rogers, 
Hon. George Sheldon, 
Henry L. Shumway, 
Thomas Stansfield, 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, 
Rev. Thomas E. St. John, 
Caleb B. Tillinghast, 
Rev. Anson Titus, 
George Tolman, 
Rev. Albert Tyler, 



Tufts College, 



Cleveland, O. 
Boston, Mass. 
Spencer, Mass. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
London, Eng. 
West Brookfield, Mass. 
West Kingston, R. I. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Westfield, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Deerfield, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Leeds, Eng. 
Framingham, Mass. 
Haverhill, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Medford, Mass. 
Concord, Mass. 
Oxford, Mass. 



PROCEEDINGS 



ftloptFsfop Horirtg of Xntiquitg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1903. 



Volume XIX. 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY; 

1903/ 
U. S. A. CXXVII. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eightieth Meeting . . 69 

Old-Time Taverns of Worcester . . ... . . . . . 70 

Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools and School- 
Houses 60 Years and more ago . . . . . . . . 82 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-First Meeting . 117 

The Old Pine Meadow Road and its Forgotten Bridge . 118 

A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester . . . 129 



PROCEEDINGS 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTIETH MEETING. TUESDAY 
EVENING, MARCH 3, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Crane, C. A. Chase, Davidson, Eaton, Forbes, 
Gould, Hobbs, Hutchins, Geo. Maynard, M. A. Maynard, 
H. G. Otis, Paine, Pellett, G. M. Rice, C. E. Staples, Salis- 
bury, Williamson, Mrs. Barrett, Dr. Bray, Mrs. Darling, 
Mrs. Forbes, Mrs. Hildreth, Miss May, Miss McFarland, 
Mrs. Paine, Miss M. A. Smith, Miss Lucy Sawyer, Mrs. 
Staples, Miss Emma F. Waite, Miss M. Agnes Waite, E. 
M. Barton, Mr. Clark, Miss Barrett, Mrs. Earle, Mrs. Hackett, 
Mrs. Upham and others. 

The Librarian reported additions for the past month 
as follows : eleven bound volumes, ninety-seven pamphlets, 
twenty-one newspapers and two miscellaneous articles for 
the museum. 

On nomination of the standing committee, George Stuart 
Dickinson, Herbert Lincoln Adams, Mrs. Barbara A. 
Crane and Mrs. Samuel H. T. Bennett were elected mem- 
bers of the Society; and the following named persons 
were referred to the Nominating Committee for member- 
ship: Frank A. Marston, Mrs. H. H. Bigelow, Duane B. 
Williams, Nelson Adams, Edward Tucker man Esty and 

Robert Pegram Esty. 
6 



70 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Miss Emma F. Waite was then introduced and read the 
following paper on 

OLD-TIME TAVERNS OF WORCESTER. 

On December second, 1674, when the infant settlement 
at Quinsigamond was but a few months old, we find its 
pioneers petitioning the General Court to the effect that 
Thomas Browne of Cambridge, having built the largest 
house in the new settlement, be allowed to keep an inn 
or ordinary in that place; and, to quote from the petition, 
"wee desire the Honored Court of midesex to give him 
license so to doe also to furnish Travelers wh wine and 
strong waters observing the rules therein directed by the 
Laws." On the fifteenth of the same month, the Court 
granted the said license, thus giving Thomas Browne the 
distinction of being the first tavern-keeper in Worcester. 

When a second settlement was attempted after a lapse 
of ten years, Nathaniel Henchman was, in like mariner, 
" licensed and allowed to keep a house of entertainment 
for Travelers at Quinsicamond for a year next ensuing." 

These licenses and a general idea as to location are about 
all we have to establish the reality of these first Worcester 
taverns, both of which had a short existence and shared 
a like fate in the Indian wars which devastated both settle- 
ments. Thomas Browne's house is vaguely located on the 
north side of the country road between the head of Lake 
Quinsigamond and what is now Brittan square, and be- 
sides being the largest house of the first settlement, is one 
of the three of which we have any record. Nathaniel 
Henchman, to whom the second license of 1684 was granted, 
was a son of Captain Daniel Henchman, an original settler, 
and is supposed to have kept his tavern in his father's 
house which stood on land just north of Lincoln square. 
Tradition describes Nathaniel Henchman as an extremely 
eccentric man, in proof of which there is a story that, 



Old- Time Taverns of Worcester. 71 

many years before his death, he constructed his coffin and 
dug his grave, afterwards using the coffin as a place to 
keep the products of his garden until he took persoual 
possession. After his death, his land descended to the 
family of Governor Hancock. 

Though its existence cannot be proved, it is quite pos- 
sible that at the time of the second settlement, another 
tavern was kept here by Captain John Wing, then leading 
man of the township. It is a temptation to accept this 
tavern as an assured fact if only for the purpose of di- 
gressing upon the varied and attractive career of its landlord. 
His long experience as landlord of the Castle Tavern in 
Boston makes it appear probable that to his other business 
here, he found it profitable to add that of inn-keeping. 
It is perhaps more likely that his house survived the settle- 
ment and was used as a place of public entertainment 
after his death. This last we learn from the diary of Judge 
Sewall, who records, in 1716, concerning a visit to Spring- 
field, " Dined at Capt. Wing's old house in Worcester." 

With the possible exception of the Wing house, all traces 
of the two early efforts to plant a town had disappeared 
by 1703, and it was not until 1713 that a settlement was 
effected which resulted successfully. Like its predecessors, 
the new town was situated on the roadway from Boston 
to Connecticut, and from the location of its three earliest 
taverns, its centre seems to have been practically the 
same as it is to-day. Upon the sites of all three, hotels 
have been kept within the memory of many people now 
living, and two of them, under a more modern guise, still 
serve their old-time purpose. 

The oldest of these was a small wooden building which 
stood on the site of the present Walker block. It was 
built in 1719 by Captain Moses Rice, upon land set off 
to him by the original proprietors, bounded on three sides 
by Main, Mechanic and Foster streets, on the fourth by 
the "ministerial land." Captain Rice came here fromSud- 



72 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

bury in the early days of the settlement, and, like several 
of his fellow townsmen, combined his duties as landlord 
with a military career, being commander of a cavalry regi- 
ment and participator in numerous fights with the Indians. 
As there is no record to the contrary, his proprietorship 
of twenty-three years may fairly be assumed to have been 
a long period of prosperity. Upon his removal to Rutland 
in 1742, the career of his house as a tavern ended for a 
time, and the property came into the hands of Judge 
Chandler, to be converted by him into a beautiful estate 
called the " Homestead." Upon it he built a fine mansion, 
where he lived until the first days of the Revolution, when 
his adherence to England resulted in his banishment from 
the country and the confiscation of his property. It was 
at this time that his loyalty to the crown at the expense 
of his personal advantage earned for him the title of the 
"Honest Refugee." Later, the estate was assigned to Mrs. 
Chandler as a part of her dower, and in 1785 it became 
the property of Major Ephraim Mower and his nephew, 
and for a second long period was the site of a tavern. As 
the Sun Tavern, the Chandler mansion existed till 1818, 
and at one period played an indirect part in the scenes 
of Shays's Rebellion. In December, 1786, Judge Artemas 
Ward opened court there, it being an adjournment from 
the " United States Arms," the possession of which by the 
Shays men prevented the meeting there. In 1818, the 
old mansion was removed to Mechanic street, to make 
way for the new United States Hotel, built by William 
Hovey, and kept by him and others till 1854. With the 
exception of the thirty-three years of Judge Chandler's 
possession, there is still left a century during which this 
land did duty as the site of a public house. 

The second tavern of Worcester, which stood on the 
site of the present Bay State, can lay claim to an almost 
equal record of longevity, having been kept by father, son 
and grandson of the same name for almost ninety con- 



Old- Time Taverns of Worcester. 73 

secutive years. The Heywood tavern was probably estab- 
lished in 1722, at the time when the town was incorporated, 
and took its name from its landlord, Deacon and Captain 
Daniel Heywood, an original " Father of the Town" and 
for many years one of its leading citizens. At the time 
of the second settlement, he is mentioned as one to whom 
land was granted; and at the beginning of the third, he 
was again given four ten-acre lots. Deacon Heywood 
appears to have possessed the Yankee faculty of doing 
many things well for he combined a somewhat surprising 
variety of occupations. He was prominent in establishing 
the first church of the town, and held the position of its 
first deacon, in those days a great honor. His title of 
captain was given him in 1748, when he had command of 
a company of volunteer soldiers, which formed a part of 
General Dwight's command in an expedition against the 
Indians. For many years he was also town clerk and 
treasurer. His tavern was a three-story wooden structure, 
and during the greater part of the eighteenth century was 
certainly the largest and, from all accounts, the best equipped 
in the town. Though it lived all through the stormy 
days of the Revolution, it does not appear to have been 
connected with patriotic scenes to the same extent as were 
several of its neighbors. For several years after the Dec- 
laration of Independence was signed, however, the celebra- 
tion of the day was concluded by "elegant repasts at 
Heywood's Inn.' 7 One year, which was doubtless an especial 
jubilee, it is recorded that "a large number of gentlemen 
met there, dined under an arbor built for the purpose, 
and drank fourteen toasts to the discharge of fourteen 
cannon." From 1732 to 1733, one of the chambers of the 
tavern served as the county jail. It is quite evident that 
wrong-doers were not at that time very numerous, for the 
jail was nothing but a wooden cage, which had been con- 
structed the year before in the rear part of Judge Jennison's 
mansion. After its removal to the tavern it served the 



74 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

same purpose until the chamber could be properly fitted. 
After the death of the last landlord of the name, in 1809, 
the Heywood tavern was kept by a number of different 
proprietors, under the title of the " Central Hotel." In 
1854, it was removed to the southeast corner of Salem 
and Madison streets, where it may still be seen in the 
somewhat degenerate capacity of a tenement house. 

From a patriotic standpoint, the third of the early 
Worcester taverns is easily the most interesting. The 
Stearns Tavern, as it was first known, stood fronting the 
main street, very nearly where the Lincoln House now 
stands. It is described as a large two-story house with 
a room on each side of the front door, one used as a parlor, 
the other as a barroom and office. The estate, of which 
it formed a part, is said to have comprised eighty acres 
and to have extended from Main westward to Sever street. 
That it was established as early as 1732, appears from 
proprietors' records for that year. Before his career as a 
tavern-keeper, Mr. Stearns had served the town as its first 
sexton and grave-digger; in 1728 it was voted that " Thomas 
Stearns be ye parson to take care of and sweep ye meeting- 
house for ye year Ensuing and Shall receive £1. 40. for 
his services." Later he appears with the title of captain 
and throughout his life was chosen for various town offices. 
He kept the Stearns Tavern for forty years and, from his 
death in 1772 till 1784 it was continued by his widow, 
Mary, daughter of Judge William Jennison. In the period 
just preceding the Revolution, when public sentiment in 
the town became strongly divided, this tavern was the 
favorite resort of the loyalists and the place where they 
prepared and signed the famous Tory Protest of 1774. 
This protest was a remonstrance against the strenuous pro- 
ceedings of the patriots, who had recently passed resolutions 
condemning all who upheld Great Britain as traitors to 
their country. It was entered upon the town records and j 
published in Boston, but later, on a vote of the people, j 



Old-Time Taverns of Worcester. 75 

was blotted out from the records by the town clerk. The 
pages can still be seen in the town books, showing the 
finger-marks of the clerk, who was obliged to dip his fingers 
in the ink and rub them over the offending words. At 
the same place where they had written it, the signers of 
the protest were compelled to meet and sign an acknowl- 
edgement of repentance, and the next day had the igno- 
minious distinction of being escorted through the midst 
of a large crowd of the friends of liberty and halted at 
intervals to hear their confession read aloud. It was 
doubtless at this time that the loyalistic principles of its 
patrons resulted in giving to the tavern the title of the 
" King's Arms," a name which was destined to endure but 
two years. 

On July 24, 1776, the Spy gives the following account 
of the first celebration of the adoption of the Declaration 
of Independence: "a select body of the sons of freedom 
repaired to the tavern lately known by the sign of the 
King's Arms which odious signature of despotism was 
taken down by order of the people, which was cheerfully 
complied with by the inn-keeper, where many toasts 
were drunk and the evening spent with joy on the com- 
mencement of the happy era." The inn-keeper's latent 
patriotism had, however, been shown before this event. 
On July 1, 1775, Gen. Washington, on his way through to 
take command of the army at Cambridge, had been enter- 
tained here, and in December of the same year, Mrs. Wash- 
ington stopped at the same place. Her entry into the 
town, "in a chariot and four, with black postillions in 
scarlet and white liveries," must have been an unusual 
spectacle. With the death of Mrs. Stearns, her estate was 
purchased by William Sever, a new settler from Kingston. 
Through the marriage of his daughter, Penelope Winslow 
Sever, to Hon. Levi Lincoln, it became the property of 
the latter. Almost upon the site of the old tavern, he 



76 Worcester /Society of Antiquity . 

built a residence, which to-day forms the main part of the 
Lincoln House. 

By the last quarter of the eighteenth century, there were 
at least ten public houses in Worcester besides those already 
mentioned. One of the earliest of these was kept by 
Captain John Curtis, from 1754 to 1774, at his Lincoln 
street residence, on the estate which had been bequeathed 
to him by his father, the original Ephraim Curtis. Not 
much has come down to us in regard to his tavern except 
that it was the general stopping place for all the ministers 
passing to and fro. In the French and Indian War, in 
1757, Captain Curtis commanded a company which formed 
part of the expedition sent to the relief of Fort William 
Henry. He was active besides in civil affairs, and held 
for some time the office of Deputy Sheriff. During the 
Revolution, he sympathized with England and was a 
signer of the Tory Protest. A local historian describes him 
as a small man, so short that his pew in the Old South 
had to be raised six inches from the floor in order to bring 
him to a level with the rest of the congregation, but hastens 
to add that he appeared to great advantage on horseback. 

On an estate next west of the present City Farm, then 
owned by Captain Israel Jennison, a public house was kept 
from 1782 to 1815 by his son, Samuel Jennison. Several 
years later, the property was purchased by the town, and 
the tavern, which had been a favorite resort for balls and 
parties, changed into the capacity of town almshouse. 
Though the old building has long since been torn down, 
the cellar-hole is still to be seen. 

A tavern which stood near the junction of Main and 
Southbridge streets, on the site of Sargent's block, became 
prominent during the Revolution as a Tory refuge and 
has been remembered chiefly in that connection. It was 
kept by "Tory" Jones, as he was called, from 1770 to 1777. 
Its main claim to recognition seems to have been that in 
the spring of 1775 it sheltered two British officers, who 



Old-Time Taverns of Worcester. 77 

had been sent from Boston by Gen. Gage, under the dis- 
guise of farmers to get information as to the strength and 
position of the towns of Worcester and Middlesex Counties, 
preparatory to the advance of a detachment of British 
troops. The report of their journey was found among 
British papers after the evacuation of Boston and gives 
an interesting account of their adventures while in Worces- 
ter, which is best quoted: "We arrived at Worcester 
about five o'clock in the evening very much fatigued: 
the people of the town did not take notice of us as we came 
in, so we got safe to Mr. Jones' tavern; on our entrance 
he seemed a little sour, but it wore off by degrees, and 
we found him to be our friend, which made us very happy; 
we dined and supped without anything happening out of 
the common run. The next day being Sunday, we could 
not think of travelling as it was contrary to the customs 
of the country; nor dared we stir out until the evening, 
because of meeting; and nobody is allowed to walk the 
streets during divine service, without being taken up and 
examined; so that, thinking we could not stand the ex- 
amination so well, we thought it prudent to stay at home ; 
where we wrote and corrected our sketches. The landlord 
was very attentive to us and on our asking what we could 
have for breakfast, he told us, tea, or anything else we 
chose; that was an open confession what he was; but for 
fear he might be imprudent, we did not tell him who we 
were, though we were certain he knew it: — That evening, 
about eight o'clock, the landlord came in and told us there 
were two gentlemen who wanted to speak with us. We 
asked him who they were? On which he said we would 
be safe in their company; we said we did not doubt that, 
as we hoped two gentlemen, who travelled merely to see 
the country and stretch our limbs, as we had lately come 
from sea, could not meet with anything but civility when 
we behaved ourselves properly. — An hour afterwards he 
returned and told us the gentlemen were gone, but had 



78 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

begged him to let us know that all their friends of govern- 
ment at Petersham were disarmed by the rebels and that 
they threatened to do the same at Worcester in a very 
little time; he sat and talked politics, — and also told us 
that none but a few friends to government knew we were 
in town; we said, it was very indifferent to us whether 
they did or not, though we thought very differently; how- 
ever, as we imagined we had stayed long enough in that 
town, we resolved to set off at daybreak the next morning. 
Accordingly, off we set, after getting some roast beef and 
brandy from our landlord, which was very necessary on 
a long march and prevented our going into houses where, 
perhaps, they might be too inquisitive. — We went on un- 
observed by anyone until we passed Shrewsbury, where 
we were overtaken by a horseman, who examined us very 
attentively, — after he had taken his observation, he rode 
off pretty hard and took the Marlborough road, but, by 
good luck, we took the Framingham road again, to be more 
perfect in it." 

The horseman was none other than Timothy Bigelow, 
who had been sent out by the Committee of Correspondence 
to observe the movements of the two officers. After having 
made sure of their identity he rode on to Marlborough, 
to warn the patriots there and to prepare for their arrest, 
which action they frustrated by turning off the main road. 

At the western extremity of the town, a tavern was 
built in 1760, which afterwards became well known as a 
half-way house between Worcester and Leicester. The 
original owner was Noah Jones, son of one of the earliest 
settlers. He came here with his father as a boy, and 
settled on that part of the latter's farm situated at the 
junction of Leicester and Apricot streets, about three miles 
from the centre of the town. His house stood on the south 
side of the Great Post road and was for many years much 
frequented by all travellers between Boston and Connecti- 
cut. It was flanked by a large barn, which is described 



Old- Time Taverns of Worcester. 79 

as "wide enough for two teams to stand abreast, and with 
a door at each end, so that teams could drive in from 
either way." At the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
the second owner of the same name transferred the tavern 
to the opposite side of the road, to a new building, which 
is at the present well preserved, and occupied as a residence 
by Captain Angus Henderson. It was continued in the 
family for three generations, and up to 1865 was still 
famous as the Jones Tavern. 

A little to the west of the Jones Tavern, on Apricot 
street stands to-day the old " Solomon Parsons" house, a 
short-lived contemporary of the former, having been kept 
as a public house for the last six years of the eighteenth 
century. 

Older than any of these, and extending over a period 
which includes the chief political events of the eighteenth 
century, was the tavern best known to us by its Revolu- 
tionary title of the " Hancock Arms." It was opened in 
1745 or '46 by Luke Brown, at his residence, which was 
located on the west side of Lincoln square, not far from 
the present Lincoln square station. In early times it is 
said to have been a famous meeting place for the wits of 
the town. During the Revolution, it became the head- 
quarters of the leading Worcester patriots, who, under the 
name of the American Political Society, exercised a valua- 
ble local influence in directing public sentiment and for- 
warding all patriotic measures. At this time, the tavern 
had as a sign a portrait of Hancock and was loyally known 
as the " Hancock Arms." Its first landlord died in 1772, 
a victim of small-pox, but the house was continued by 
members of his family until near the close of the century f 
after which Benjamin Butman and others kept it, under 
the name of the "Brown and Butman Tavern." The 
building was destroyed by fire in 1824, after having been 
for several years unoccupied. During the scenes of Shays's 
Rebellion, when the insurrection here was at its height, 



80 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

the ''Hancock Arms" sheltered a part of the rebels. In 
this connection there occurred an amusing incident. 
Several of the party were taken violently ill after drinking 
and a report spread that poison had been mixed with their 
drink. As the seller of the sugar used in its makeup was 
loyally attached to the government, he was at once seized 
as the attempted murderer of the rebels. Fortunately for 
him, however, a physician arrived and after careful inspec- 
tion of the suspicious substance declared it to be yellow 
Scotch snuff. It came out later that a package of it had 
been opened near the sugar barrel, and the contents scat- 
tered accidentally into the sugar. 

The United States Arms, however, better known to us 
as the Exchange Hotel, was more closely associated with 
the events of Shays's Rebellion. Without detail, it is 
sufficient to say that the Shays men found their chief cause 
of complaint in the courts, and gathered to prevent their 
opening. By the autumn of 1786, Worcester had become 
a centre of discontent and the rebels to government gathered 
here in large numbers. In September, their possession of 
the Court House and open opposition to Chief Justice 
Artemas Ward and his associates compelled the opening 
of the Court of Common Pleas at the United States Arms. 
Again, in November, the Court of the Sessions underwent 
a similar experience and likewise opened at the United 
States Arms. By the first of December, the citizens became 
more thoroughly aroused to the danger of the rebellion 
and undertook more active means for its suppression. On 
Monday, December 4, two companies of militia marched 
down Main street to the tavern above mentioned, where 
the insurgents were drawn up across the street. They 
refused to retreat and the militia advanced on them with 
fixed bayonets, when their line broke and they fell back 
to a new position on Court Hill. The militia marched by 
them as far as the Hancock Arms, returned, and were 



Old-Time Taverns of Worcester. 81 

dismissed. After several similar scenes, the town succeeded 
in disorganizing the rebels. 

Shays's Rebellion was, however, but one of the many 
local events in which the United States Arms figured promi- 
nently. Built in 1784 by Nathan Patch, a well known 
land proprietor and builder, and kept by him for nine years, 
it became the best tavern in the town and the place where 
distinguished travellers always stopped. Perhaps nothing 
can better justify this statement than the well known fact 
that Washington took breakfast here in the autumn of 
1789, while on his trip through New England after his 
first inauguration. He was escorted from Leicester by a 
" company of respectable citizens" on horseback, and, on 
his arrival, was greeted by the firing of cannon and the 
cheering of the assembled people. After reaching the south 
end of Main street, he left his carriage and proceeded to 
the tavern on horseback. Having breakfasted, he was 
saluted by more cannon, and accompanied for a distance 
by the same escort, took the road up Lincoln street towards 
Marlborough. 

In 1793, Mr. Patch gave up his tavern business to Wil- 
liam Barker. He was succeeded by Samuel Johnson, who 
ran it till 1807, when the estate was purchased by Col. 
Reuben Sikes, under whose management the tavern became 
the leading stage house in the state outside of Boston. 

Col. Sikes, together with Levi Pease of Shrewsbury, had, 
some years before, started the first stage lines between 
Boston and New York through Worcester. He was there- 
fore enabled to make his house the centre of arrival and 
departure of all the different stage lines passing through 
the town. Under Col. Sikes, the United States Arms was 
known by the more prosaic name of " Sikes' Coffee House," 
and " Sikes' Stage House." After 1824, it was kept till 
1840, by Samuel Thomas and went by the name of " Thomas' 
Temperance Exchange," indicative of the temperance 
movement which began about that time. It was under 



82 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

his management when Lafayette stopped there for break- 
fast, on his second visit to this country. After the middle 
of the nineteenth century, the property was gradually cut 
down and part of the old house let for stores. Though 
its surroundings have been much changed, and the build- 
ing itself shorn of much of its former prestige, it still remains, 
the sole representative of Worcester's old-time taverns. 

Remarks by Mr. Paine and Charles A. Chase followed, 
developing many interesting incidents in early Worcester. 

Mr. Paine then presented a silhouette of Hon. Timothy 
Paine, the progenitor of that family in Worcester. Judge 
Forbes spoke relative to the character of the founder of 
this Paine family; that he came from the neighboring 
state of Rhode Island and immediately on his arrival set 
about appropriating to himself about all the public offices 
in the place, he having been Register of Deeds, Register 
of Probate and Clerk of the courts, all at the same time. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Paine for his gift. 

Mr. Henry M. Wheeler was next introduced and read 
a paper entitled: 

REMINISCENCES OF THOMAS STREET SCHOOLS 
AND SCHOOL-HOUSE 60 YEARS AND MORE AGO. 

Isaiah Thomas died April 4th, 1831. In his will he says, 
"I give and devise to said Town the lot lying on the North 
side of Thomas Street and making the Corner of said Street 
and Back Street to erect thereon a large & handsome 
Brick School House or academy within two years of my 
decease.' ' After the second settlement of Worcester, prior 
to the setting apart the burial-ground on the Common, in 
1730, when Ephraim Roper was the first person interred 
there, burials were made in, or near, this lot as early as 
1717, Miss Rachel Kellough being the first one of twenty- 
eight buried there. A gentleman now living, who was one 
of Mr. Thurber's pupils, says that prior to his leaving the 
school in 1839, there was a small mound in the east end 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 83 

of the school lot, which was leveled, and he remembers 
distinctly seeing arrow heads, wampum and other Indian 
articles taken from the mound. 

Mr. Thomas gave the dimensions of the lot, 172} feet 
on Thomas street; 169 feet on Back street; 124 J feet on 
land of B. F. Smith and Dr. Paine; and 165} feet on Parley 
Goddard. Back street is now Summer street. January 
29th, 1841, B. F. Smith deeded the lot of half an acre on 
the corner of Summer and School streets to William Hovey. 

At a Town meeting held November 21st, 1831, a com- 
mittee consisting of Alfred D. Foster, Lewis Bigelow, Al- 
pheus Merrifield, Frederick W. Paine, William Keith, Isaac 
Davis and George T. Rice, chosen at a previous meeting 
to consider the provision of Mr. Thomas's will already 
mentioned, made a report, and recommended " that a Build- 
ing be erected thereon, two stories high, sixty-seven feet 
long by thirty feet wide leaving a passage way of Fifteen 
feet at each end of it, so that, if thought best each two 
schools may be entirely separated from the other two. They 
propose to have the Entrance in the Centre of the building 
by two entries seven feet wide running through the House, 
and divided from each other by a brick partition, the 
rooms will then be left at each end twenty eight by twenty 
five feet. They recommend that each story be at least ten 
feet in the clear. By a cast by Cap't Lewis Bigelow they 
estimate the expense with a Cupola for a Bell ! and fitted 
for the reception of Desks and appurtenances at twenty 
two hundred and seventy five dollars." They recommend 
to take ninety-seven feet on Thomas street eastward from 
Mr. Goddard's and running back to Mr. Smith's, for the 
building, that being large enough for a schoolhouse and 



1 It would seem as if only a few of the old scholars of Thomas street remember 
the hell in the cupola. Some even say there was none. But as a matter of history 
it is well to mention that there was a good-sized one, and that it was in charge of 
Mr. Lazell during his time. Charles A. Chase, Alexander C Munroe and Edward F. 
Howland assert that they rang it often ; and Edward A. Rice says that John Green 
(H. U. 1855) rang it regularly in his time. George A. Gates at one time had the 
contract to ring it. 



84 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

playground, leaving a spacious lot on the corner of Thomas 
and Summer streets, to be used thereafter as thought best 
for the town's purposes. The latter recommendation does 
not appear to have been carried out. The meaning of 
these recommendations is that the lot should be divided 
into two; the western having a frontage of ninety-seven 
feet on Thomas street, the eastern of seventy-five and one- 
half feet on the same street ; the house should be so located 
on the west lot as to leave a space of fifteen feet at each 
end for a playground. The report was accepted and a 
committee, consisting of Frederick W. Paine, Otis Corbett 
and Lewis Barnard, was chosen to erect the building, and 
$2,500 was voted to be raised to pay for it. 

In 1834, Mr. Paine reported that all the money received 
had been expended and he was discharged from the com- 
mittee at his request. Nathan Heard was chosen in his 
place and the committee was "directed to proceed and 
complete the service." 

At a meeting held March 2d, 1835, a committee was 
chosen to examine the doings of a committee chosen to 
build a schoolhouse on Thomas street and to report. 

At a meeting held March 23, 1835, the committee last 
mentioned made a report, which was recommitted. No 
further action seems to have been taken. 

At a meeting held November 2, 1851, a committee, chosen 
previously to consider what disposition should be made of 
the old Thomas street schoolhouse, reported that the build- 
ing had been disposed of and the materials were to be 
used in the building of a schoolhouse on Pine street, which 
stands at the intersection of Shrewsbury and East Worcester 
streets, and strongly resembles the old structure. Here 
ends the history of the old brick schoolhouse, after a ser- 
vice of about eighteen years. 

As early as 1846 the need of more room at the Thomas 
street house became apparent, and during the following five 
years committees, chosen to examine the matter, made re- 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 85 

ports embodying various plans, one of which was that the 
house be turned around and fitted to accommodate another 
house, at a cost of $1,200. The town voted to carry out 
the recommendation if the committee thought it best. No 
action was taken. 

At a meeting of the city government held April 7, 1851, 
a committee previously chosen made report that they had 
contracted with Horatio N. Tower to erect a schoolhouse 
on the Thomas street lot for $12,000, capable of seating 
three hundred and eighty scholars, to be completed by 
June 1, 1851. Monday, September 1, 1851, the house was 
dedicated. 

Thus far is recorded history. What follows will be main- 
ly my recollections. 

Before the addition to the front of the present building 
was made, two large trees, an elm and a shagbark, were 
growing on the south side of, and near to, it, and gave a 
grateful shade to its windows. The relative position of 
those trees was entirely reversed by the pulling down of the 
old building and the erection of the new one. They stood 
behind, and close to, the former, and as long as the old 
one remained they were used as pegs or stakes or goals 
for games of quoits, which were played so constantly that 
deep cavities were scooped out of the earth at their bases, 
into which the round iron quoit slid, or failed to slide, 
according to the skill of, or the lack of it in, the thrower. 
From the two entries in the building access was had to 
the upper rooms by flights of stairs. There were doors at 
the back end of the entries. A bulkhead in the rear gave 
entrance to the cellar, in which the wood for fuel was stored, 
which the large boys brought up when the fires needed 
replenishing. A portico, supported by round posts, cover- 
ed the two front doors. The furniture of the rooms con- 
sisted of a large cast-iron stove, probably of Mr. William 
A. Wheeler's make, whose foundry was near by, with its 
long connecting pipe running across the room high over- 



86 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

head; the teacher's tall pine desk, standing on four spindling 
legs, in one corner, on a low platform; and the pine desks 
with their connected seats for the scholars. A jack-knife 
was an indispensible part of every boy's outfit for obtaining 
an education. First he proceeded with it to cut his name 
deeply into the top of his desk. Then he began a more 
or less elaborate ornamentation of the same in accordance 
with his taste and skill. Various inlaid work was added, 
with carvings of scroll work, the whole attesting his studious 
habits. Sundry little holes, dug out of the edges of the 
tops, were used as stables for entrapped flies, which were 
brought out in leisure moments and attached to paper 
chariots drawn over the surface of the desk. 

The grounds connected with the schoolhouse were prac- 
tically the same as they are at this time. The lot to the 
south, on the opposite side of Thomas street, was entirely 
vacant, as far as Mr. Merrifield's house, towards Central 
street. On the east there were the same buildings as there 
are to-day. On the lot to the north, stood a small shop 
owned and occupied by William Hovey, a machinist en- 
gaged in the manufacture of hay cutters, to whom reference 
has already been made. Hotel Hovey, on the corner of 
Summer and School streets, perpetuates his name. His shop 
was furnished with a small water power, obtained from a 
little pond situated just north of the present junction of 
Hanover and Laurel streets. The source of supply of 
"Hovey's Pond," so called, was the " Green Hill" farm, 
from which a rivulet ran down past the " Hermitage," 
through the extensive grounds of the late Samuel Davis, 
now occupied by "The Memorial Hospital," and underneath 
Belmont street, whence it continued its course to the pond 
already mentioned. After serving Mr. Hovey's purpose in 
turning his machinery the stream ran westward for a short 
distance till it joined its waters with those of the majestic 
Blackstone River, where they were detained for a time in 
a pond on the southerly side of School street to furnish 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 87 

power for the manufactory of Goulding & Willard, now 
that of Nathan A. Lombard & Son. A little to the north 
of this factory the Blackstone River, confined for a time 
in a pond on the south side of Lincoln square, turned the 
wheels of the extensive works of Ruggles, Nourse & Mason, 
the makers of every kind of agricultural implements, which 
were sent all over the world. The waters of these com- 
bined streams, after being loosed from detention and service 
at the pond on School street, flowed westward till they 
turned southward, where Alzirus Brown's stable stands, and 
running under Thomas street, were soon thereafter arrested 
in the " Canal Basin," on the north side of Central street, 
over which basin the Boston & Maine Railroad now runs. 
Thence, in their course to Narragansett Bay, the waters 
bore on their surface the canal boats, which, for a few 
years, from 1828 till 1840 or thereabouts, plied between 
Worcester and Providence. In 1843 the Legislature (chap. 
65) authorized the Trustees of the " State Lunatic Hospital " 
to established and maintain an aqueduct and to take cer- 
tain springs on land of F. W. Paine and his family. These 
springs included the source of Hermitage brook above men- 
tioned. The land was taken in December 1843, as per a 
plan in Book 383, Page 339 in the Registry of Deeds. 

One may not be able to trace the connection between 
these waters and the schools whose story this paper started 
to tell. But the scholars found no difficulty in doing it, 
for they furnished as much sport during the winter months 
as did their games adapted to the other seasons of the year. 

The pond adjacent to School street was a famous place 
in winter for running " benders. 7 ' As the newly formed thin 
and tough ice bent under the weight of swiftly moving 
feet the more adventurous continued the sport until the 
ice suddenly broke and a ducking resulted. About this 
time the boys were much amused by the story of a citizen 
who met another on the street near by and said to him 
I Where's Jim live?" "Why you're Jim " 



88 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

"Yes," he answered, "I know I'm Jim , but what I 

want to know is where's he live." 

The schoolhouse lot was enclosed on the south and east 
sides by turned wooden posts set in the ground, of uniform 
size, about three and a half or four feet in height, with 
space enough between each to admit of easy passage. In 
the lapse of time, by the action of frost and hard usage, 
these posts did not preserve their former regularity but re- 
sembled David's bowing wall and tottering fence. A 
branchless trunk in the line of the fence on the east side 
is the mute and only witness of a clump of four white oak 
trees which grew near each other on the grounds and cast 
an agreeable shade in the hot summer days. 

It became a famous sport to leap over these posts by 
placing the hands on the top of a post and clearing it at 
a single bound. It required courage, skill, confidence and 
practice to do it easily. The boy who could go over the 
tallest post by placing only one hand on its top was envied 
by the rest, and he who could bestride two posts at one 
leap became the hero of the hour. Occasionally an aspi- 
rant for this high honor would cling too long to the top 
and suddenly find himself making a forcible acquaintance 
with mother earth. 

If other sports are here described it must not be inferred 
that they absorbed all of the scholars' attention, as would 
seem to be the case with the sports of to-day, if a hasty 
judgment should be made up from newspaper and maga- 
zine articles. The word " Athletics " was not in the vocabu- 
lary of that day. Sport had not become a science, in which 
a few trained actors took part, and the rest looked on and 
applauded. For rare fun and true sport commend us to 
those days when all who wished engaged in them. 

Baseball and football were rivals for the first place among 
the sports. From the nature of the game the latter won; 
every one could engage in it and bear a more or less prom- 
inent part. The ball was usually purchased by subscription. 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 89 

The schoolhouse grounds, quite too contracted for such a 
game, were used till ampler room was secured in a vacant 
lot of the County Jail on the opposite side of Summer 
street. This lot towards the east is now covered with an 
extension of the Jail buildings, and the stone wall enclosing 
it, has given place to a picket fence, otherwise it remains 
to-day as it was when the prisoners, from their windows, 
looked on the games and undoubtedly wished they were 
free. Mr. Asa Mathews was the Jailer and his three sons, 
William, George and John, were members of the school; 
by their intercession the boys were permitted to use the lot. 
Let us watch a game for a short time. The hour for 
recess has arrived. Behold forty boys — that was about 
the number in the school — rush out of the building — no 
filing out by sections — the first out is the best fellow — no 
exchanging slippers for boots — between and over the posts 
bounding the yard, diagonally across Thomas and Summer 
streets, and over the stone wall like a flock of sheep. Sides 
are quickly chosen under the inspiring incantation of one- 
ery, ugery, eagery, Ann, fillisy, follisy, Nicholas, John, 
queeby, quaby, Irish maid, stinkilum, stankilum, Jericho, 
buck, and now the fun begins. The ball is canted by the 
leader of the first side far over the heads of the other side, 
if possible, followed by a rush to push the ball to its goal. 
Back and forth across the field, now this way, now that, 
anon advancing, then retreating, victory almost won, soon 
lost, the tide of conflict sweeps on, until the ball is driven 
into a corner, and the climax is reached. Shouts, cheers, 
pushing, hauling, feet and arms flying in all directions, 
kicks, intended for the ball, which however is untouched, 
fall on many a fellow's shins. In the midst of the melee 
the school bell, summoning to study, is heard, the game 
is a drawn one, victory perches not on either banner, and 
lingeringly the contestants return to the schoolhouse. One 
limps and rubs his shins, another recovers a lost cap, a 
third straightens out his collar wrenched awry and all re- 



90 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

sume their studies and recitations none the worse for working 
off some of their animal spirits. 

Baseball easily held the second place among the school 
sports. Two boys were chosen to select sides by means of 
the mystic ene, mene, mone, mite, peskey, larney, money, 
strike, hare, ware, frown, knack, hallikey, bailikey, we, woe, 
wack. How these nonsensical, ridiculous rigmaroles cling 
to one's memory, while sensible and substantial truths 
become as elusive as the fleecy cloud which flits across the 
summer sky. A bat club was tossed by the one first chosen, 
to the second leader, who caught it with his clasped hand; 
then each in turn placed a hand over the other and close 
to it till the top of the club was reached, and the one whose 
hand was the last placed had the first choice of players for 
his side ; the choosing continued alternately till all had been 
selected. So important did the first choice become occa- 
sionally that it was decided by drawing the sharp edge of 
a knife blade across the top of the bat while the last hand 
clasped it. The game was played with the energy and 
heartiness which characterized that of football. The rules 
were few and simple, and easily changed if necessary. The 
ball was not as hard as those of the present day. There 
was no umpire, all acted in that capacity. The batter 
could knock the ball in any direction, straight ahead, to 
right or to left, backwards, upwards, any way to win. Three 
battings were allowed, but one knock and a catch was out, 
likewise a tick and a catch. 

Other games were played in their season; as I spy, two 
old cat, three old cat and four old cat, so called to desig- 
nate the number engaged. Some may remember the famous 
game of base, or round ball, played on the north side of 
the Common every Fast Day by the men of the town, to 
the no small scandal of the good people who thronged the 
Union Meeting House just across Front street to pay heed 
to the recommendations of the Governor by listening to a 
sermon preached by Rev. Elam Smalley or some other 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 91 

clergyman of the town. Whether the now celebrated 
correspondent, whose interesting recollections of distin- 
guished persons are appearing in the magazines, was inside 
the edifice, or with the crowd outside, it is impossible to 
say. He was one of the leaders in all our school sports. 
Of the several teachers who held sway in the school- 
rooms of the old building on Thomas street the name of 
Warren Lazell is oftenest recalled. If any one now living, 
who was one of his pupils, does not feel his hand tingling 
at the mention of his name, he certainly failed to receive 
the full benefit of his instruction. Those were the days 
when Solomon's injunction, " he that loveth his son chasten- 
eth him betimes/' was generally obeyed, but the " betimes" 
came pretty often, and indicated the measure of love. Mr. 
Lazell's eyes covered the room so effectively that few mis- 
demeanors escaped his notice. His keen glance detects 
something wrong, "John, step up here." "Hold out your 
hand." Whack comes down a stinging blow on the culprit's 
hand, and fortunate is he if it is not repeated. With him 
it was a word and a blow, but the blow sometimes came 
first. One boy, called up for punishment, drew back his 
hand when he saw the blow descending, and the sharp edge 
of the ruler fell on Mr. Lazell's knee-pan with full force. 
A fainting man was supported to his house on the other 
side of Summer street and the session closed. Before Mr. 
Lazell commenced in 1828 his long term of eighteen years 
at the head of the First Boys' School, he taught, so it is 
said, for a short time, a district school at New Worcester. 
Occasional brief reports of the School Committee commend 
his thorough instruction. In the report made April 15, 
1843, the Committee, speaking of an examination of the 
school, say, "it was in reality, what it purported to be, an 
examination, and not a mere exhibition. The readiness 
with which the boys disposed of the most difficult sentences 
in Grammar ? and difficult problems in Arithmetic showed 
that they had been accustomed to close and careful think- 



92 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

ing. In most of the branches taught in the school the 
proficiency has been such as ought to satisfy the just ex- 
pectation of all the parents. Rapid improvement is the 
natural result of Mr. Lazell's happy mode of instruction, 
which is eminently calculated to fix the attention of the 
pupils and keep their minds constantly active." They 
further say that, if they were disposed to criticise, it would 
be the want of quiet, orderly and gentlemanly deportment 
of the scholars. "If the scholars were more gentle and 
refined in manners there would be nothing more to be de- 
sired." 

Mr. Lazell was born in Bellingham in this state, August 
27, 1802. His boyhood was spent on a farm. He married, 
April 4, 1824, Sophia C. Thurber, a sister of Mr. Charles 
Thurber, who will be referred to later. He came to Worces- 
ter March 18, 1827, and taught till 1846. Before leaving 
school-teaching he opened a book store at 177 Main street 
in the Burnside building, as may be learned from his ad- 
vertisements in the papers of that day. At the close of 
his service as teacher he was chosen Secretary of the School 
Board and retained the position for several years. About 
1851 he engaged in the manufacture of straw-cutters with 
William Hovey. They were burned out in the great fire 
of 1854. The next year Mr. Lazell went to New York 
with his son Lewis T., who prior to that time had an apothe- 
cary store in the Burnside building on Main street, and for 
a few years was connected with the firm of Lazell, Marsh 
and Hunn, druggists and perfumers. He died suddenly in 
New York, December 23, 1875. Mr. Lazell was kind and 
approachable in his family and social relations. His son 
Warren E., who died November 18, 1849, at the age of 
nineteen, was a bright scholar, well acquainted with current 
events, which were freely discussed in their home, particu- 
larly at meal-time, father and son arguing on opposite sides 
in a friendly way. 

Mr. George A. Willard had charge of the Third Boys 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools, 93 

or Boys Primary School a short time; he resigned his posi- 
tion in 1840. His health was poor. He was nervous and 
easily irritated. He enters the room hastily, throws off his 
coat and hangs it with his hat against the wall back of his 
desk, grasps his sceptre and seats himself. He and the 
sceptre are inseparable during the session. This is a de- 
scription of the sceptre. It is made from the heart of well 
seasoned oak or maple, about two feet long, two inches 
wide and half an inch thick. It is miscalled a ruler, but 
is not intended to be used for making lines on paper, but 
on boys' hands and is true and smooth with straight sharp 
edges. It is an instrument of torture, to be laid up with 
the rack, thumb-screw, pincers, etc., as objects of interest 
to the curious. Is there not in this instrument and its use 
the origin of that phrase so often used, " To rule over?" 
Certainly it was appropriate to say of a teacher that he 
"ruled over" his school. Mr. Willard and his ruler is all 
that can be recalled of him. 

Mr. Charles W. Hartwell, who had taught the Appren- 
tices' School "with unusual success and to the entire satis- 
faction of the Board," succeeded Mr. Willard, and the 
Committee said of him, "there can be no doubt that he 
is thoroughly acquainted with his business and possesses an 
excellent faculty of communicating knowledge." Mr. Hart- 
well was a little under the average height, his hair was 
abundant and as black as coal, he had a pleasing face and 
bright sparkling eyes of piercing power when aroused, he 
was alert, active, quick as a flash in his movements, a man 
in the prime of robust manhood. He governed not by 
fear but by winning the respect of his pupils. He was a 
man of varied expedients, and possessed a comical vein, 
which occasionally showed itself. A boy, who went by the 
name of Hummy, one day was leaning over the aisle, with 
his head quite near the floor, up — or down — to some mis- 
chief, when, without warning, the teacher's heavy ruler fell 
with a clanging noise in close proximity to his head, which 



94 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

so frightened him that he rolled off his seat upon the floor. 

Mr. Hartwell quietly said, "H , I will thank you for 

my ruler." At another time one of the smaller boys was 
concocting some mischief, when suddenly he found himself 
dangling by his heels from the hooks on the wall, from which 
he was speedily restored to an upright position, and warned 
to do so no more. Mr. Hartwell never forgot that he was 
once a boy. At the close of a forenoon's session on a 
bright winter's day he said, " Boys, how many of you have 
sleds?" Hands went up with a jerk all over the room. 
" Bring them this afternoon." A troop of happy boys 
burst out of the room with a whoop and hurrah, and not 
many were either tardy or without sleds at the afternoon 
session. The scholars, with their teacher, spent the after- 
noon coasting down what is now Laurel Hill, as destitute 
then of houses as Newton Hill is to-day. Mr. Hartwell 
remained with the school a short time. Before leaving he 
asked the boys to bring him all the peach stones they could 
gather, for which he paid a trifling sum. His mind was 
fixed on a nursery of a different character. He formed a 
stock company and started a nursery in Springfield, whither 
the peach stones were transported. The experiment proved 
disastrous financially. One of the stockholders, a well 
known dentist, whose office was in a two-story wooden 
building, which stood on the corner of Main and Sudbury 
streets, distrusted Mr. HartwelFs representation and made 
it so uncomfortable for him that he retired to Philadelphia 
and established himself as a landscape gardener. 

Mr. Hartwell was born in West Boylston, December 26, 
1814, the son of Edmund and Olive (Lovell). His youth 
was spent at home, and his education was obtained in the 
schools of his native town and at Phillips Andover Academy, 
where he was a teacher in the English Department in 
1841-42. One of the schools which he attended was taught 
by Mr. Charles Nash, a native of the town, who, for many 
years prior to his late decease at the age of eighty-one, 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 95 

was a resident of this city. He said that young Hartwell 
was his brightest scholar, and frequently assisted him in 
the recitations of the younger scholars. He married, May 
4, 1838, Margery A., the daughter of Andre and Sarah W. 
Taft of West Boylston. He taught school at East Douglas 
in this State in 1838. While in Worcester he lived at what 
is now Greendale, and on Main street opposite the Court 
House. His death occurred at New York City in Decem- 
ber, 1889. A widow and two sons survive him. 

An incident connected with the dentist's wife is worth 
relating. He owned a valuable horse which he rarely 
trusted to other hands. His wife wished to ride on a day 
when the Doctor was too busy to accompany her, and he 

sent his office student, afterwards Doctor N , in his 

place. All went well, till at the top of the hill on Lincoln 
street about opposite the Paine estate, the horse became 
unmanageable and ran furiously towards home. Lincoln 
square was safely passed, but on Main street against the 
store of Henry W. Miller many loads of wood, waiting to 
be measured, blocked the way, which was narrower than 
it is at present. One space between two loads was suffi- 
ciently wide to admit of a safe passage by careful driving. 
But the steering apparatus became tangled, there was a 
crash, the sleigh was overturned, the occupants were thrown 
out, the horse broke loose and speeded away up the street. 
The driver was hurled against a post and lay stunned; 
the Doctor's wife jumping up unharmed exclaimed, "Oh! 
what will the Doctor say! He sets his life by that horse!" 

Mr. Albion P. Peck was elected to the position of teacher 
of the Second Boys' School June 22, 1835. He was born 
July 7, 1817, at Milford in this State, the son of Gustavus 
Darling and Sally Perry (Day). She was the daughter of 
Elihu and Lydia Day. He was a distinguished physician, 
born in 1787 at Mendon and died at Northampton March 
21, 1875, where he practised extensively. He was de- 
scended, through Ebenezer, from John the first immigrant. 



96 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Albion P. married Sarah Ann Hibbin of Charleston, South 
Carolina, June 14, 1855, and died at Vineland, New Jersey, 
November 7, 1884, where he spent the last five years of 
his life. After leaving Worcester he resided in Northamp- 
ton, where he was highly honored. He held the office of 
Register of Probate for Hampshire County; was Trial 
Justice for many years, and was a well known writer on 
agricultural topics. He was treasurer of a Masonic Lodge 
and connected with the School Board of the town for a 
long time. He was musical in his tastes and had a great 
fondness for flowers. We can judge of his success as a 
teacher here only by the duration of his stay, which was 
till the coming of Mr. Austin G. Fitch in 1839. His widow 
survives him in Northampton. 

Mr. Austin G. Fitch taught the Second Boys' School in 
a highly commendatory manner for several years, having 
commenced in 1839. In 1841 the Committee say of him, 
"The master enters into the spirit of the profession to 
which he devotes himself for life. He magnifies his office 
while he acquires the love and respect of his pupils, the 
gratitude of their parents and the confidence of the Board. 
In this school as the teacher is able to give instruction in 
vocal music its influence upon the school has been tested 
and proves eminently pleasant and useful." In their re- 
port for 1843 the Board says, "Mr. Fitch still continues 
his labors. Progress meets with the approbation of the 
Board. The course of instruction is such as to impart first 
principles. A great amount of miscellaneous instruction is 
given. Regular exercises are interspersed with exercises in 
music, and its usual good effect on temper, manners and 
moral character is manifest. He has acquired a high repu- 
tation as a teacher." Those schools which were not so 
fortunate as to have musical teachers were instructed in 
song by Mr. Emory Perry, a celebrated teacher in his day. 

Mr. Fitch was descended from Ezra and Sarah Green of 
Guilford, Vermont; he was a brother of Dana K., a long 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 97 

time resident of this town, whose house was on the south 
side of Park street opposite Salem square. Dana K.'s 
widow and daughter are living on Elm street. Another 
brother was Ezra, who married for his second wife Miss 
Wilhelmina Vagt, pleasantly remembered as a teacher of 
German, her native language. She is living at Duxbury 
with her daughter Mrs. Magee, the wife of the manufacturer 
of furnaces and ranges. A sister of Mr. Fitch was the wife 
of Rev. and Hon. Rodolphus B. Hubbard. Mr. Fitch lived 
on the site of, or very near to, the house built and occupied 
by Horatio N. Tower, now the residence of Doctor Albert 
Wood, at the corner of Pleasant and Chestnut streets. 
Pliny Merrick deeded to Mr. Fitch, January 12, 1842, a 
lot of land fronting on Pleasant street and bounded on the 
east by John W. Stiles, and on the rear by Francis H. 
Kinnicutt. Chestnut street was laid out in its extension 
from Elm to Pleasant street February 26, 1849. 

Mr. Fitch was born in 1813 and spent the early years 
of his life on a farm. He attempted a college course, but 
was obliged to give it up on account of hemorrhage of the 
lungs. He was married by Rev. Elam Smalley of Worces- 
ter, September 24, 1840, to Mary Charlotte March, daughter 
of Jacob and Mary LeBaron (Monroe) of Sutton in this 
State ; she was descended through six generations from Hugh 
of Newbury, who came here early in the existence of that 
town. He was engaged in teaching before he came to 
Worcester. His connection with the Second Boys' School 
was from 1839 to 1844 or '45. On closing his service with 
the school he purchased a farm at Quinsigamond, which 
comprised that part of the village on the right side of the 
road after crossing the railroad track, now covered with 
houses. The farm house, still standing, is the first one on 
the right. When he sold his farm he went to Springvale, 
in the State of Maine, and engaged in milling. Leaving 
there after a few years he returned to farming and located 
in Holliston in this State. Remaining there several years 



98 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

he settled at Watertown, near Boston, where he died in 
July, 1891. He claimed to be the first to introduce music 
and map drawing to the Worcester schools. His interest 
in the use of the violin as an accompaniment to vocal 
music continued to the close of life. 

Mr. Thurber's life and characteristics as a teacher have 
been so fully and scholarly brought out in a paper prepared 
by President Thomas Chase of Haverford College and read 
at the first anniversary of the Worcester High School in 
1887, that it would ill become me to do more than record 
a few leading incidents connected with him. He was born 
in Brookfield in this State, January 2, 1803, son of Rev. 
Laban and Abigail (Thayer) Thurber. Laban was a de- 
scendant of James of Rehoboth, Mass. Abigail was the 
daughter of Lieut. Elias Thayer of Bellingham. He was 
graduated from Brown University in the class of 1827, the 
first under the Presidency of Dr. Francis Wayland. Gov. 
John H. Clifford of this State was a classmate of his. The 
next succeeding three or four years he was principal of the 
Academy at Milford, after which he came to Worcester 
and was at the head of the Latin Grammar School, where 
he remained till his resignation in June, 1839. His expe- 
rience in successfully teaching the young idea how to shoot 
admirably fitted him to unite with Mr. Ethan Allen in the 
manufacture of pistols. Their factory on the corner of 
Union and Exchange streets was destroyed in the great 
fire of 1854. Afterward the firm located its business at 
the southern end of the city. He served as County Com- 
missioner for this County, was a member of the State Senate 
in 1852-53 and in 1858 was elected one of the Trustees 
of his Alma Mater. He was in business at Norwich, Con- 
necticut, before 1847, and the last years of his life were 
spent in Brooklyn, New York, and Germantown, Penn- 
sylvania. He married, in 1827, Lucinda Allen of Belling- 
ham, a sister of Mr. Ethan Allen, who died in 1852; he 
married a second time Caroline E. (Esty) Bennett, the 






Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 99 

daughter of Mr. James Esty of Nashua, New Hampshire. 
His death occurred at Nashua, November 7, 1886. To 
quote a few words from President Chase: "He had an 
active, vigorous mind and ample knowledge. He was never 
the hated master; he had the capital merit of interesting 
his pupils. The discipline of the school was excellent and 
easily maintained; he used, in one or two instances, the 
form of corporal punishment common in that day, when 
the rawhide was the most indispensible article of a teacher's 
apparatus; but he governed by love and inspiring in- 
fluences, not by fear. After retiring from business he led 
the life of a gentleman and a scholar. His genial disposi- 
tion and his admirable humor made him a delightful com- 
panion. He had a happy faculty of versification, and wrote 
several poems." A poem with which he bade adieu to his 
school in Worcester is still extant. It was headed: — 

THE FAREWELL. 

Haec * * * digressu dicta suprema 

Fundebat. — Virgil. 

Supremumque vale * * * dixit. — Ovid. 

One stanza of eight is as follows: 

" Press on to distinction with ardor, 

When obstacles round you are cast. 
O faint not, but labor the harder, 

And all will be conquer'd at last. 
Each conquest o'er hardships and troubles, 

Will add to your strength every hour, 
Till sterner ones vanish like bubbles, 

At the sway of your skill and your power." 

While teaching he lived in a brick house on Central 
street. Subsequently, or after his return from Norwich, 
his residence in Worcester was at the corner of Main and 
Madison streets, in the house built by Gov. A. H. Bullock, 
which he purchased June 20, 1847. It is now occupied by 
the Lapham family. A daughter, Mrs. Marion Thurber 
Bird, is living in Medford in this State. 



100 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

The following account of Mr. Thurber's discipline is re- 
lated by one of the participants of it. Some misdemeanor 
had been traced to two of the boys, who were told to come 
in the afternoon and receive a cowhiding. They came 
well padded with three or four suits of clothes. They were 
called out on the floor, Mr. Thurber, cowhide in hand, 
stepped from his desk to administer the whipping. He 
looked at them a moment, then bursting into a hearty 
laugh, told them to take their seats. It was a hot after- 
noon in summer, and the warming they would have re- 
ceived from the cowhide was as nothing compared to the 
heat they endured for three long hours. 

The boy, in this account of a modern punishment, prob- 
ably had heard of the foregoing story and prepared himself 
accordingly. The incident was related by Mr. C. C. Wood- 
man, the genial head master of the Ledge street school. 
Mr. Woodman was not a light weight, but could easily 
tip the scales at two hundred and fifty pounds. The full 
force of a punishment from him would almost annihilate 
a small boy. However, his great size was only a measure 
of his gentleness and kindness. He made it a rule never 
to punish the same day that an offence was committed, 
thus guarding against any allegation of passion. A boy 
was told one day that he would be punished for disobedi- 
ence on the following day. Accordingly he was taken into 
a spare room, but the whipping did not produce the usual 
effect. Although the down strokes were heavier than the 
up strokes, the boy did not seem to be hurt much. Mr. 
Woodman was puzzled, and decided to make an examina- 
tion, which soon resulted in drawing from the rear of the 
boy's trousers a pair of his father's heavy buckskin mittens, 
which he had ingeniously placed over the seat of his affec- 
tions. Impending danger calls forth devices for avoiding 
or mitigating it, even in the young. 

Mr. Thurber was succeeded by Mr. James Sullivan 
Russell of Lowell, who remained about six months and 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 101 

resigned the position. He himself says of his coming to 
Worcester: "This was an unfortunate move; for my 
limited study of the classics rendered my labor too arduous 
and too unsatisfactory. I resigned at the end of six 
months." The Committee in their report for 1840 said 
that the school had engaged much of the attention of the 
whole Committee and was an object of their greatest solici- 
tude. A successor to Mr. Thurber was elected, who came 
with high claims to their entire confidence, if such confi- 
dence could ever be justified by a multitude of highly 
flattering testimonials of character, experience and success, 
as a teacher, from many well known and very respectable 
gentlemen in different parts of the country; but at the 
commencement of the year, in consequence of the inability 
of the teacher the school was in a low state of discipline and 
improvement, and habits of inattention, idleness and in- 
subordination prevailed. Therefore they considered the 
town fortunate in having obtained the services of the 
present able instructor, Mr. John Wright, a gentleman well 
known to the town as an estimable citizen and to some 
of the Committee as a much valued instructor of a high 
female school in this village. They perceived a constant 
and steady improvement and an approach to its condition 
in its more palmy days. They further said, "The annual 
examination furnished good evidence of order, diligence and 
progress in study and gave cheering promise of future re- 
spectability." " It is a prevailing notion that any man who 
can wield a ferule, and read correctly and write legibly, 
whatever be his character and habits, is a competent 
teacher. But no notion is more false." In their report for 
1841 the Committee say, "The character of the reports of 
the Latin Grammar School has been satisfactory. Mr. 
Wright has been a faithful and accurate instructor. He 
received the appointment for a limited time and his resig- 
nation has been accepted." On leaving the school he 

removed to Lowell and became connected with one of that 
8 



102 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

city's mills, either as superintendent or treasurer. When 
steam for heating was introduced at the Lunatic Asylum 
he was consulted by Doctor Bemis, Superintendent of the 
Institution, on the recommendation of the Board of Trus- 
tees, in the installation of the system. " Johnny" Wright, 
as he was familiarly called by the boys, lived in the north 
tenement of Mr. Salisbury's block on Main street, which 
is now occupied by a branch of the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association. Subsequently Mr. Elisha Fuller, a lawyer, 
whose office was in the Central Exchange building, dwelt 
there. His daughters Sarah and Susie married, one a Mr. 
Colby, the other Doctor Hawes, who adorned and beauti- 
fied the grounds afterwards owned and occupied by the 
late Mr. Charles Baker. 

Mr. Russell was born in Carlisle in this State, March 23, 
1807, and died in Lowell, March 14, 1903. He married 
in July, 1865, Elizabeth Chapin, daughter of James and 
Mary (Chapin) Bartlett of Granby in this State. The first 
fifteen years of his life were spent on the homestead farm 
in Carlisle. In 1827 he was teaching in Newton. He attend- 
ed school in Worcester a part of the year 1828. During 
the winter of 1828-29 he taught a school at Quinsigamond 
Village. From March, 1829, to 1830 he was at the McLean 
Asylum in Charlestown. He was teaching at Hingham and 
Lexington; studied during the summers of 1832 and '33 
at Warren Academy, Woburn. In 1833 he was entered at 
Brown University, but left at the close of the term through 
lack of funds. He taught at Arlington a short time, after 
which he was assistant teacher in the Lowell High School 
till 1839, when he came to Worcester, as heretofore stated. 
For four months he was in the Normal School at Barre, 
whence he returned to the High School at Lowell, where 
he remained till the close of 1879. His whole term of 
teaching comprised fifty years, of which forty-three were 
spent in Lowell as instructor in mathematics. In 1840 he 
wrote "Russell's Rational Arithmetic." The first immigrant 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 103 

was William, who was found in Cambridge in 1640. It 
is thought that the family descended from the Rosels, 
Rosselins, etc., of England. Mr. George W. Russell, a 
highly esteemed manufacturer of carriages in this city, was 
his brother. 

Mr. Caleb B. Metcalf commenced teaching in the Thomas 
street schoolhouse in April, 1846. He witnessed the demo- 
lition of the old and poorly adapted, yet time honored, 
building, and the erection of the new, commodious and well 
arranged one, in which he held sway as head master till 
1856, when he resigned his position and established the 
well known Highland Military School, which reached a 
high degree of perfection under his administration. Several 
of its graduates did good service as officers in the War of 
the Rebellion. The sight of a full company of Highland 
Cadets marching with a step like veterans up Main street 
to the Common, and afterwards going through their mili- 
tary drill, was anticipated by crowds of people, who greeted 
them with hearty cheers. Mr. Metcalf was a good or- 
ganizer, a rigid disciplinarian and a successful instructor. 

The Latin Grammar School came to an end practically 
with the administration of Mr. Rodolphus Baker Hubbard, 
whose term of teaching began in May, 1842, and closed 
in December, 1844, when he resigned for private reasons, 
his instruction having been " entirely to the satisfaction 
of the Committee/' It will not be too much to say that 
he was not, as a teacher, inferior to any of his predecessors. 
In the report of the School Committee made April 3, 1843, 
it says, "This school has been taught by Mr. R. B. Hubbard, 
formerly of Northampton. He commenced his labors in 
May last. The Committee have great pleasure in saying 
that this school, since it came under the charge of Mr. 
Hubbard, has been all that they could reasonably desire. 
The teacher brought with him a high reputation for success 
in teaching, and the practical lessons gathered from years 
of instruction; and he began his labors here with high 



104 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

hopes on the part of the friends of the school that he would 
make the school what it ought to be. It is but simple 
justice to say that those hopes have been realized. The 
school has very quietly been reduced to order. A judicious 
system of study and instruction has been introduced and 
very successfully carried out. The course of teaching pur- 
sued by Mr. Hubbard is remarkable for its thoroughness, 
for its inculcation of first principles and the prompt appli- 
cation of those principles to practical results. His whole 
management has been such as to obtain the entire appro- 
bation of the Committee. They believe that he has ad- 
mirable qualifications for that station, and that the school 
under his management will be an honor to the town and 
a means of incalculable good to the youth who enjoy its 
instructions. No young man in this place will now feel 
a necessity of resorting to any academy for the purpose of 
a thorough preparation to enter any college in our land. 
That preparation may be obtained at home. The Com- 
mittee feel that the town was fortunate to secure the 
services of such a teacher and that it will be wisdom to 
retain him as long as possible." 

The great solicitude of the Committee alluded to in their 
report of 1840, seems to have produced a rich fruitage. 
* * * "The Committee would say in this connection that 
they deem it highly important that this school be furnished 
with apparatus to illustrate Natural Philosophy, Chemis- 
try and Astronomy. They would cordially recommend the 
appropriation of at least $100 the present year to procure 
the means especially of illustrating Chemical science." 

In their report for the year 1843 the Committee say, 
"This school has been taught the year past by Mr. R. B. 
Hubbard with signal ability and success, .... it is the 
opinion of the Board that it has never been more successfully 
taught ; the discipline of the school has been excellent and 
the progress of the scholars good; the studies pursued in 
this school have been taught in the most thorough manner, 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 105 

more so perhaps than has been done by any former teacher. 
The charge of purchasing apparatus for this school, under 
a vote of the town making an appropriation for that 
purpose, and the sum allowed, was expended under the 
charge of a committee appointed for that purpose; it is 
proper for the committee to state that they were enabled 
very much to enlarge the amount of apparatus through 
the liberality of Mr. Hubbard, teacher of the Latin Gram- 
mar School, in placing at their disposal the sum of fifty 
dollars. This very seasonable gratuity relieved the com- 
mittee of the embarrassment of being restricted to the 
purchase of a very small number of instruments, or of 
obtaining those of inferior value, and they would avail 
themselves of this opportunity to make their acknowledg- 
ments to Mr. Hubbard for his generous donation." In 
respect of an examination of the school, the Committee 
speak "of the very thorough mode of instruction by which 
they (the scholars) had been disciplined." Lest the reports 
of the School Committee, from which extracts in this paper 
have been drawn, may appear to be partial, indiscriminate 
and lavish of praise beyond what was due, the mention of 
their names will immediately dispel all doubt of that na- 
ture. They were the most honorable and highly esteemed 
and thoroughly trusted and best educated citizens of the 
town: Samuel M. Burnside, Alfred D. Foster, Rev. Elam 
Smalley, Rev. Seth Sweetser, Edwin Conant, Albert Tol- 
man, Maturin L. Fisher, Thomas Kinnicutt, Doctor William 
Workman, Rev. S. B. Swaim, Rev. George P. Smith, Charles 
White, Alexander H. Bullock, George Jaques and many 
others. 

Appended to this report is a list of the apparatus pur- 
chased. Additions to these were made soon thereafter by 
the generous gift of $750 from Mr. Stephen Salisbury, and 
the proceeds of lectures given by Mr. Elbridge G. Smith of 
the High School, amounting to $680. In December, 1846, 
Mr. Smith advertises to give eight lectures on Natural Phi- 



106 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

losophy, etc., illustrated with air pump, electrical machine, 
etc., in the Upper Town Hall, the proceeds of which are 
for the purchase of additional apparatus for the use of the 
High School. Tickets for the course fifty cents, single 
tickets, twelve and one-half cents. A considerable part of 
this apparatus can be seen to-day in the High School build- 
ing. As an illustration of the complete ignorance of the 
qualities of electricity, and the total failure to anticipate 
its capabilities at that time, this incident is recalled. Mr. 
Nelson Wheeler, the successor of Mr. Smith as Principal 
of the High School, was illustrating a lesson in natural 
philosophy by means of a toy engine which he had set in 
motion with an electrical current. He remarked that in 
all probability that was about the extent to which elec- 
tricity could be applied as a motive power. We of today 
living in the midst of as yet only partially developed ex- 
hibitions of the mightiest force discovered by man, may 
smile at that expression. But let us remember that a 
little earlier in the century scientific men had declared with 
emphasis that steam could never be made to draw loaded 
wagons. The homely utterance of a countryman is in 
point here. He had come to town to see a machine which, 
it was reported, was to draw some cars over the road. 
After looking at it a short time he said, "I snum, it can't 
do it." Just then the bell clanged, the wheezy engine gave 
a puff, the wheels began to turn slowly, the train moved, 
the motion gradually increased and off the train went out 
of sight. The disconcerted beholder turned away without 
being convinced and ejaculated " Waal, it'll never git back. 7 ' 
In his teaching Mr. Hubbard never fell into ruts. He 
was not confined to text books. He endeavored to broaden 
the minds of his pupils by setting before them the knowl- 
edge of things about them. He occasionally laid aside the 
usual exercises and told the boys how their bodies were 
constructed; he wrote down on the blackboard the names 
and locations of the bones and muscles, the arteries and 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 107 

the veins. A little paper-covered book of home construc- 
tion, containing lists of these names, is among my boyish 
recollections. 

Mr. Hubbard was a thorough scholar, a clear thinker and 
reasoner, a good disciplinarian and a model teacher for 
those times. He drilled his scholars in the rudiments and 
laid permanent foundations. His instruction in the "Latin 
Lessons," with its simple sentences, and the "Latin Reader/' 
with its history of Joseph, served a good turn a dozen 
years afterwards, and satisfied that accurate classical schol- 
ar, Mr. Nelson Wheeler, when the study of that language 
was again resumed by me. The rules beginning, "The 
following words, a, ab, or abs, absque, coram" and ending 
"palam, proe, pro, sine and tenus govern the ablative/' and 
\ ' The following, ad, adversus or adversum, ante, apud, circa 
or circum, circiter, etc., govern the accusative" were nails 
fastened in a sure place. 

A teacher in those days was not expected to be in his 
place before the school hour, neither was he supposed to 
remain after the close of the school, unless he chose to 
punish himself by keeping company with some negligent 
boy. The following is one of the rules made by the School 
Board. " A bell shall be rung fifteen minutes before the 
hour of commencement. The session shall continue three 
hours. The door of the schoolroom shall be shut five 
minutes after the close of the school." 

It became an unwritten rule that if a teacher failed to 
appear five minutes after the time for the session to begin 
there would be no school. When the bell struck nine, 
for instance, and no teacher appeared, one boy was set to 
watch the clock, another took his station where the whole 
length of Thomas street could be seen. As the minute 
hand of the clock approached the figure 1 on the dial 
every boy was on tip toe with hope. Sometimes even a 
trifle before the allotted time had elapsed suddenly there 
would be a vacant room and an empty yard to await the 



108 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

teacher's arrival. Should the teacher arrive just before the 
five minutes had sped, all bright anticipations would be 
dispelled and the disappointed boys would reluctantly take 
their seats. I have no recollection that the clock was ever 
tampered with. Sickness of a teacher gave another oppor- 
tunity for a holiday. 

Flogging was the usual remedial method of discipline. 
It was almost universally practised, and it seems to have 
been acquiesced in by the Committee. The word now-a- 
days seems incongruous in connection with school govern- 
ment. The rod may not be used enough now, but its un- 
restricted use then tended to harden the scholar and brutalize 
his feelings. It was applied in the presence of the whole 
school, as a warning, no doubt, to transgressors. The 
cowhide was an instrument of torture reserved for extreme 
cases. It was made of a strip of green cowhide four feet 
long, an inch wide at one end and tapered to a point at 
the other end. It was twisted as hard as possible, while 
still green, and left to dry. Though not always kept con- 
spicuously in sight, it was well known to be within easy 

reach. There was one boy, N by name, who loved to 

play truant better than he did to study. On his return 
to school, after one of his absences, without any parental 
"excuse," and unable to give any suitable explanation, 
punishment followed. The performance took place in the 
space in front of the rows of seats, the stove being on one 
side and the teacher's desk on the other. As the blows 
fell swift and heavy the arena was hardly sufficient for the 
flying legs and arms and gyrations of the actors as each 
strove, the one to lay on the cowhide and the other to 
avoid it, while howls, cries, promises and supplications filled 
the room with their utterance. The scene closed when the 
combatants could perform no longer. One can scarcely 
imagine the state of mind of teacher, victim and scholars 
during the remainder of the session. The same boy would 
most solemnly promise never, never to run away again as 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 109 

long as he lived, but in a week or two he would be off, and 
on his return a similar scene would be repeated. 

Mr. Hubbard was born in Sunderland, a small and beau- 
tiful town on the banks of the Connecticut River, in this 
State, September 3, 1803; was married, April 28, 1832, to 
Mary Elizabeth Fitch, a sister of those of that name already 
mentioned, and died September 29, 1875, by accidental 
drowning near San Francisco, California. He was descen- 
ded from John, the eldest son of George and Mary (Bishop) 
of England. John was born in 1630 and came to this 
country in 1633 and remained in Concord for a short time. 

He fitted for college at Amherst Academy; he pursued 
his college course at Amherst during the years 1825 and 
1827, and at Union in 1827 and 1829. He received the 
usual degrees from Amherst. He studied theology with 
Rev. Nathan Perkins of East Amherst, and preached at 
Northampton, South Deerfield, Leverett and Hatfield, with- 
out a settlement at either place. He was Principal of the 
Academy at Kingston, N. Y., and of Mount Pleasant In- 
stitute at Amherst several years. He taught in Northamp- 
ton a number of years before he came to Worcester. On 
leaving the Latin Grammar School he became the candidate 
of the Liberty Party for Representative in Congress for 
this District, but failed of an election. From January, 
1845, to December, 1845, he was editor of the Worcester 
County Gazette, an anti-slavery paper published in this town 
in the interests of the Liberty Party. He was also President 
of the Worcester County Teachers' Association during the 
years 1845 and '46; President of the celebration of the 
11th Anniversary of the Emancipation of 800,000 slaves 
in the British Colonies, August 1, 1845; President of a 
Convention of the Liberty Party, October 22, 1845. 

The Gazette was published by James L. Estey, recently 
deceased, and Dudley C. Evans, in Paine's new block at 
the corner of Main and Pleasant streets. Let us stop a 
moment on this busiest corner of the city, where thousands 



110 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

of persons pass to and fro over its crowded walks, and re- 
store its surroundings as they were sixty years ago. The 
unpretentious house of Judge Nathaniel Paine, removed in 
1844 and now located on Salem street, stands back from 
the corner, with its garden of shrubs and flowers, and a 
large mulberry tree, from whose sweeping branches hanging 
over Pleasant street, drops the large, black, luscious fruit, 
eagerly caught up by the watching boys, shades the house 
and grounds. Across Pleasant street is the plain square 
house of Rev. Isaac Burr, afterwards removed to Black- 
stone street, the second minister of the town, who was 
settled in 1725 and dispensed the Word for twenty years. 
After him John Nazro dwelt on the corner. Later, a little 
farther south, rises the stately, pillared house of Levi A. 
Dowley, with its prominent observatory, which passed into 
the possession of Mr. Ethan Allen, who converted its garden 
in front, with its fountain and basin, walks and flowers, 
into the prettiest spot on the street. The house, crowded 
out by business needs, journeyed later southward and 
found a resting place near the corner of Main and Piedmont 
streets, the home of Mr. Ransom C. Taylor. Looking 
across Main street there meets our view the long, low 
wooden building called "The Compound," used for stores, 
whose elevated entrances are reached by wooden steps run- 
ning along its entire front. At the corner is the familiar 
apothecary shop of Deacon John Coe, whose home is on 
Portland street, adjoining and north of Sheriff Calvin Wil- 
lard's. Main street bears more to the northwest than it 
does to-day, and the United States Hotel, standing on the 
site of Walker's block, seems to protrude into it so far that 
the passer-by will naturally walk into its side entrance. 
Passing round the corner on Front street in the basement 
of the Compound is the tin shop of Caleb Newcomb. A 
short distance eastward, across the track of the Norwich 
and Worcester Railroad, is the handsome residence of Mr. 
Rejoice Newton, who subsequently erected the three-story 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. Ill 

double brick house at the corner of State street; it was 
the first swelled front building put up in Worcester. The 
Front street house made an imposing appearance with its 
large and tall pillars extending above the second story. 
After Mr. Newton moved to his new house, it became the 
residence of Mr. Osgood Bradley, the extensive manufac- 
turer of passenger and freight cars at Washington square; 
the Bradley Car Manufactory is now conducted by his son. 
Turning our eyes to the right we see the Common with 
the travelled way running diagonally across it, and the 
Town Hall in the nearest corner. This brick building, 
erected in 1825 and altered in 1841 and 1848, is the gather- 
ing place of the citizens of the town. Here the Free Soil 
Party came into being June 21, 1848, under the inspiring 
leadership of Hon. Charles Allen and his brother Rev. 
George Allen, the author of the following, " Resolved, that 
Massachusetts wears no chains and spurns all bribes; that 
Massachusetts goes now, and will ever go for free soil and 
free men, for free lips and a free press, for a free land and 
a free world." 

How vividly the scenes of that meeting rise before me. 
In my eighteenth year then I was more of a politician than 
I have been since. The stirring events of those days were 
enough to quicken the pulse of every right-minded person, 
either young or old. Seated in the front row of the east 
gallery, the body of the hall was seen densely packed with 
citizens. On the platform, at the right side of the floor, 
stood Hon. Charles Allen, Representative in Congress, just 
back from the Philadelphia Convention; a sparely built 
man, erect, nervous, with dark hair, eyes covered with 
gold-bowed spectacles, and, when excited, that peculiar 
catching of the end of his nose between his thumb and 
forefinger for an instant. In the midst of an impassioned 
address describing the truculency of the party, with which 
he had long been connected, to the slave oligarchy, there 
rang out that never to be forgotten declaration/ 'The Whig 



112 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Party is Dead." Wild with excitement the people rose 
to their feet, waved their hats, flung them into the air and 
filled the building with shouts and huzzahs. 

One other assembly in the old hall is deeply inpressed 
on my memory. It was on the occasion of the passage of 
the "Fugitive Slave Law." The hall was filled to the 
utmost capacity with all classes of citizens, indignant at 
the attempt of the slave power to make Massachusetts a 
hunting ground for runaway slaves, and to compel them 
to become the hunters. Some of the most honored men 
in the community were seated on the platform, among them 
Mr. William H. Jankins, a highly esteemed and respectable 
negro, who had made the town his home for many years 
after his escape from slavery. There was much earnest 
talk and pledges were made that no slave should be taken 
from the soil of Worcester. Mr. Jankins was asked to 
speak and in a few words said that he would never be 
carried out of Worcester alive; he was prepared to defend 
himself; he cautioned anyone not to come up behind him 
suddenly and place a hand on his shoulder, since he would 
not be responsible for the consequences. When he sat down 
he was assured by many persons that they were ready to 
stand by him. 

Returning from this digression, Mr. Hubbard in 1848, 
represented the town of Sunderland in the State Legisla- 
ture. He associated with Horace Mann in holding Teachers' 
Institutes. In 1851 and 1852 he was a member of the 
Governor's Council. From 1851 till his death he was a 
member of the Board of Trustees of Williston Seminary. 
During the years 1855 to 1868 he established and main- 
tained a boys' family school at Amherst. The last years 
of his life he was engaged in farming at Amherst. The 
agricultural and horticultural interests of the western part 
of the State had his intelligent support. His busy life, 
however, was largely devoted to the education of boys. 
All educational matters claimed his sympathy and co-opera- 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 113 

tion. His mind was well stored with practical information. 
The woes of the slave found in him a ready helper with 
voice and pen. He was a consistent anti-slavery man. I 
recall a meal at his table when he entertained a negro with 
the courtesy and consideration he would have given to the 
governor of the State. He was no respecter of persons. 
In a letter addressed to the Chairman of the Liberty Party 
in 1847 he writes, "Of the distinctions which are current 
among men I know of none which a good man should 
court more than to be denominated a friend of humanity — 
a lover of his kind — a practical doer of the great law of 
Love." The temperance question engaged his earnest 
thought and effort. He was a sincere Christian and loyal 
to his church. While in Worcester he was both a teacher 
in, and superintendent of, the Sabbath school. His con- 
versational powers were the charm of his private life, and 
his wide reading and varied experience and extensive ac- 
quaintance with men and affairs, seasoned with a quiet 
humor, drew around him willing listeners. 

In person Mr. Hubbard was tall and spare, with a slight 
stoop of the shoulders; he walked with a rapid, hurried 
gait, every moment was valuable time; his hair was black, 
complexion slightly dark and his eyes were shaded by 
gold-bowed spectacles. 

July 4, 1842, Mr. Hubbard purchased of Mr. Austin G. 
Fitch, his brother-in-law, a lot of land on the south side 
of Pleasant street, whereon he erected a dwelling-house, 
which he occupied while he remained in Worcester. It 
was the identical lot now covered by All Saints Church. 
On the lower corner at Pleasant street grew a large shag- 
bark tree. His friends asked him why he built so far out 
of town. He replied that the town would soon come to 
him. There were then no houses westward from about the 
place where the Universalist Meeting House stands to the 
place where Piedmont street now joins Pleasant. At that 
point was a house owned by Mr. William Dickinson, who 



114 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

could often be seen walking that way, wrapped in a long 
flowing cloak dangling about his heels. The cloak was the 
fashion of the time. Mr. Hubbard's place was afterwards 
owned and occupied by Thomas Earle, whose Quaker 
principles did not deter him from taking up arms in his 
country's cause and bearing his share in putting down the 
most monstrous rebellion that ever existed. Mr. Earle 
added a tower to the house, which was moved later, and 
now stands on the same street between Merrick and Rus- 
sell streets. 

To speak in detail of the boys of those days demands 
a more facile pen than mine. Most of them have gone 
to another school. It may be that both teacher and scholar 
are sitting together at the feet of, and learning from the 
lips of, the Great Teacher. A few remain, scattered over 
the wide expanse of this great continent, learners still in 
the school of life; some of whom, with whitening heads, 
yet erect form, elastic step and unimpaired strength, are 
performing their part nobly in the great drama of life. 
To such let me heartily and gratefully say, " Serus in 
caelum redeas." 

Those boys were bright, active and generally well be- 
haved. They loved study, they loved fun also. Not all 
were saints or candidates for sainthood. Of the numerous 
tricks and pranks played few were harmful; they were 
only the effervescence of bottled-up fun. An incident which 
afforded much amusement at the time, though it showed 
some lack of gallantry, is recalled. Near the schoolhouse 
there lived a well known and respected citizen, who had 
three daughters, mere children, whose minds had become 
filled with the marvels of a story about some children in 
the woods. So alluring were its wonders to their young 
imaginations that they determined to taste its delights. 
Packing up a small bundle of clothing and food, which 
was slyly thrown out of a window, they started to find 
the woods. Their way took them to the southerly end of 



Reminiscences of Thomas Street Schools. 115 

North Pond, probably through what is now Forest street. 
Nearly opposite the present icehouse they turned up the 
hill-side, the top of which was wooded. A farmer, whose 
house they passed as they trudged along, recognized them 
and followed their steps. He soon learned their story and 
returned them to their home. The affair speedily reached 
the ears of the boys, who, upon every appearance of the 
children, shouted, ''Children in the bears! Woods eat 'em 
up!" " Children in the bears! Woods eat 'em up!" 

The last one of several speakers, who were to deliver 
addresses at an evening meeting, began his speech with, 
" Every kite must have a tail!" This is the tale to mine. 

A distinguished professor of chemistry in one of the New 
England colleges was lecturing on the anatomy of birds, 
which branch of study was included in his department. 
To illustrate his subject he had before him the skeleton of 
a large bird mounted on a stand. Occasionally he called 
on members of the class to point out the different parts 
of which he had spoken. He was a perfect gentleman in 
all his intercourse with the students and loved a joke — 
what college professor ever lived who did not? — but he had 
no patience with dunces. In the course of his lecture he 
called up one of those happy-go-lucky fellows, who depend 
on either their wits or their money to carry them through 
not only college, but also life, and said to him with one 
of his bland smiles, "You may point out the sternum." 
The follow was better acquainted with the nomenclature of 
a boat than of a bird. Concluding that similarity of sound 
indicated similarity of position, and failing to get any assist- 
ance, he dashed the pointer towards that part of the bird 
which goes over the fence last. The roar of laughter which 
followed assured him that he had made a hit, while he 
heard the professor's sarcastic " That'll do! The next!!" 

Note. — I am indebted to Mr. Edmund M. Barton, Mr. Frederick G. 
Stiles, Mr. Charles A. Chase, Mr. James B. Russell, Mrs. Lewis T. Lazell, 



116 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Mrs. Albion P. Peck, Mrs. Marion Thurber Bird and Miss Mary M. 
Fitch for valuable assistance in the preparation of this paper, h. m. w. 

The remarks that followed were made by Mr. Charles A. 
Chase, Nathaniel Paine, Esq., and Edmund M. Barton, Esq., 
Librarian of the American Antiquarian Society. The latter 
stated that the records of the Thomas Street School had 
been deposited by Mr. C. B. Metcalf with the American 
Antiquarian Society, where they could be consulted should 
anyone desire to do so. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-FIRST MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, APRIL 7, 1903. 



Peesident Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
H. L. Adams, Arnold, C. C. Baldwin, Brannon, Bill, A. 
G. Bullock, C. A. Chase, Crane, Davidson, Darling, Eaton, 
W. T. Forbes, Harrington, M. A. Maynard, Geo. Maynard, 
H. G. Otis, Paine, G. M. Rice, Stiles, Salisbury, C. E. Staples, 
Williamson, D. B. Williams, Mrs. Brannon, Mrs. C. C. 
Baldwin, Mrs. A. G. Bullock, Mrs. Boland, Mrs. Bennett, 
Mrs. Darling, Mrs. W. T. Forbes, Mrs. Daniel Kent, Mrs. 
Moore, Mrs. Waldo Lincoln, Miss M. Agnes Waite, E. M. 
Barton, C. H. Burleigh, S. C. Earle, Waldo Lincoln, A. J. 
Marble and others. 

The Librarian reported additions during the past month : 
one hundred and twenty-seven bound volumes, sixty-eight 
pamphlets and fourteen papers. Special mention was 
made of the contribution of G. Stuart Dickinson, which 
included fifty-seven bound volumes and forty pamphlets; 
also that of Mr. Wm. A. Farnsworth, of twenty-three bound 
volumes, twenty-three pamphlets and eight papers. 

The Standing Committee on Nominations presented the 
names of the following persons and they were elected to 
active membership: Nelson Adams, Robert Pegram Esty, 
Edward Tuckerman Esty, Frank A. Marston, Mrs. H. H. 
Bigelow and Duane B. Williams. 

The names of the following persons were presented for 
membership and referred to the Standing Committee on 
Nominations: Arthur J. Marble, Col. E. J. Russell, Charles 
E. Parker, C. H. Burleigh, Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Marble. 



118 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

The question of the annual excursion was presented 
by Mr. Geo. M. Rice, and on motion of Mrs. Kent the 
President appointed Hon. Ledyard Bill, M. A. Maynard, 
Frank E. Williamson and Charles F. Darling a committee 
to investigate and report at the next meeting of the Society. 

Mr. Arthur J. Marble was then introduced and read a 
paper on 

THE OLD PINE MEADOW ROAD AND ITS FOR^ 
GOTTEN BRIDGE. 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Worcester Society of Antiquity 
and Invited Guests: 

Our story to-night is of an old and, for a section of it, 
an almost forgotten highway, and an old bridge, that, 
for a few years, connected the two parts that were divided 
by the first iron highway that entered the town of Worcester, 
the old Boston and Worcester Railroad ; a town road which 
has been discontinued over fifty years, but which, in the 
early days of the town of Worcester, was the main and 
almost the only thoroughfare by which many of the settlers 
of the eastern part of the town, south of what is now called 
Belmont street, came to the village of Worcester, to town 
meeting, to the training field, and meeting-house of the 
First Parish. All the travel that now comes to the heart 
of the city over the Bloomingdale road and Shrewsbury 
street, until 1828 came over this road, and then a large 
part of it, until 1850. 

It is true that two sections of this road now exist, but 
under other names which in no way recall the old name, 
the name by which it was officially designated when a 
part of it was discontinued. 

This name was in the county commissioners' decree of 
1849 "Pine Meadow Road." Three years later, in 1852, 
Gill Valentine was town surveyor for Worcester (in those 
days, they had no city engineer, and I suppose no use for 



The Old Pine Meadow Road. 119 

one); Gill Valentine says, "It has been a public highway 
for many years, but when it was first laid out is not 
known." 

Gill Valentine called it "Pine Court," but it could not 
have kept that name long, since for over thirty years, it 
has been known as East Worcester street, and on it was 
the old Pine Meadow burial-ground, which was removed 
many years ago. The eastern half or part of the Old Pine 
Meadow Road was united in 1849 with the Bloomingdale 
road and thereafter known by that name. Of the discon- 
tinued part, I will speak more after reviewing the early 
history of the road when first laid out. 

A search of the early records of the town of Worcester 
shows this old Pine Meadow road to be one of the first 
roads laid out by the town. 

Early Records of Worcester, 
Book 1, Page 25. 
"At a meeting of ye selectmen of Worcester March 24th 
1724 at ye request of James Taylor, Moses Lenard, Palmer 
Golding & others for ye Stating a way from ye house of sd 
Goulding to ye meeting house & haveing taken a view of ye 
Premises & finding it of Necessity, it was agreed upon that 
a way of 1?hree Rods wide be Stated, beginning at a white oake 
Tree Standing a Little North East of Sd Goldings Dwelling 
house & so by mark trees Standing on ye North Side of Sd 
hyway thrugh ye land of Palmer Goulding, Isaac Wheeler & 
Gersham Rice till it comes to ye Brook at westerly end of 
Pine medow, then crossing sd Brook & over ye pine Plain 
by Mark trees to ye mill Brook & Crossing ye Brook at ye 
South Eand of ye School Land & So by Sd School Land to 
ye meeting hous. 

JONAS RICE 
GERSHAM RICE 
JAMES TAYLOR 
DANIL HEYWOOD 

Selectmen " 



120 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

In book 1, page 96, we find, dated March 15, 1795, the 
following: 

"at the desire of Sundry of ye Inhabitants of the Town, 
the Selectmen mett in Order to Lay out a town Road from 
whear the County Road Meets with Shrewsbury Line, to ye 
Road Leading from ye meeting house by Pine Meadow Bridg 
to Leiut-Goulding we Laid Said Road out at & near ye way 
as it is now trod till it comes to ye house of Mr. James Tailor. 
Trees being marked on ye westerly Side Sd Road and So 
continuing Sd Road on ye westerly Side, Sd Tailors house, 
and ye house of mr. Joshua Childs and ye house of william 
Calwell & So on to the Road, Running from ye metting house 
afore Sd, marked trees being made on ye westly Side Sd 
Road.'' 



And now notice the following: 

" all ye marks ware antiently made by a Committee of ye 
Propriators of Sd Worcester november 25: 171 9.' ' 



This makes the original layout of the road in 1719, one 
hundred and thirty years before it was discontinued in 
part by the County Commissioners. But to go on with 
our town records: 



"one heap of Stons northward of william Calwells house 
which we now made four perch of his Stone wall, the aforsd 
marks are to Remain Excepting where it may Interfear with 
Buildings alredy Set up on ye Eastrly Side Sd way or Road, I! 
and there it may Extend westward, So as to Steer Clear of j 
Sd Buildings, ye afore Said Town Road to be four p erch wide " | 
(equal to four rods or 66 feet) " agreeable to ye report of ye I 
Propriators afore Sd. 

The marked trees when it comes against ye Land of Thomas « 

I 



The Old Pine Meadow Road. 121 

Birney & abraham wheeler, are ye South Easterly bounds of 
their Land as origanaly Laid out." 
As witness our (hands) 

WILL M JENISON 
NATH LL MOORE 
JOHN CHANDLER 
DANIL HEYWOOD 
BENJ A FLAGG 

Selectmen of Worcester. 
JONAS RICE T. Cler." 

The " Leiut-Goulding " spoken of in the town records 
is called "Capt. Palmer Goulding" by our late local his- 
torian, Caleb Wall, in his paper on " Eastern Worcester." 
Mr. Wall says that Capt. Goulding, in 1713, succeeded to 
the rights of his father, Peter Goulding, who was one of 
the earliest proprietors of Worcester, before the beginning 
of the permanent settlements, and who was ancestor of 
the Gouldings of New England, including our late Frank 
P. Goulding, who was so eminent at the bar. 

The old Goulding house, many years ago torn down, 
stood in the corner of land between Bloomingdale road 
(then Pine Meadow road) and Plantation street, between 
the house where William Putnam lived and the engine 
house at the intersection of the two roads. 

Abraham Wheeler's land was on what is now known as 
"Putnam lane" and the old Pine Meadow road, the old 
farmhouse now being used by the White, Pevey & Dexter 
Co.; Thomas Birney, easterly of Wheeler; and John Gates 
where James Draper, Park Commissioner, now lives. All 
these old settlers, with the Moores, Joshua Bigelow, Samuel 
and Isaac Leonard, Francis Harrington, whose residence 
was on the estate on Harrington court, still owned and 
occupied by his descendants, Benjamin Flagg, whose name 
we have seen as one of the selectmen laying out this road, — 
all used this road; and until about 1828, when what is 



122 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

now called " Shrewsbury street" was laid out, it was the 
only way, unless one came around by Belmont street on 
the north, or Grafton street on the south; but, after over 
one hundred years of usefulness, evil times were ahead for 
this old road. 

About 1835, that being the signed date on the plans 
on file at the County Court House, the engineers for the 
New Boston and Worcester Railroad, ran their single track 
over the Pine Meadow road, opposite and southerly from 
where the Stewart Boiler Works now stand. The cutting 
away of the roadbed and the change of grade necessitated 
the erection of a bridge, built of wood with stone abut- 
ments, and the public used the road and bridge until De- 
cember 24, 1849, when, on petition of William A. Draper 
(father of James Draper) and twenty-four others, "the 
County Commissioners of the County of Worcester, at a 
meeting held for the purpose, and viewing the road set forth 
in said petition and proposed to be discontinued, and heard 
all persons and corporations interested therein, and having 
ascertained that the new highway described and prayed 
for in said petition (this was the new Bloomingdale Road) 
has, on a former notice, been adjudged of common con- 
venience and necessity, and been laid out, constructed and 
accepted by the proper authorities, and wholly supersedes 
the necessity of a part of the old Pine Meadow Road, it 
is therefore adjudged that the prayer of said petition, so 
far as it relates to the discontinuance of said Pine Meadow 
Road ought to be granted, and that the common conve- 
nience and necessity of so much of said old Pine Meadow 
Road as is between a point thereon at the intersection of 
a town road known as the Putnam Road easterly of the 
bridge over the Boston & Worcester railroad and a point 
on said old Pine Meadow Road westerly of the bridge 
aforesaid opposite the termination of the line dividing the 
Estate of the Mass. Insane Hospital, from land of Ethan 



The Old Pine Meadow Road. 123 

Allen, having ceased to exist, that the same be and is hereby 
discontinued. 

"The County Commissioners, having heard all persons 
and corporations interested in relation to damages, who 
expressed a wish to be heard thereon, considered and 
adjudged that the sum of twenty-five dollars be paid to 
William Eaton, in full compensation for all damages he 
might sustain in consequence of the discontinuance of the 
road aforesaid. 

"No other claims for damages were made to the Com- 
missioners and none other was awarded by them. 
"Attest 

C. A. HAMILTON, 

City Clerk." 

Think of it, a road or public highway crossing a railroad 
discontinued with an award of only twenty-five dollars 
damages! Imagine the probable damages of doing it in 
the year 1903! 

The Petition. 

"To the Honorable Board of County Commissioners for the 
County of Worcester. 

The undersigned owners of real estate in Worcester, in the 
county of Worcester, aforesaid respectfully represent to your 
Honorable Board that public convenience and necessity re- 
quires that a new highway or county road should be laid out, 
located and constructed in said Worcester commencing at a 
point on the southerly side of the old pine meadow road near 
the brick house of Isaac Davis, thence running in a westerly 
direction across the lands owned by Isaac Davis, Ethan Allen, 
Warren Lazell, Charles Thurber, Edwin F. Farwell, John F. 
Pond, and the Boston and Worcester Rail Road company and 
terminating on the easterly side of Grafton Street, nearly 
opposite the head of Franklin Street, and that a portion of 
the said old pine meadow road, beginning at the point where 
said new road shall commence, and extending in a westerly 



124 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

direction over the Boston and Worcester Road should be dis- 
continued. 

Wherefore, the undersigned petitioners pray your Honorable 
Board to proceed to view the said premises, and to lay out, 
locate, establish and construct a county road or highway over 
the route heretofore mentioned, and to discontinue so much of 
said old pine meadow road, as aforesaid, as your Honorable 
Board shall deem necessary and proper — and to do whatever 
else in the premises may be required by law." 

" Worcester August 5th 1848 " 
" William A. Draper, Henry Prentice, Frederic Janes, Taft 
Foster, William Eaton jr. John S. Cuse, W T yman Parker, Benj 
F. Curtis, C. Thurber, Charles Bowen, Samuel B. Watson 
Samuel Putnam, William Putnam, Benjamin Harrington, 
Ebenezer Dana, Beman Dana, R. D. Dunbar, Julius L. Clark 
Warren Lazell, E. Allen, John F. Pond, Isaac Davis, T. P. 
Wheelock, I. Lincoln Bangs." 

" Boston Sept. 7 1848^-The directors of the Boston & 
Worcester Railroad unite in the prayer of the annexed peti- 
tion. 

NATHAN HALE, 

President" 

" At a meeting of the county commissioners begun and holden 
at Worcester on the second Tuesday of September, A. D. 
1849," due notice was given "to all persons and Corporations 
interested therein, that said commissioners will meet at the 
Public House of Phineas W. Wait, in Worcester aforesaid, 
on Monday, the twenty fourth day of Dec. next, at two the 
clock in the afternoon." 

"At which time and place the said commissioners will pro- 
ceed to view the route set forth in said Petition, to hear all 
persons and Corporations interested therein, who may then 
and there desire to be heard thereon, and if they shall adjudge 
that the prayer of said Petition ought to be granted, then 
to discontinue so much of said old pine meadow road, as shall 
be deemed necessary and proper — and to assess all such damage 
as any person or Corporation may sustain, by the discon- 



The Old Pine Meadow Road. 125 

tinuance aforesaid, and do whatever else in the premises may 
be required by law, or may legally be done. 

Attest WM. A. SMITH Clerk, pro tern 

Phineas W. Wait, at whose " public house" the meeting 
of the County Commissioners was called, kept the Old 
Exchange Hotel for many years, under the name of "The 
Temperance Exchange Hotel." He married the daughter 
of the former proprietor, Samuel B. Thomas, and succeeded 
him in the business. 

We now come to the fate of the discontinued part of 
the road. A street on the plot of land owned by Horace 
H. Bigelow, called "Casco street," is about where the 
westerly end of the discontinued part stopped, the part 
between Casco street and where the bridge over the Boston 
& Worcester Railroad was located, being now mostly 
covered by the large shops of the Stewart Boiler Works. 

Four or five railroad tracks now cover the part crossed 
by the railroad location, and only faint traces on the south- 
erly side of the tracks indicate where the old bridge stood. 
From here to the intersection with Putnam lane is one of 
the most interesting parts, and we find the ownership of 
the discontinued road, from the bridge to the westerly 
line of Putnam lane, in the hands of some of the notable 
citizens of Worcester in those days, the early sixties — the 
Honorable Isaac Davis, Ethan Allen and others. 

Referring to the deeds on record at the Registry of Deeds 
at the Worcester County Court House, we find in book 640, 
page 391, May 30, 1861, Isaac Davis deeding, as per plan 
of lots of Oak Hill, made by E. M. Holman, surveyor in 
1849 (which plan of record also shows the old Pine Meadow 
road and bridge, as they were before discontinuance), to 
Thomas Moore, a part of the old road, as follows: 

"Beginning at the North Westerly corner of lot No. 115 
on said plan, thence running northerly one and one half rods, 
thence turning and running westerly on a line in the center 



126 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

of the old Pine Meadow Road ; till you come to the abutments 
of a bridge which passed over the Boston and Worcester 
railroad, thence north easterly on line of said Boston and 
Worcester railroad, about forty rods to a town road passing 
under the said Boston and Worcester railroad, thence by said 
town road (Putnam Lane) S. 21f° W. 19 Rods, 3 Links to 
the northerly line of the said old Pine Meadow Road, thence 
southerly across said old Pine Meadow Road to the North 
East corner of lot No. 116 on said plan, thence westerly on 
the northerly line of the lot first mentioned." 

In the same records, book 650, page 653, June 7, 1862, 
we again find, — Isaac Davis to Thomas Moore, all his in- 
terest in the old Pine Meadow road " being the southerly 
half thereof, the same having been discontinued, and 
extending from a line in range with the west line of lot 
No. 112 easterly to the east line of lot No. 116 on plan of 
lots by E. M. Holman in 1849." 

We also find, book 650, page 651, Ethan Allen, T. P. 
Wheelock and Sophia C. Lazell, in consideration of $258.93, 
conveying lots Nos. 115-116 and their interest and rights 
in one-half Old Pine Meadow road, "as will appear by plan 
made in May, 1862, by Phinehas Ball civil engineer." 
(This plan I have not been able to find on record.) 

Phinehas Ball was afterwards mayor of Worcester, city 
engineer, and for four years president of the Society of 
Engineers, so that at last I have, indirectly at least, con- 
nected this old road with that Society. 

The old road, with the rest of the land from the railroad 
to Bloomingdale road, and from the old bridge easterly to 
Putnam lane, passed into the hands of William Eaton, 
who turned the whole tract into a brickyard, and, with 
the rest of it, made our old road, to the depth of about 
twenty or twenty-five feet, into bricks, which were carted 
all over our city, and built into walls and chimneys, — and 
the "Old Pine Meadow road" that crossed the brickyard, 
and for over one hundred and thirty years gave such faith- 



The Old Pine Meadow Road. 127 

ful service, is at last scattered all over the city to do service 
another one hundred or more years as brick. 

The importance of this road in the early days was shown 
by the fact that it was laid out four perch wide, equal, 
as I said before, to four rods or sixty-six feet, while Shrews- 
bury street, laid out in 1828, and the Bloomingdale road, 
laid out in 1849, were only three rods each. 

In July, 1850, the Aldermen of Worcester passed an 
order for the name of the easterly end of " Old Pine Meadow 
road" to be "Pine court"; and June 13, 1859, at a meet- 
ing of the Mayor and Aldermen, held in their room in 
the City Hall, at 8 p. m., Alderman D. Waldo Lincoln 
reported, for the committee on highways, that "they re- 
commend that so much of the public highway in the city 
of Worcester as is now called Old Pine Street shall hereafter 
be known as East Worcester Street and so much as is now 
called New Pine Street shall be hereafter called and known 
as Shrewsbury Street." 

Report accepted and order adopted by both Boards. 

Attest SAMUEL SMITH City Clerk." 

"A Plan of the Town of Worcester From a survey made 
November 1825 by Caleb Butler" shows this road and 
Belmont street as the only roads for the citizens of the 
eastern part of the city to come to the old common or 
training field. 

A fact of interest is that Parley Goddard had a sandpit 
for many years just northeast of the bridge over Old Pine 
Meadow brook, which was the chief supply of sand for 
the town of Worcester for many years. The site of this 
sandpit is now covered by the buildings of the Worcester 
Brewing Co. 

William Eaton continued to make brick just where our 
old road crossed until the Bloomingdale road began to cave 
into the brickyard, and the authority of the city interfered 



128 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

to save Bloomingdale road following the old Pine Meadow 
road, and in turn be made into brick. 

Mrs. Ella J. Hennesey succeeded William Eaton in the 
ownership of the deserted brickyard and old road, and in 
turn, she, by the White, Pevey & Dexter Co., and they, 
in turn, it is rumored by the Meat Trust, and what the 
future has in store for it, no one knows. 

I have here, to-night, two plans, one showing the brick- 
yard lot, with a section of the old road still left in the 
northwest corner, and the other showing the relative posi- 
tions of Shrewsbury street, Bloomingdale road, and the old 
Pine Meadow road and bridge, which I shall be pleased 
to have you examine. 

There is very much more of interest that could be said, 
but I feel that I have taken all the time that you can spare 
to-night for this subject, and thanking you for your atten- 
tion, I will close. 

During the remarks that followed by Messrs. C. A. Chase, 
M. A. Maynard and Major Stiles, the latter said he at one 
time drove a cow to pasture over that road and remem- 
bered it well. There were several houses along that road 
occupied by colored people, John Gardner, John Angier, 
the Gimby family and others. Mrs. Boland also spoke 
concerning the old brickyard on that road, as it at one 
time belonged to her father. On motion of Mr. Crane a 
vote of thanks was given Mr. Marble for his interesting 
paper. 

The paper prepared by Mrs. E. O. P. Sturgis entitled, 
U A sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester" was 
next in order and was read by the Honorable Stephen 
Salisbury. 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 129 

A SKETCH OF THE CHANDLER FAMILY IN 
WORCESTER. 

" But for these lives, my life had never known 
This faded vesture which it calls its own." 

The founders of this family, so large and so influential 
before the Revolution, were of very obscure origin and 
in very humble circumstances when they landed on these 
shores. William Chandler and Annice his wife came from 
England in 1637 with their children and settled in Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts. The family seem to have been 
without any means of support, and during the long illness 
of Mr. Chandler they were cared for by their neighbors 
and friends, on account of their affection for him. He 
died in the year 1641, " having lived a very religious and 
godly life" and "leaving a sweet memory and savor behind 
him." Annice Chandler must have been an attractive 
woman, for she was not only soon married to a second 
husband, but to a third, and her last one evidently ex- 
pected her to enter into matrimony a fourth time, for in 
his "Will," he provided that she shall have the use of his 
warming pan "only so long as she remained his widow." 
Goodwife Parmenter, however, died in 1683, in full pos- 
session of the warming pan, the widow of her third hus- 
band. 

John Chandler, a son of William, emigrated to Woodstock, 
and there became a farmer in a small way, or, to use his 
own words, a husbandman, for so he designates himself 
in his "Will," of Woodstock, in the County of Suffolk in 
the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in New England. He 
was chosen a selectman and deacon of the church in Wood- 
stock, and died in 1703, leaving a family, and property 
of the value of £512. 00. 6d. 

The second John Chandler, son of the first of that name, 



130 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

had, before his father's death, moved to New London, 
Connecticut, where he married, and in 1698 had opened 
a " house of entertainment" there. He at a later date 
moved back to South Woodstock and in 1711 was chosen 
representative to the General Court at Boston for several 
years. I quote the following: " After the erection of 
Worcester County by an act of the Legislature of Massa- 
chusetts, 2 of April, 1731, from the counties of Suffolk, 
and Middlesex, the first Probate Court in Worcester County, 
was held by Col. Chandler as Judge, in the meeting-house, 
on the 13 of July, 1731, and the first Court of Common 
Pleas and General Sessions on the 10th of August following, 
by the Hon. John Chandler, of Woodstock, commissioned 
June 30th, 1731, Chief Justice." These offices he held 
until his death, as well as that of Colonel of Militia. Lincoln, 
in his " History of Worcester" says, "To which stations 
of civil, judicial and military honors, he rose by force of 
his strong mental powers, with but slight advantages of 
education," Judge John Chandler died in Woodstock, 
Conn., August 10th, 1743, in his seventy-ninth year. Im- 
proving on his father's worldly condition as regards pro- 
perty, he leaves to his family £8,699. 16. 6d. 

John Chandler the third of the name, son of the Hon. 
John Chandler of Woodstock, moved to Worcester, when 
the County of Worcester was formed, and he seems to 
have held nearly all the offices in the town: Selectman, 
Sheriff, Probate Judge, Town Treasurer, County Treasurer, 
Register of Probate, Register of Deeds, Chief Judge of 
County Courts, Judge of Court of Common Pleas, Repre- 
sentative to the General Court, Colonel in the Militia and 
a member of the Governor's Council. One of his descend- 
ants writes that "he died in 1762, wealthy and full of 
honors." He also adds, "The Chandlers were among the 
wealthiest and most distinguished families in Worcester 
County aristocracy." I have heard some of the old people 
in the family say: "They, the Chandlers, ruled the roost 






A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 131 

in Worcester County in former days," but there seems to 
be no evidence that anyone of them possessed great wealth. 
The Boston News Letter of August 12, 1762, says: " Worces- 
ter, Saturday August 12, 1762, departed this life the Hon. 
John Chandler, Esq., of Worcester, in the 69th year of 
his age; eldest son of Hon. John Chandler late of Wood- 
stock, deceased." Lincoln in his " History of Worcester," 
says, "His talents were rather brilliant and showy, than 
solid and profound, with manners highly popular, he 
possessed a cheerful and joyous disposition, indulging in 
jest and hilarity, and exercised liberal hospitality. While 
Judge of Probate he kept open house on Court Days for 
the widows and orphans who were brought to his tribunal 
by concerns of business." Judge Chandler was married 
to Hannah Gardiner, daughter of John Gardiner of the 
Isle of Wight, in 1716, by John Mulford, Esq., their bans 
being published in Woodstock, Conn. She died in Worces- 
ter in 1738, aged 39 years, leaving nine children, the first 
members of the Chandler family who were born and bred 
in Worcester. These children through their mother were 
great-great-grandchildren of " Brave Lieutenant Lion 
Gardiner," as Lowell the poet calls him, one of the most 
picturesque figures of the early times, and of whom it was 
written after his death: "Lion Gardiner was at an early 
age a God-fearing Puritan; he emigrated to New England 
in the interest of Puritanism, and labored with and for 
the early Puritan fathers, and justly belongs among the 
founders of New England. He was singularly modest; 
firm in his friendships; patient of toil; serene amidst 
alarms; inflexible in faith"; and "he died in a good old 
age, an old man and full of years." As an ancestor of 
the Worcester family of Chandlers, though on the distaff 
side, Lion Gardiner deserves more than a passing notice. 
He was born in England in the days of "Good Queen 
Bess, and he attained his majority during the reign of 
the first English Sovereign of the House of Stewart." 



132 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

He was a gentleman by birth, an engineer by profession, 
a Dissenter in his religious opinions, an adherent of Parlia- 
ment against the King, and a friend of the Puritans, who, 
Lord Macaulay says, "were the most remarkable body of 
men, perhaps, which the world had ever produced." Fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of many of his countrymen, Lion 
Gardiner passed into the "Low Countries," during the 
reign of Charles the First and entered the service of the 
Prince of Orange, "as an engineer and master of works 
of fortification." While there he was approached by certain 
eminent Puritans on behalf of Lords Say and Seele, Lord 
Brooke, Sir Richard Saltonstall, and other "Lords and 
Gentlemen " with an offer to go to New England to con- 
struct works of fortification, and command them under 
the direction of John Winthrop the Younger. The offer 
was accepted, and he contracted with these gentlemen, 
"for £100 per annum for a term of four years." A small 
sum this seems, to remunerate him for leaving his own 
country, to meet the dangers, known and unknown, and 
the vicissitudes of fortune in the New World. About this 
time, he went to Woerdon, in Holland, and was married 
to Mary Wileenson, daughter of Derike Wileenson, and 
with her and her Dutch maid he left Woerdon on the 10 
July, 1635, bound for New England via. London. Leaving 
Rotterdam, in the bark "Batcheler," they first entered the 
port of London, after which, on the 16th of August, they 
set sail for New England, but it was not until November 
28th, 1635, that Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts men- 
tions in his journal the arrival of a small bark sent over by 
Lord Say and Seele and others, with Gardiner, "an expert 
engineer, on board, and provisions of all sorts to begin 
a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut river." Gardiner 
remained in Boston during the winter and was engaged 
by the authorities to complete the fortifications on Fort 
Hill, but early in the spring he continued his journey, 
arriving at his destination in March, and began the first 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 133 

fortification erected in New England, which in honor of 
Lord Say and Seele and Lord Brooke was called Fort 
Saybrooke. 

The Indians were more numerous in this vicinity than 
in any other part of New England and the Pequots, Narra- 
gansetts and Mohegans when not fighting among them- 
selves were harassing the white settlers and attacking the 
Fort, and Gardiner's time seems to have been fully occupied 
in defending it from these savages and commanding puni- 
tive expeditions against them. Notwithstanding every 
discouragement, Gardiner remained at his post, and 
fulfilled his contract to the end, his engagement having 
expired in the summer of 1639. During his residence 
at Saybrooke Fort, his wife and her maid remained 
with him and shared with him its deprivations and dan- 
gers, and here his two eldest children were born; and to 
provide a permanent home for his family he bought 
from a friendly Sachem an island in Long Island Sound 
called Mauchouac, for which tradition says he paid, 
"one large black dog, one gun, a quantity of powder 
and shot, some rum, and a few Dutch blankets." At a 
later date however he procured a grant of the same 
island from the Earl of Stirling, to whom it had been 
granted by the King of England, for which he was to pay 
£5, yearly. This island, called " Mauchouac" by the 
Indians, "Isle of Wight" by the English and in later years 
"Gardiner's Island," has been the home now, for more 
than two hundred and fifty years, of the family of that 
name, contained over three thousand acres of land, and 
here Gardiner removed with his family, taking with him 
a number of men from the fort for farmers. Here he seems 
to have led a pastoral life, breeding cattle and sheep and 
keeping up a constant correspondence with the younger 
Winthrop, who owned a farm on Fisher's Island, in Long 
Island Sound, to whom he sells cows and sheep, and buying 

of him grass seed, corn and wheat and other articles of 
10 



134 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

the same nature. In 1649, Gardiner bought a tract of 
land on Long Island, and in 1653, he placed his island 
in the care of farmers and removed to East Hampton, 
and here he wrote his history of the Pequot Wars. "In 
the latter part of 1663, he died at the age of sixty-four. 
Thus passed from earth one of the prominent figures in 
the colonial history of New England." He left his property 
to his wife, who died in 1665, aged sixty-four years. 

The Isle of Wight now came into the possession of their 
oldest son David, and from him John Gardiner, the father 
of Hannah Chandler, inherited it. He died suddenly, by 
accident, caused by falling from a horse at Groton, Con- 
necticut, and was buried in New London in the same State, 
and the following inscription is on his tombstone: 

Here lyeth Buried y Body of 
His Excelcy John Gardiner 
Third Lord of y Isle of Wight 
He was born April 19th 1661 and 
Departed this Life June 25th 1738. 

One of his descendants writes: "John was a hearty, 
active, robust man; generous and upright; sober at home 
but jovial abroad, and swore sometimes; always kept a 
chaplain; he was a good farmer, and made great improve- 
ments in the Island. He had an expensive family of 
children, and gave them for those times large portions." 
It was in the lifetime of John Gardiner that Captain Kidd, 
concerning whom so many romantic stories have been told, 
visited the Isle of Wight. He left a "Will," and I quote 
the following from it: "To my beloved daughter Hannah 
Chandler, I give and bequeath, the sum of one hundred 
pounds in silver money at eight shillings the ounce Troy 
Weight, to be paid to her by my executors." In another 
part of this document, he directs that she should have a 
portion of his personal property, such as plate, etc. " I give 
and bequeath unto my granddaughter Sarah Chandler, 
the sum of fifty pounds in New England money, to be paid 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 135 

her by my executors when she shall have arrived at the age 
of eighteen or marriage, which shall happen first. " This 
will of John Gardiner, is dated " 14th of December 1737, in 
the eleventh year of the reign of King George the Second 
over Great Britain?* 

Sarah Chandler was, at her grandfather's death, only 
thirteen years old, and as she was my great-grandmother, 
it would be interesting to know why she was selected from 
among the Chandler grandchildren to receive this bequest. 

The two eldest children of John and Hannah Gardiner 
Chandler were daughters, named Mary and Esther. The 
former married Benjamin Greene of Boston, and the latter 
Rev. Thomas Clapp. John Chandler, the fourth to bear 
his name, was the third child and was born in 1720; was 
married twice and had sixteen children. He was Colonel 
of the Worcester Regiment, and in 1757 saw active duty 
in that capacity. Up to 1774 "John Chandler's life had 
been one of almost unbroken prosperity, but when the 
rebellion broke out against England, his loyalist sentiments 
brought him into angry opposition to popular feeling, and 
he was compelled to leave home and family and retire to 
Boston." "When Boston fell into the hands of the Conti- 
nental army, he fled to Halifax and thence to London, 
where he spent the rest of his life, twenty-four years." 

"The Hon. John Chandler, of Worcester, whose sons 
and daughters were as numerous as those of his Royal 
Master, and with whose family every other leading family 
of the region was proud to entwine itself by marriage 
alliance, sleeps far from the town and shire of whose 
honors he had almost the monoply." "He succeeded to 
the military, municipal, and some of the judicial offices of 
his father and grandfather, and inherited the characteristic 
traits of his ancestors. He was cheerful in temperament, 
engaging in manners, hospitable as a citizen, friendly and 
kind as a neighbor, and industrious and enterprising as a 
merchant. He was a refugee and sacrificed large posses- 



136 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

sions, £36,190. 0, as appraised in this country by commis- 
sioners here, to a chivalrous sense of loyalty. In the 
schedule exhibited to the British Commissioners, appointed 
to adjust the compensation to the Americans who adhered 
to the royal cause, the amount of real and personal property 
which was confiscated, is estimated at £11,067 and the 
losses from income from office, from destruction of business 
and other causes, at nearly £6000 more." So just and 
moderate was this compensation ascertained to be, at a 
time when extravagant claims were presented by others, 
that his claims were allowed in full; he was denominated 
in England, "The Honest Refugee/' The Boston News 
Letter of 16th October, 1760, observes: "We hear from 
Worcester that on the evening of the 9th inst, the house 
of Mr. Sheriff Chandler, and others of that town, were 
beautifully illuminated on account of the success of his 
Majesty's Arms in America." 

"Hon. John Chandler was one of the six inhabitants of 
Worcester who were included in the act of banishment, 
forbidding the return of former citizens of the State, who 
had joined the enemy; requiring them, if they once visited 
their native country, forthwith to depart ; and pronouncing 
the penalty of death if they should be found a second time 
within this jurisdiction." Of this list of six were his sons 
Rufus and William, his brother-in-law James Putnam and 
his nephew, my grandfather, Dr. Wm. Paine, who went by 
the name of "The Tory Doctor," and whom the Worcester 
people threatened to hang, if he ever set foot in Worcester 
again. John Chandler was styled "Tory Tom," for in 
those days John and Thomas were considered the same 
name. 

John Chandler died in London in 1800, and was buried 
in Islington church-yard, and on his tombstone is inscribed: 
"Here lies the body of John Chandler Esq., formerly of 
Worcester, Massachusetts Bay, North America, who died 
the 2<>th of September A. D. 1800, in the 80th year of his 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 137 

age." Recently a nephew of John Chandler, of the fourth 
generation, made a pious pilgrimage to the grave of his 
uncle, but found the church-yard had been turned, as 
many other old grave yards in London have been, into a 
park, the stones all being level with the ground, so there 
was no trace of the grave he was in search of This work 
had been done, however, so short a time before his visit, 
that the sexton was able to point out the exact spot where 
it was. 

John Adams, late President of the United States, says 
in his diary: "The Chandlers exercised great influence in 
the County of Worcester until they took the side of govern- 
ment in the Revolution, and lost their position." "The 
family of the Chandlers were well bred, agreeable people, 
and I visited them as often as my school, and my studies 
in the lawyer's office would admit." 

I have never known the exact spot in Main street where 
John Chandler's house was located, but have been told 
that he owned a farm somewhere between Front and 
Mechanic streets, and the following story has been con- 
nected with it : The pigs were being killed, and Mrs. Chand- 
ler had hanging from the crane in her kitchen fireplace 
two enormous kettles of boiling water, ready for scalding 
them when they were brought in, when some American 
soldiers entered. She ordered them to leave at once, and 
said, pointing to the kettles, or "In you go," and the 
story goes that they did not delay their departure. John 
Chandler attended the "Old South Meeting House," and 
his pew, a wall one, was on the right-hand side of the 
minister, next to the pulpit by the stairs. This pew was 
directly opposite one of a friend who chose it because it 
had a door opening under the pulpit, where he kept a 
barrel of cider for "nooning use." 

The eldest son of John Chandler bore his name, and 
became the fifth of the name. He was born in Worcester 
in 1742 and emigrated to Petersham in Worcester 



138 Worcester /Society of Antiquity . 

County, where he became a successful merchant. His 
house was a fine old colonial mansion, in the northern 
part of the town, and is still in good preservation, and 
the staircase I recall as being very handsome. Con- 
nected with the house was a "Deer Park/' from which 
place the deer strayed one winter when the snow was 
deep enough to cover the fence which surrounded it. 
Mr. Chandler died in 1794, leaving five children, the oldest, 
becoming the sixth John Chandler and the head of the 
mercantile house of John Chandler & Brothers. An old 
man in Petersham told me some years since that these 
brothers had large warehouses in different parts of Worces- 
ter County, one being at Petersham, and that their great 
wagons used to bring a variety of goods from Boston to 
these houses, and from them goods were supplied to all 
the small villages in the vicinity. 

The sixth John was an eccentric man and many queer 
stories are told concerning him. One was that when the 
interior of the church in Petersham required painting, he 
offered to pay for one-half of the work, and unbeknown 
to the parishioners, the work was done, and when he noti- 
fied them that his share was finished, they found just 
one-half of the meeting-house had been painted bright 
green, and he notified them he had done his half, and they 
could do the other. He took charge of the church clock, 
and when the minister objected to the erratic mode in 
which the timepiece was managed, he said, "you take care 
of your end of the meeting-house and I will take care of 
mine." He divided his time between Boston and Petersham, 
but considered the latter place his home. 

The fifth John Chandler had a daughter named Lydia, 
who was styled "an amiable, handsome, delightful woman." 
It was said of her that "no woman in Worcester County 
ever refused so many good offers of marriage as she, for 
she had over forty." She married a Boston gentleman and 
died in 1837, leaving two children. The youngest, whom 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 139 

I knew in her old age, possessed a portrait of her mother, 
of no value as a painting, but valuable as a likeness, and 
illustrative of art in New England in its day, and showing 
the style of dress of the period. On her death-bed she 
exacted from her niece a promise that she would destroy 
this picture after her death. As a relative of this lady 
whose portrait was to be destroyed, for she was my father's 
second cousin, I was invited to be present at the ceremony. 
Thanksgiving Day was appointed and the niece, dressed 
in her best apparel, brought the portrait into the room, 
where a large fire was burning, and first the frame was 
made way with and then the canvas, cut into pieces, was 
thrown upon the flames and the sacrifice was soon com- 
plete. It was a weird proceeding, and done against the 
wishes of the niece, who had put off fulfilling her promise 
to her aunt so long as she could do so. 

Nathaniel Chandler was another son of the fifth John 
Chandler. He was born in 1773 and graduated from Har- 
vard University in 1792; resided in Petersham, Worcester 
County, and conducted that branch of the mercantile house 
of John Chandler & Brothers located there, residing in 
his father's house and was the last of the name to do so. 
He later moved to South Lancaster, and from him the 
present family in that town is descended. He died in 1852. 

"In person Mr. Chandler was of medium height and size, 
his complexion was light, his features regular but marked." 
"He retained his intelligence, shrewdness, wit and dry 
humor, his dignity of person and character, his marked 
civility and gentlemanly bearing until the last." The last 
John Chandler of Lancaster was his son, and he died a 
few years since; and there are now only one son and one 
daughter and five grandchildren left of the Lancaster 
branch of the Chandlers, who are residents at this date. 
In Petersham there are none of the name, belonging to 
this family. 

I remember Mr. Chandler well, for he frequently visited 



140 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

at my father's house when I was a child and I recall how 
entertaining he was as he commented on people and things. 
He was one of the last people living who would be called 
"A gentleman of the old school." It is a singular fact 
that, although the fourth John Chandler had sixteen 
children, not a single descendant bearing his name is now 
living in Worcester and only very few of those of another. 
Clark Chandler was the third son of his and was employed in 
the office of Register of Probate; was appointed joint 
Register of Probate with Hon. Timothy Paine and held 
that appointment from 1766 to 1774. He was also Town 
Clerk of Worcester, from 1768 to 1775. In 1774 he brought 
upon himself the just indignation of the Whig majority 
of the people by entering on the town's records without 
authority a protest against the Whig proceedings of the 
town, and he was obliged, in presence of the inhabitants, 
to blot out the obnoxious record, dipping his fingers in 
ink, and drawing them over the protest. In 1775 Mr. 
Chandler left Worcester, but in the same year returned 
and surrendered himself. He was committed to prison on 
suspicion of having held intercourse with the enemy, but 
later was permitted to go on parole, and to reside in Lan- 
caster. After a time he returned to Worcester, and kept 
a store at the corner of Main and Front streets. He is 
described "as rather undersized and wore bright red small- 
clothes; was odd and singular in appearance, which often 
provoked the jeers and jokes of those around him, but 
which he was apt to repay with compound interest." He 
died in 1804. 

Rufus Chandler was born in 1747, old style; he gradua- 
ted at Harvard College in 1766, in a class of forty, with 
the rank of the fourth in "dignity of family." He read 
law in the office of his uncle, Hon. James Putnam, in Worces- 
ter, where he afterwards practiced his profession until the 
courts were closed in 1774. Rufus Chandler inherited the 
loyalty of his family and he left the country at the com- 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 141 

mencement of hostilities. He was banished in 1778, and 
resided in England as a private gentleman and died in 
London in 1823, and his remains were laid with those of 
his father's in Islington church-yard. 

Gardiner Chandler was born in 1749 and became a 
merchant at Hard wick. He sided with the loyalists and 
left the state, and his property was confiscated and paid 
into the treasury of the state. Returning to Hardwick, 
however, it was voted by the town "that as Gardiner 
Chandler has now made acknowledgment and says he is 
sorry for his past conduct, that they will treat him as a 
friend and neighbor so long as he shall behave himself 
well/' He was the grandfather of the late Mrs. George 
T. Rice, H. G. 0. Blake and others, and a great-great- 
granddaughter is still living in Worcester. 

Nathaniel Chandler, born in 1750, was a lawyer in Peters- 
ham and a graduate of Harvard College; a loyalist, and 
at one time he commanded a volunteer corps in the Brit- 
ish service. He died in Worcester in 1801, at the house 
of his sister, Mrs. Sever, which stood on the spot in Elm 
street, where the Lincoln House now stands. 

William Chandler graduated from Harvard College in 
1772, and was ranked in his class "No. 1, on the dignity 
of his family." He was one of the " 18 County Gentlemen, " 
who addressed Governor Gage on his departure in 1775, 
and was driven, therefor, and for other acts of loyalty, 
from his home. In 1776 he went to Halifax. He had 
but just returned from Europe with his cousin, Dr. Wm. 
Paine of Worcester, for the Massachusetts Spy, 1775, an- 
nounced: "Messrs. Chandler and Paine of this town are 
arrived in Salem from London." After the Revolution he 
returned to Worcester, where he died in 1793. 

The younger sons of "Tory Tom," as he was styled in 
Worcester, seem to have accepted the new order of affairs, 
and abstaining from politics, to have turned their attention 
to more homely and peaceful occupations. Charles Chand- 



142 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

ler at the time of his death in 1798 was a merchant in 
Worcester, under the firm of C. & S. Chandler, and seems 
to have been in more than easy circumstances, owning a 
large tract of land in the southern part of the town. Samuel 
Chandler lived in the vicinity of Summer street and his 
farm extended back to and included " Chandler Hill." 
He and his brother were among the largest land owners 
and the very best farmers in Worcester. "He was gentle- 
manly, hospitable, noticed strangers ; and when he lived in 
a house that stood at the foot of what is now Pearl street, 
Worcester, gave a ball which was long remembered. At 
this ball the children were invited in the afternoon and 
stayed till 6 o'clock p. m., and the adults were invited to 
spend the evening." He died in 1813. 

Thomas Chandler graduated from Harvard College in 
1787; was a merchant in Worcester, his store being in 
front of the "Town House," and he lived at the corner 
of Main and Park streets. At one time while residing 
in the "Green House" a mile out on the Leicester road, 
he gave a "Sillabub" party, which was long remembered 
by those present. The great feature of the entertainment 
was drinking "Sillabub," for the making of which the late 
Mrs. John Davis, the niece of the host, gives the following 
receipt: "Put port wine and sugar in a pail and milk the 
cow directly on to it." 

This record of the sons of "The Honest Refugee" is 
only of interest and value as it represents the political 
and social life in Worcester in their day and generation. 
They are living pictures of that period, and in our mind's 
eye we can see these men as they passed up and down 
the little village street, one hundred and more years ago, 
pursuing their daily avocations. We enter with them into 
the "King's Arms," a tavern which stood on the northern 
corner of Elm and Main streets and which was a famous 
resort of the royalists, and listen to the toasts they give 
as they drink to the health of the "English Sovereign," 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 143 

and we follow them in thought to the house of their uncle, 
Gardiner Chandler, where in the large parlor the " Tories 
used to gather in solemn conclave at the breaking out of 
the Revolution, and we hear words of grave import, as 
they began to realize the importance of the great political 
dangers culminating around them. 

I have referred to the few descendants of John Chandler 
now living in Worcester. The late Governor Levi Lincoln 
married one of his granddaughters, and one of their children 
is still living, and a number of grandchildren of more re- 
mote relationship. 

Allusion has been made to some of the Chandlers having 
graduated from Harvard College, ranking in the class 
according to the " dignity of family." It may not be 
generally known that in the old Colonial days the graduates 
were numbered in the catalogue according to their social 
standing in the community and not alphabetically as they 
are now, a custom which would hardly find favor in these 
latter days. 

An antiquarian has made the remark that in searching 
for material concerning one's family, that a person in so 
doing would "find certain pious family fictions, that must 
not be disturbed." This seems good advice, for it is im- 
possible to investigate or verify traditions which have 
been handed down for many generations, but which may 
still be valuable as illustrating the period in which the 
people lived of whom they are told. 

Bearing this advice in mind, I relate herewith family 
legends which have been handed down from one genera- 
tion to another among my kinsfolk, leaving it for my 
readers to determine what credence shall be attached to 
them. 

Gardiner Chandler was the second son and fourth child 
of John and Hannah Gardiner Chandler, but as all I have 
to say concerning him has been embodied in the account 
of the Chandler house on Main street, I will not repeat 



144 Worcester /Society of Antiquity. 

it here. Three of his descendants are at this date living 
in Worcester, but not bearing his name. 

Part II. 

Sarah Chandler was the fifth child of John and Hannah 
Gardiner Chandler and the third daughter. "There were 
seven of these sisters and, from their distinguished attri- 
butes, were called in their day and generation 'The Seven 
Stars.' She was born in the little village of Worcester 
Jan'y 11, 1725, and died there in 1811 in her eighty-fifth 
year. She was the little girl of thirteen years of age, to 
whom her grandfather Gardiner left the fifty pounds in 
silver, to the exclusion of all her brothers and sisters. In 
1749, she was married to Timothy Paine, whose mother 
became, after the death of her first husband, the second 
wife of John Chandler, so these young people had probably 
been brought up under the same roof from early childhood. 

" Timothy Paine and Sarah Chandler his wife not only 
feared God, but honored the King," so the old record runs. 

"They belonged to families, often associated together, in 
the remembrance of the present generation, as having ad- 
hered, through the wavering fortunes, and final success of 
the Revolution, devoted and consistently, to the British 
Crown. The Chandlers were in every respect, the most 
eminent family in Worcester County, and furnished many 
men of distinction in its ante-revolutionary history. They 
were closely allied by blood, marriage or friendship with 
the aristocracy of the county and province, in which they 
had extensive and unbounded sway. They had large pos- 
sessions, and shared with the Paine family the entire 
local influence at Worcester, but did not, like that family, 
survive the shock of the Revolution, and retain a 'local 
habitation and a name/ 'Their property was confiscated 
and they were declared traitors/ 

"The family was broken up; some members of it went 
abroad and died there, others were scattered in this country; 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester, 145 

yet not a few of their descendants, eminent in the most 
honorable pursuits, and in the highest positions in life, 
under different names and in various localities, represent 
that ancient, honorable and once numerous race." 

"Mrs. Timothy Paine, or Madam Paine as she was styled 
from respect to her dignity and position, was a woman 
of uncommon energy and acuteness. She was noted in 
her day for her zeal in aiding, as far as was in her power, 
the followers of the crown, and in defeating the plans of 
the rebellious colonists. In her the King possessed a faith- 
ful ally. In her hands his dignity was safe, and no insult 
offered to it, in her presence, could go unavenged." 

"Her wit and loyalty never shone more conspicuously 
than on the following occasion: When President John 
Adams was a young man, he was invited to dine with the 
court and bar at the house of Judge Paine, an eminent 
loyalist of Worcester. When the wine was circulating 
around the table, Judge Paine gave as a toast, 'The King.' 
Some of the Whigs were about to refuse to drink it, but 
Mr. Adams whispered to them to comply, saying, ' we shall 
have an opportunity to return the compliment.' At 
length, when he was desired to give a toast, he gave, 
'The Devil.' As the host was about to resent the indignity, 
his wife calmed him and turned the laugh upon Mr. Adams, 
by immediately exclaiming, 'My dear! As the gentleman 
has been so kind as to drink to our King, let us by no 
means refuse, in our turn, to drink to his.' 

"Madam Paine, in passing the guard house, which stood 
nearly where the old Nashua Hotel stood in Lincoln square, 
heard the soldiers say, 'Let us shoot the old Tory.' She 
turned round facing them and said, ' Shoot if you dare ' and 
then she reported to General Knox the insult she had 
received, which was not repeated." 

She then lived in a house nearly opposite, on Lincoln 
street. It was in the door of this house, tradition says, 
she placed herself, when the Whig soldiers came to carry 



146 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

off her loyal husband and told them they should not enter 
the house except over her prostrate body. The china 
dinner service used at the dinner referred to is still extant, 
or was so in the lifetime of the late Miss Susan Trumbull, 
who was Madam Paine's great-granddaughter. It is very 
evident, judging from the anecdotes told of my great- 
grandmother, that she had inherited many of the attributes 
of her great-great-grandfather, the old Indian fighter, 
Lion Gardiner. There are over twenty-five descendants 
of Madam Paine now living in Worcester, and a large 
number elsewhere — the most noted one at the present 
time being the eldest daughter of the President of the 
United States, who is her grandchild in the sixth generation. 
Judge Paine's house was situated at the lower part of 
Lincoln street, a little to the north of the " Hancock Arms," 
and with the exception of the house belonging to Governor 
John Hancock was the only one in the street. This latter 
house was sold in 1781 to Gov. Levi Lincoln the elder. 
The family must have been more than well off, judging 
from the style of their living, and the items mentioned 
in Mrs. Paine's "Will," which she bequeathed to her chil- 
dren show that her house was well furnished. "The 
crimson satin bed-cover," and "the silver butter boats," 
"the china" and other articles are indicative of more than 
easy circumstances. Her parlor chairs were imported 
from England and are still in existence, among her descen- 
dants. Her shoes with buckles, of which there were many, 
were formerly at her son's house, of English make, made 
of some silk material of different colors, with very high 
heels, and pointed toes, show that her style of dress was 
costly. Madam Paine must have inherited money from 
her father John Chandler, and when he died the widow, 
the mother of Timothy Paine, had set off to her £25,505, 
and besides this sum, her personal property was valued 
at £611. 11. 9; her silver-ware alone was valued at £84. 
11. 8. One-fifth of all this property came at her death 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 147 

to her son Timothy. Her slave was left to Mrs. Paine. 
The servants in the house were probably slaves, which. I 
have heard were freed. In those days the hours were 
very primitive and I have heard some of the old people 
in the family say that the dinner hour was eleven or twelve 
o'clock, and that when Madam Paine gave her tea parties, 
the company came at three or four o'clock, and, having 
had supper at five, went home at sundown. Mr. and Mrs. 
Paine attended the South Church, the only one in Worcester 
in those days, though their children as they grew up seceded 
from it and helped to found the Second Parish, and when 
they passed away, they were laid in the cemetery on the 
Common. When the Rural Cemetery was arranged, my 
father endeavored to find their remains to have them re- 
moved, but could find no trace of them. 

When the late Governor Lincoln was married in 1807, 
he brought his bride to the Paine house. "Aunt Paine's 
house," Mrs. Lincoln used to call it, and as Mrs. Paine 
did not die until 1811, she must have passed the last years 
of her life with her son Dr. Paine, which fact would account 
for her personal property being left there. Mrs. Charlotte 
Bradish, the daughter of Nathaniel Paine, was born in 
the "old Paine House, by the two elm trees," in Lincoln 
street, in 1788. She told me of this fact herself. She 
married Timothy Paine Bradish in 1818 and died in Worces- 
ter in 1866. Timothy Paine, the husband of Sarah Chand- 
ler, was born in Bristol, R. L. July 30th, 1730, and died 
in Worcester July 17, 1793, aged sixty-three years. His 
ancestor, Stephen Paine, of the parish of Great Ellingham, 
County of Norfolk, England, emigrated, in 1638, with his 
wife and three children, to America. Timothy was the 
great-grandson of Stephen, whom I judge to have been of 
small means, as his estate at his death was valued at only 
£535; the family, like that of the Chandlers, was evidenty 
of humble origin, and I believe were millers in the old 
country. The mother of Timothy, the widow of Hon, 



148 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Nathaniel Paine, married the third John Chandler, the 
father of Sarah whom Timothy later espoused. He came 
with her to Worcester at the age of eight years. I find in 
the catalogue of Harvard College that Timothy Paine be- 
longed to the class of 1748, and that he was, according to 
" dignity of family/' the fifth in his class. This custom, 
which seems so out of place in these latter days, of reg- 
istering the students according to their social position in 
the colony, was happily discontinued in 1772. 

"Soon after leaving college Mr. Paine was engaged in 
public affairs and the number and variety of offices which 
he held exhibit the estimation in which he stood. He 
was at different periods Clerk of the Courts; Register of 
Deeds; Register of Probate; member of the executive 
council £>f the Province; in 1774 he was appointed one 
of his Majesty's Mandamus Councillors; Selectman and 
Town Clerk; and Representative many years to the Gene- 
ral Court." 

" Solid talents, practical sense, candor, sincerity, ability 
and mildness were the characteristics of his life. He was 
also Special Justice of the Supreme Court in 1771." 

"When the appeal to arms approached, between this 
country and Great Britain, many of the inhabitants of 
Worcester, most distinguished for talents, influence and 
honors adhered with constancy to the King. Educated 
with veneration for the sovereign to whom they had sworn 
fealty; indebted to his bounty for the honors and wealth 
they possessed, — loyalty and gratitude alike influenced 
them to resist acts which to them seemed treasonable 
and rebellious. We may respect the sincerity of motives, 
attested by the sacrifice of property, the loss of power, 
and all the miseries of confiscation and exile. The struggle 
between the patriotism of the people, and the loyalty of 
a minority, powerful in numbers, as well as talents, wealth 
and influence, arrived at its crisis in Worcester, early in 
1774, and terminated in the total defeat of the loyalists. 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 149 

Among the many grievances, the vesting the government 
in the dependents of the King, aggravated the irritation 
and urged to acts of violence. The weight of public in- 
dignation fell on those appointed to office under the new 
acts, and they were soon compelled to lay aside their 
obnoxious honors. 

" Timothy Paine, Esq., had received a commission as 
one of the Mandamus Councillors. High as was the per- 
sonal regard and respect for the purity of private character 
of this gentleman it was controlled by the political feeling 
of a period of excitement, and measures were taken to 
compel his resignation of a post which was unwelcome 
to himself, but which he dared not refuse, when declining 
would have been construed as contempt for the authority 
of the King by whom it was conferred." The journals 
of the day best describe his treatment by the indignant 
Whigs. "The spirit of the people was never known to 
be so great since the first settlement of the colonies as 
it is at this time." "People in the county for hundreds 
of miles are prepared and determined to die or be Free." 

"August 23, 1774. 

"Yesterday, Mr. Paine, of Worcester was visited by 
nearly 3000 people; notice was given of the intended visit 
the day before, from one town to another, and though 
the warning was so short, the above number collected, 
and most of them entered the town before 7 o'c in the 
morning. They all marched into the town in order, and 
drew up on the common, and behaved admirably well; 
they chose a committee of two or three men of each 
company to wait upon Mr. Paine, and demand a resigna- 
tion of his office as Councillor; that committee being 
large, they chose, from among themselves, a sub-committee, 
who went to his house, when he agreed to resign that 
office, and drew up an acknowledgment, mentioning his 

obligations to the county for favors done him, his sorrow 
11 



150 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

for taking the oath, and a promise that he never would 
act in that office contrary to the charter, and after that 
he came with the committee to the common, where the 
people were drawn up in two bodies, making a lane between 
them, through which he and the committee passed, and 
read divers times as they passed along, the said acknowledg- 
ment. At first one of the committee read the resignation 
of Mr. Paine in his behalf. It was then insisted that he 
should read it with his hat off. He hesitated and demanded 
protection from the committee. Finally he complied; 
and was allowed to retire to his dwelling." 

Tradition says that a bull joined this procession, and 
continued to bellow as it proceeded on the way, only stop- 
ping when Mr. Paine began to speak. Tradition also 
declares that in the excitement attendant upon this scene, 
Mr. Paine 's wig was either knocked off, or fell off. But as 
it may be, from that day he abjured wigs, and never wore 
one again. The now dishonored wig in question he gave 
to one of his negro slaves, called " Worcester." "In the 
earlier days of the Revolution, some American soldiers 
quartered at his house repaid his perhaps too unwilling 
hospitality and signified the intensity of their feelings 
towards him, by cutting the throat of his full length por- 
trait." This picture I remember very well and am probably 
the only person who can do so. After the death of Mr. 
and Mrs. Paine, it with other property of theirs was trans- 
ferred to the house of his son, Dr. Wm. Paine, and always 
hung over the fireplace, in what was then the dining- 
room. When the house was remodelled in 1836, after Dr. 
Paine 's death, the picture disappeared, and I never knew 
what became of it. It represented a stout gentleman, 
sitting at a table on which were law books. He wore a 
wig and was dressed in a suit of drab colored clothes, with 
a red waistcoat. He wore knee-breeches, long stockings, 
with low shoes with buckles on them and the throat of 
the portrait was cut from ear to ear. Following the custom 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 151 

of the English judges, Judge Paine used to drive to the 
court house when holding court in his glass coach, which 
must have been a mere form, for the court house was not 
more than five minutes' walk from his house. Among 
the other articles brought to Dr. Paine's house after Judge 
Paine 's death, was this coach, which stood in what was 
called the "Chaise House" for many years. It was a 
very handsome vehicle, painted outside a sage green, with 
much glass and 'gilding about it and lined with satin of 
the same color, to match the outside. It was in fairly 
good repair when I remember it, and served as a play- 
thing for the children of the family. I don't know what 
became of it finally and I can only regret that this old 
carriage, which must have been imported from England, 
and my great-grandfather's portrait had not been preserved 
for his descendants. 

Timothy and Sarah Paine had nine children, the oldest 
being William, who was born in Worcester in 1750 and 
died there in April, 1833, aged eighty-three years. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 1768 with the rank of 
second in the class of forty-two members. In the college 
catalogue of the class of 1768 I read the following: 

" William Paine A.M.; M.D. (Hon.) 1818; Fellow Am: 
Acad." 

One of his early instructors was John Adams, afterwards 
President of the United States, who was then reading law 
in the office of Hon. James Putnam at Worcester. He 
began the practice of medicine in Worcester in 1771. In 
that year Mr. Adams revisited Worcester after an absence 
of sixteen years, and notes his impressions of his former 
pupils as follows: "Here I saw many young gentlemen 
who were my scholars and pupils when I kept school here. 
John Chandler, Esq., of Petersham; Rufus Chandler 
the lawyer; and Dr. William Paine, who now studies physic 
with Dr. Holyoke of Salem; and others, most of whom 
began to learn Latin with me. Drank tea at Mr. Putnam's 



152 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

with Mr. and Mrs. Paine, Dr. Holyoke's lady and Dr. 
Billy Paine. The doctor is a very civil, agreeable, and 
sensible young gentleman." Such an excellent memoir of 
Dr. Paine has been so recently issued by the American 
Antiquarian Society, in which the author deals so fully 
with his connection with the American Revolution, that 
I will not refer to it here. " To the last he was an inflexible 
loyalist in feeling. He possessed extensive professional 
learning, and was equally respected as a physician and 
a citizen and regained the confidence and long enjoyed 
the respect and esteem of the community. " 

I was only seven years old when my grandfather died, 
but I remember him very well. At this time he had given 
up the practice of his profession, but he left his house every 
morning in his old chaise with an equally old horse to 
make a round of friendly visits. One of the last families 
in which he practiced was that of the late Gov. Levi Lincoln, 
and one of his daughters has told me with what regret 
her mother received the notice from him that he would 
make no more professional visits. I can see Dr. Paine 
now as he walked out to the piazza, an alert, well pre- 
served old gentleman, careful of his dress, which consisted 
of a dark blue dress coat, and drab colored trousers, with a 
bunch of seals hanging from his watch-fob, and on his 
head a beaver hat of drab color. His complexion was 
fair, his hair was snow white, and was brushed back from 
his face and tied in a queue bound with black ribbon, 
which ended with a bow of the same. His first call was 
upon his daughter Mrs. Rose, who lived at the corner of 
Main and School streets. Miss Rachel Rose in her letters, 
refers to him as "The Good Doctor," and I judge the 
family depended on him for guidance regarding their 
domestic affairs. Then there was his sister, Mrs. Bradish, 
to see, who then lived in the northern part of a double 
brick house, on the western side of Main street, belonging 
to the Flagg family, with her three granddaughters. In 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 153 

the south side lived Mr. Elisha Flagg, close to the bakery, 
famous on public days for soft crackers, and sugar ginger- 
bread. Miss Hannah Paine had married a gentleman by 
the name of Bradish. The Worcester Spy of Oct. 21, 
1772, contains the following: "This day Ebenezer Bradish 
Esq., of Cambridge, was united in the most agreeable 
state of human life, to Miss Hannah Paine, daughter of 
Hon. Timothy Paine, Esq., of this place— of whom it may 
not be told her acquaintances, but she is one of the most de- 
serving of her sex/' I remember seeing this old lady 
once, when she lived with her relative, Mrs. Francis Blake, 
in the old Maccarty house. She died in 1841, leaving no 
descendants in Worcester. 

The next call would perhaps be on Mrs. Trumbull, who 
lived in Trumbull square, who had married Dr. Joseph 
Trumbull of Petersham. "The Worcester Spy of February 
16, 1786, announces the fact of Dr. Trumbull's marriage 
to the very amiable Miss Elizabeth Paine, youngest daughter 
of the Hon. Timothy Paine, Esq., of this Town." Mr. 
Trumbull was a martyr to gout, and being somewhat of 
an artist, painted a picture of the devil touching his toes 
with red hot coals. He died in 1824. I never to my 
knowledge saw this great-aunt of mine, but I went to her 
funeral in the South Meeting House, she having died one 
year before her brother William. 

Mrs. Trumbull lived in a house, formed from the old 
court house, which had been given her by her sister Sarah, 
who had married a rich merchant of Boston, Mr. James 
Perkins. She also gave her the share of property which 
came to her under the "Will of her father Hon. Timothy 
Paine." The late George A. Trumbull was a son of Dr. 
Joseph Trumbull. A great-grandchild is the only descend- 
ant of Mrs. Trumbull living in Worcester. 

The visits of Dr. Paine included the family of his brother 
Nathaniel, and that of his cousin Mrs. Bancroft, as well 
as that of Mrs. Levi Lincoln, his kinswoman, upon whom 



154 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

he continued to make friendly calls. His friends the 
Waldos and Salisburys, former patients, were not forgotten ; 
so the old gentleman was kept busy during the early part 
of the day, and after dinner he was ready for his armchair 
by the wood fire, reading and dozing the afternoon away. 
I recall his funeral in the church of the Second Parish, 
to which I went, and seeing him laid in the old Mechanic 
street Cemetery, from which he was removed with his 
wife to the Rural Cemetery at a later date. There was 
a light fall of snow the night previous, and the early spring 
flowers were showing their bright colors above their white 
covering. 

Dr. Paine had been presented during one of his visits 
to England to King George the Third and Queen Charlotte, 
wearing the court dress prescribed for medical men, which 
was a gray cloth coat, with silver buttons, a white satin 
waistcoat, satin smallclothes, silk hose, and wearing a 
sword, and a fall of lace from his cravat or collar, and 
lace ruffles in the sleeves. Until recently I had this lace 
in my possession. It was interesting to read some of his 
letters, written as he was about leaving England with the 
English army. In one of them he writes, "The Colonists 
had better lay down their arms at once, for we are coming 
over with an overwhelming force to destroy them." It 
is not to be wondered at, that he supposed the colonists 
were in no position to withstand the might and power 
of Great Britain. His wife and children seemed to have 
for a time remained with his father and mother while he 
was in England, but rinding their position in Worcester 
unpleasant on account of their unpopular political opinions, 
she left and went to Rhode Island. I saw a letter some 
years ago written by Mr. Timothy Orne of Salem, Mrs. 
Dr. Paine's father, to Judge Paine, in which he reports 
the safe arrival of his daughter and family within the 
"British Lines." I suppose too they had small means, 
for Levi Lincoln the elder advised that Miss Esther Paine, 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 155 

the oldest daughter of Dr. Paine, should be put out to 
service! "The Tory Dr.'s daughter" .he called her. In 
those days, to use an Irish phrase, "The Lincolns and 
Paines did not take tea together/' The Whigs and Tories 
would not meet except as enemies. Dr. Paine's letters to 
his relatives in Lancaster were amusing, for he seems to 
have depended on them for some of his domestic supplies, 
and as a sample of the prices in those days, he writes, "If 
the butter is of extra quality I am willing to pay as high 
as nine pence per pound for it." 

There seems to have been gay doings in the old Paine 
house, when Sarah or, as her family called her, "Sally 
Paine" was married to Mr. Perkins. One of his sisters 
writes the following: 

"In case of my brother's marriage nearly eighty-nine 
suns have not entirely obliterated the incidents, although 
they have the dates; you have revived the memory of 
my journey from Boston to Worcester, with my brother, 
on the great occasion of his marriage; it was in the winter 
season, and in a small open sleigh. We happened to upset 
in a snow bank! This, too, with the remembrance of a 
sleighing party and a dance at Leicester, with its accom- 
panying jollification, are all the lingering memories of that 
by-gone time." This marriage took place in 1786. 

"Samuel Paine," the third child of Timothy and Sarah 
Paine, was born in Worcester in 1753; and died in 1807 
in his father's house. "His name stands forth in the 
class of 1771, of Harvard College. He was as devoted a 
royalist as his brother William and soon incurred the 
displeasure of the patriot Whigs, and by the order of the 
town was arrested and sent away to be dealt with as the 
honorable congress shall think proper." In 1776, , Mr. 
Paine accompanied the British army from Boston to Hali- 
fax and thence to England. He lived some years in London. 
The enjoyment of an annual pension of £84 from the 
English Government, with a patrimony not inconsiderable 



156 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

for those days, precluded the necessity of his sharing those 
sufferings and privations encountered by too many devoted 
royalists in their adopted country. He was a man of 
elegance and fashion in his day, and is said to have re- 
sembled in person and manners the Prince of Wales of 
that day, later George the Fourth. Mr. Paine in one of 
his letters describes the Battle of Bunker Hill, as he wit- 
nessed it from Beacon Hill and writes, "That d — d rebel 
Warren is down," and in another he refers to him as an 
"old rascal. " There were other brothers, but the only 
one I remember was "Uncle John," who lived in his father's 
old house in Lincoln street, an old gray haired gentleman, 
who used to call on my grandfather every day. He died 
six months before Dr. Paine. I have not here referred 
to the old Judge of Probate, Mr. Nathaniel Paine, for a 
long notice of him was written in connection with the 
Chandler house on Main street. 

The fourth of the seven stars and sixth child of John 
and Hannah Gardiner Chandler was Hannah, of whom I 
know nothing. She was born in 1727, married in 1750 to 
Samuel Williams of Roxbury and died in that town in 
1804. At one time Mr. and Mrs. Williams resided in 
Worcester in the old Chandler house in Lincoln square. 

The fifth of the family was Lucretia, who became the 
third wife of Colonel John Murray of Rutland in 1761. 
At this period Miss Chandler was living in Boston with 
her brother-in-law Mr. Benjamin Greene, whose wife had 
died, in the care of his house and family. There appeared 
at this time in society in Boston a very handsome man 
by the name of Murray, of whose antecedents people seemed 
to be ignorant. He fell in love with the beautiful Miss 
Chandler, as she was styled, her two portraits by Copley 
seeming to bear out her right to be so called, and after 
her marriage they went to Rutland to live. This is all 
I can learn of her after leaving the luxurious home of her 
brother-in-law and the pleasant life she was leading in 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 157 

" Boston Town/' to reside in this dull little New England 
village, not a desirable place of residence now, and how 
much less so it must have been one hundred years and 
more ago. A large household of ten children, belonging 
to the first wife of Col. Murray, must have added to 
her far from attractive surroundings. Here she died, but 
I can find no record of the event, leaving one child, a daugh- 
ter, also named Lucretia, born in 1762, who died in 1836. 
Mrs. Murray's tomb stands quite near the entrance to the 
old grave-yard in Rutland, now much broken and disfig- 
ured. Tradition is responsible for the story that when 
the American soldiers went to arrest Col. Murray, for he 
was an ardent royalist, that, not finding him, they went 
to the grave of his wife and damaged her tombstone. This 
is one of the " family fictions" which should not have 
been disturbed, for on investigating the affair on the spot, 
I learned from the " oldest inhabitant," that this piece 
of vandalism was the work of mischievous boys. 

The story of the portrait of Col. Murray being shot at 
by the soldiers is true, for I have seen this picture, painted 
by Copley, in St. John, New Brunswick, hanging over the 
sideboard in the house of the Hon. Robert L. Hazen, a 
grandson of Colonel Murray. " There is a hole in the 
right breast, the size of a silver dollar; and the tradition 
in the family is that the party of soldiers who sought 
the colonel at his house after his flight, vexed because he 
eluded them, vowed they would leave their mark behind 
them and so sent a bullet through the canvas." Col. 
Murray is represented in a sitting position, in the dress 
of a gentleman of the day, and wearing a wig. 

Colonel Murray left his house in 1774, with his daughter 
Lucretia, taking with them the Copley portraits of himself 
and her mother, and fled to Boston. He in 1776 accom- 
panied the royal army to Halifax, and from there went 
to England, but after a time returned to St. John, where 
he made a home with his daughter. He died in 1794, 



158 Worcester Society oj Antiquity. 

and is buried in the new Rural Cemetery, over his grave 
being a plain white marble monument erected to his memory. 
After her father's death Miss Murray left St. John, leaving 
the Copley portrait of her father behind her, with Mr. 
Hazen, one of the descendants of his second wife, and 
taking with her the portrait of her mother, went to Lan- 
caster in Massachusetts to be with her relatives the "Chand- 
ler Family, " and here she resided until her death, and 
was interred in the Chandler lot in the Cemetery. She 
is said to have been one of the plainest people in her per- 
sonal appearance who ever lived, and that she would 
stand before a looking-glass and say, "How could such a 
handsome father and mother have such an ugly child as 
I am." 

Miss Murray bequeathed the portrait of her mother 
to Mr. Nathaniel Chandler, and it now hangs in the old 
"Chandler House " in South Lancaster, a charming por- 
trait of a beautiful woman, the colors in the painting as 
fresh and bright as they were more than one hundred 
years ago when Copley painted her picture. The other 
portrait of Mrs. Murray by Copley remained in the Green 
family and I saw it just before the great Boston fire in 
1872, when the building in which it was stored for the 
time being was destroyed with all its contents. It was 
a beautiful picture, representing Mrs. Murray sitting in an 
armchair, and Gardiner Green, her little nephew, standing 
by her side. This child, the cousin of Dr. Wm. Paine, 
became later the famous Boston merchant and married 
in England in 1800, Miss Copley, a daughter of Elizabeth 
Clarke and John Singleton Copley, the artist, and sister 
of Lord Lyndhurst the Lord Chancellor of England. 

There was always a mystery surrounding John Murray, 
regarding who he was and where he came from, but his 
descendants had some reasons for supposing that he was 
one of the "Athol Family" of Scotland, the surname of 
the Duke being Murray. Some years since one of Col. 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 159 

Murray's descendants went to " Blair Athol," the family- 
seat of the Dukes of Athol, hoping to hear something 
about him, and there found an old retainer of the family 
who recalled the fact that a younger member of the house 
had disappeared many years before, nothing ever being 
heard of him again, though it was supposed he had run 
away to America. When Miss Murray went to Lancaster 
to reside, she had with her some amount of silver plate, 
and on each piece was engraved the arms of the "Ducal 
House of Athol." She had small means and when 'she 
needed money used to sell this silver, one piece at a time. 
"In the grant of the town of Athol by the General Court, 
the first name was that of John Murray, who probably 
gave the name of his ancestral home to the new town." 
Col. Murray was very poor when he came to Rutland, 
and at first "peddled about the country," and then settled 
there and became a merchant. "He was a man of great 
influence in his vicinity and in the town of Rutland, which 
he represented many years in the General Court. On 
election days his house was open to his friends; and the 
good cheer dispensed free to all from his store told in his 
favor at the ballot box. His wealth, social position, and 
political influence, made him one of the colonial noblemen 
who lived in a style that has passed away in New England. 
He was in 1774 appointed by King George Third and 
Lord Dartmouth 'Mandamus' Councillor; but he was not 
sworn into that office, because a party of about five hundred 
stanch Whigs, repaired to his house in Rutland and re- 
quested him to resign his seat in the Council. These 
Whigs were a portion of the company who had compelled 
Judge Timothy Paine to take the same course, marching 
directly to Rutland on the same day. Qol. Murray left 
a large estate when he fled to Boston, and in 1778 was 
proscribed and banished; and in 1779, lost his extensive 
property." He must have received with Mrs. Murray 
some considerable amount of money. 



160 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Elizabeth, the sixth daughter of Judge Chandler, was 
born in Worcester in 1732 and was married to Hon. James 
Putnam in 1754, by Chief Justice Sewall. He belonged 
to the " Dan vers Family" of Putnam, was a graduate of 
Harvard College in 1746, and commenced the practice of 
law in Worcester in 1749. "His ability and learning soon 
gave him a flood of clients." One of his associates said 
of him: " Judge Putnam was an unerring lawyer, he was 
never astray in his law; he was I am inclined to think, 
the best lawyer in North America." "He was like all 
those connected with the 'Chandler Family' a zealous 
royalist, and on the eve of the Revolution, when the govern- 
ment party found itself voted down four to one in Worces- 
ter, he drew up with the assistance of his wife's nephew, 
Dr. William Paine, the Protest against the strong patriotic 
Whig votes, and proceedings of a previous town meeting, 
which protest stands ' illegibly ' expunged on the book of 
the town records. 

"One who had taken sides so strongly for his king could 
hardly fail to receive from the excited Whigs injuries and 
indignities in various ways. In 1775 Judge Putnam of 
Worcester, a firm friend of government, had two fat 
cows stolen and a very valuable gristmill burned and was 
obliged to leave a fair estate in Worcester and return to 
Boston. 

"He accompanied the British army to New York and 
thence he went to Halifax, and embarked for England in 
1776, where he remained until the peace of 1783. In 
1784 he was appointed a member of the Council of New 
Brunswick and Judge of the Supreme Court of that province. 
He resided in the city of St. John, and retained the office 
of Judge until his death in 1789, in his sixty-fourth year; 
and the tablet over his remains records not only his death, 
but that of his widow, my great-great-aunt, who died in 
1798, aged sixty-six years." 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 161 

While in Worcester Judge Putnam lived on Main street, 
on the corner of Park and his law office was on the opposite 
side of the street. In this office John Adams, the second 
president of the United States, studied law, and boarded 
in the family of James Putnam, while he was keeping the 
district school of the village. Mr. Adams says in his Diary, 
"When asked, in 1758, to settle in Worcester as an oppo- 
nent to the royalists and office-holders, the Chandlers, I 
declined, with this among other reasons. That as the 
Chandlers were worthy people and discharged the duties 
of their offices well, I envied not their felicity and had no 
desire to set myself in opposition to them, especially to 
Mr. Putnam, who had married a beautiful daughter 
of that family and had treated me with civility and 
kindness." Mrs. Putnam was rather short in stature, 
of dark complexion, and had dark hair and eyes. There 
are no descendants of this family in Worcester or else- 
where. 

" James Putnam, the oldest son of Judge Putnam, was 
born in 1756 and died in England in 1838. He was at 
Harvard College in 1774; refugee in 1775; and one of the 
eighteen 'Country Gentlemen' who were driven to Boston, 
and who addressed Governor Gage on his departure. He 
became intimate at one time with the Duke of Kent. He 
was barrack master, member of his household, and was 
one of the executors of his will." 

The seventh daughter of Judge Chandler was Katherine, 
the youngest of the family. " These ladies, from their 
beauty, intelligence and social position were called 'The 
Seven Stars.' " She was born in Worcester in 1735, and 
married Colonel Levi Willard of Lancaster in Worcester 
County. He was a merchant there under the firm of 
Willard & Ward. Their house was in South Lancaster, 
nearly opposite the " Chandler Mansion," standing among 
the beautiful elms of that town, while the trading house 



162 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

of the firm, the largest in the county of Worcester in their 
day, stood a little more to the south of it, near the street. 
Their store was also nearly opposite, a little to the south 
of the house of his partner in business, Mr.- Samuel Ward, 
now the " Chandler House." This trading house I sup- 
pose to have been one of the depots for storing goods, to 
which I have referred in connection with Petersham, from 
which the local shopkeepers in the small villages in the 
vicinity were supplied with what they needed for their 
customers. 

Mr. Willard's estate was inventoried after his departure 
for England as a refugee at £6538, and was confiscated. He 
returned in 1785. "Mrs. Willard in her advanced years 
was timid and singular about some things. One was, she 
was so fearful, when about to drive, that she would get 
into her chaise before the horse was harnessed in." She 
and her husband were laid in the old part of the grave- 
yard in South Lancaster, and a double tombstone stands 
at the head of their graves. There are a number of their 
descendants living, but not in Worcester County, and not 
of their name. Madam Prescott, the mother of the his- 
torian, William H. Prescott, once lived in the " Willard 
Family," being, as a child, sent from the West Indies to 
go to school, which she did in the little old brick school- 
house, which I believe is still standing. There was a ghost 
story connected with the Willard house. One of the sons 
of Mrs. Willard left the house one morning with horse and 
chaise to drive to Boston. A few days later, he was seen 
towards evening driving up the avenue, not only by his 
mother, but by other members of the family, going towards 
the stable. As he did not make his appearance in the 
house, Mrs. Willard sent someone to see where he was, 
and to her amazement it was discovered that no one in 
the rear of the house had seen him, and the horse and 
chaise were not there. In those days it took a long time 



A Sketch of the Chandler Family in Worcester. 163 

for a letter to reach South Lancaster from Boston, but 
when one arrived it announced the sudden death of Mr. 
Willard at the very moment when he had been seen by 
the family in the avenue! 

Here ends my sketch of the " Chandler Family " in 
Worcester and Worcester County, the materials of which 
have been gleaned from the researches of others, mingled 
with old-time stories which have been handed down from 
one generation to another in the family. It is imperfect- 
ly drawn, but it may serve "to keep in remembrance the 
names and services of this ancient and once numerous" 
Tory family. 

P. S. — In a former paper concerning "Three Old Houses," 
I have referred to Mr. and Mrs. Levi Lincoln as going to 
the "old Chandler House" to live after their marriage. 
It seems I was misinformed, and from a reliable source I 
learn that they spent some time in the old Timothy Paine 
house in Lincoln street before moving to Lincoln square. 

An amusing incident occurred while they were in resi- 
dence here. Miss Ann Sever, the sister of Mrs. Lincoln, 
was on a visit to the latter, and being in her youth con- 
sidered a great beauty, had many admirers. One day 
she saw one of them on whom she had not smiled approach- 
ing the house, and hoping he had not seen her, she escaped 
and hid in a closet under the stairs. He had seen her, 
however, and meaning to punish her for escaping him, 
not only called at the house, but remained to tea, and for 
some time later, and it was only after his departure she 
could free herself. Miss Sever married Dr. John Brazer, 
a native of Worcester, and the pastor of the North Church 
in Salem. , 

Mr. Charles A. Chase stated that the home of John 
Chandler the refugee was at the corner of Main and Me- 
chanic streets, on the site of the present Walker building. 



164 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

The Judge Chandler house was the present old hotel at 
Lincoln square, north corner of Belmont street. 

On motion of Mr. Crane a vote of thanks was given Mrs. 
E. 0. P. Sturgis for her valuable paper. 

Nathaniel Paine then presented the Society in behalf of 
the Board of Directors of the City National Bank portraits 
of Judge Henry Chapin and Calvin Foster, both deceased. 



PROCEEDINGS 



iHoptFsfoi 1 JSurMg of XnMquifg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1903. 



Volume XIX. 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

1903. 
U. S. A. CXXVTT. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Second Meeting 165 

Proceedings Trree Hundred and Eighty-Second Adjourned 

Meeting ........ 169 

Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier ... 170 

Ancestry op Ichabod Corbett . 186 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Third Meeting . 192, 

Flagg Family in Worcester . . . ' . . 194 



PROCEEDINGS. 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-SECOND MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, MAY 5, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present : Messrs. 
Arnold, Crane, Davidson, Eaton, Gould, Daniel Kent, 
Marston, M. A. Maynard, Geo. Maynard, Paine, G. M. Rice, 
Williamson, Miss White, Mrs. Boland, Mrs. Hildreth, Mrs. 
M. A. Maynard, Miss May, Mrs. Smith, Miss M. Agnes 
Waite, E. M. Barton, Mr. Clark, Miss Boland, Miss Ban- 
croft, Miss Bigelow, Miss Grover and several others names 

not given. 

-a 

Rev. Anson Titus of Tufts College, who was to be the 
speaker for the evening, desiring to return to Boston after 
the lecture, was immediately introduced and gave a very 
entertaining and instructive review of the " Times of the 
Old Massachusetts Bay Province" from the year 1690 to 
1775. 

He treated the period from the political, military and 
economical points of view; the political by the adminis- 
trations of the several royal governors and the uppermost 
questions which characterized them, the military by the 
several wars or campaigns against the French and Indians, 
their causes, the general movements of each campaign and 
the attending results. These campaigns gave knowledge 
of the waterways toward the North and West and after 
each declaration of peace further inroads were made into 
the wilderness. 

Under the economical head he spoke of the exports 

and imports, the times of prosperity and disaster, the 
12 



166 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

various schemes of paper money, bills of credit, the land 
bank scheme, and the men who favored and opposed them. 
The question of land grants in lieu of official salaries for 
military services and speculation were spoken of in a way 
which shows that the knack of promoting is no new trick. 
The exportation of New England rum made the Province 
famous in every port of the world, even as famous as its 
dried fish and Yankee notions. These same exporters 
frequently brought in return from the Indies not only 
regular goods, but negroes to be disposed of as servants to 
the people. 

The influence of the sayings of Poor Richard was not 
small in provoking prudence, frugality and economy, and 
these elements tended to create a prosperity among the 
people which enabled them to withstand the fierce devas- 
tation of the eight years of struggle for independence. 
The Boston merchant of those days often favored paper 
money and bills of credit as against Spanish milled dollars 
and the royal coin of England. The advocates of silver 
and gold, among them Dr. Douglas, were maligned and 
given epithets which survived. 

Members of the American Economical Association are 
doing great service in making known the questions which 
confronted the colonies. By knowing the earlier questions 
the student can best judge of those to-day. The plan of 
Bishop George Berkeley for a university in the Bermudas 
was not a wild scheme. Bermuda was the centre of the 
world of navigation. It was easier of access from Boston 
than Quebec, Ticonderoga, New York or the more southern 
towns. The Worcester of to-day was in 1728 at the very 
outpost of civilization. The University at Bermuda would 
have been put through but for the extravagant expenditure 
from the royal exchequer upon royalty and the attendants. 
The exalted conception of Bishop Berkeley of what educa- 
tion is, will not cease to be an inspiration to scholars. 

He also said the purity of New England blood at the 



Proceedings. 167 

outbreak of the war of the Revolution is unquestioned. 
It has been estimated that nine per cent, of the people 
residing in New England at the outbreak descended from 
immigrants who came before 1692, and that ninety-two 
per cent, descended from immigrants before 1642. Between 
1642 and 1775 more people returned to old England be- 
cause of reverses than settled in New England. 

In spite of the hardships imposed upon the yeomen of 
the country districts by the merchants and royal favorites 
of the leading towns by the seaboard, there was that about 
the people which made them grow strong in will, in char- 
acter, in endurance. Men of oratorical ability were devel- 
oped in every town. It was these men who made possible 
better treatment from royalty or their entire independence. 
The course of history was toward independence in spite 
of the great love of the people for the home country. 

The going of many hundreds of people of wealth and 
culture "to Halifax" on the evacuation of Boston was a 
great blow to the social and economic conditions of New 
England. Men and merchants who long had been favored by 
royalty were not in touch with the people of the outlying 
towns. They were not able to view the oppression which 
had been resting upon a most patient and enduring people. 
The provincial period was a school to the people in the 
irt of self-government. They had their minds grow stronger 
n the sentiments of political liberty. The town meetings 
md general court of Connecticut where the original charter 
vas retained were tame affairs by the side of the town 
neetings and general court of Massachusetts. The strong 
)atriotism and the enduring qualities of the people, in 
aining for three-quarters of a century, enabled them to 
e prepared for the stress of the trying years of the Revo- 
cation. Massachusetts has continued strong, and her sons 
tid daughters have gone abroad carrying with them the 
•aits grown during the provincial years. The period, 
lough most harassing to the citizen, was the means which 



168 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

brought to the front the finest qualities of manhood. The 
heritage of those years is beyond measure. 

The lecturer reviewed some phases of the beginnings of 
Baptist history in New England. 

The lecture was replete with points of special interest 
and the speaker was rewarded with a unanimous vote of 
thanks. 

At the close of the lecture Mr. M. A. Maynard stated 
that the Committee appointed to consider the question of 
the annual field-day were not quite ready to report their 
plans, offering a motion which was carried, that when the 
meeting adjourned it be for one week, and that all matters 
of business that would necessarily come before this meet- 
ing, be postponed to that time ; suggesting also that Hon. 
Ledyard Bill would then be ready to outline a plan con- 
templating a visit to New London and Groton, Conn. 

Mr. Nathaniel Paine spoke of the interest felt in the 
address of the evening, referring specially to compliments 
paid the Mathers in the active part they took in shaping 
public life and sentiment among the people throughout 
the colonies during those early days. He said he could 
fully endorse the position taken, having recently had much 
to do with their writings of that period. Mr. Paine then 
presented two letters written in 1834, one by the Rev. 
Warren Burton to C. C. Baldwin, then Librarian of the 
American Antiquarian Society, the other being Mr. Bald- 
win's reply under date of April 10, same year. 

Adjourned. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-SECOND MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, MAY 12, 1903. 



Met pursuant to adjournment. President Ely in the 
chair. Others present: Messrs. Arnold, Bill, Crane, David- 
son, Darling, Eaton, Marston, M. A. Maynard, Geo. May- 
nard, Geo. M. Rice, Edward Thomas, Williamson, Mrs. 
Darling, Miss Moore, Miss Smith, Miss Lucy Sawyer, Miss 
M. Agnes Waite, Mrs. Williamson. 

The Librarian reported additions to the library for the 
past month: forty-seven bound volumes and sixty-four 
pamphlets; making special mention of the twenty-nine 
[bound volumes and twenty-one pamphlets donated by Mr. 
Herbert Wesby; also the seventeen bound volumes and 
(five pamphlets from Miss Mary R. Colton. 

Professor and Mrs. Alexander F. Chamberlain were pro- 
loosed for active membership, and the applications were 
Referred to the Standing Committee on Nominations. 

That Committee then presented the names of Mr. and 
Mrs. Charles F. Marble, Arthur J. Marble, Col. E. J. Russell, 
pharles E. Parker and Charles H. Burleigh, and they were 
lected to active membership. 

Hon. Ledyard Bill followed with a report on the con- 
jemplated trip to New London and Grot on, Conn., calling 
jjttention to many places of interest to be visited, and 
arnestly recommended the trip in that direction for the 
anual field-day excursion, Saturday, June twentieth; the 
pst of the trip not to exceed two dollars and seventy- 
tire cents per ticket. On motion of Mr. Geo. M. Rice the 



170 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

report was accepted and its recommendations adopted. 
The letters from the New London Board of Trade, ancfr 
the New London County Historical Society, extending 
invitations to visit them, were read, and it was voted 
unanimously to accept their generous proffer of hospitality. 
President Ely was instructed to convey to the officers 
of those organizations the Society's acceptance, and to 
extend its compliments for their great kindness in offering 
to furnish the expedition with an escort while visiting 
their historic grounds, and also to thank the New London 
Board of Trade for their generous invitation to partake 
of a dinner at their expense. The Society voted to invite 
members of the Sons of the Revolution, Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, Daughters of the Revolution and Daughters 
of the American Revolution to accompany them on the 
excursion. 

On motion of Mr. Crane all matters covering sale of 
tickets, providing cars for transportation and other neces- 
sary arrangements to provide for the comfort of the party 
on the trip be left in the hands of the present committee. 

Adjourned. 

DIARY OF A REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER. 

This diary of Ichabod Corbett, of Mendon, Mass., a 
Revolutionary soldier, furnishes data not to be found in 
the printed records of the soldiers and sailors of the Revo- 
lutionary War, as published under the direction of the i 
Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

There are two expeditions referred to in this diary. The 
first one, covering a period of three months, from the 22d 
day of December, 1776, to the 22d day of March, 1777, 
where the principal portion of the time was spent about 
the Hudson River and in the state of New Jersey. The 
other expedition was called out on an alarm from Rhode 
Island, and the term of service from January 8, 1778, to 
the first day of April, that year. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 171 

In vol. 4, " Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 
Revolutionary War," page 70, under the name of Captain 
Samuel Craggin, there appears to be a reference to this 
expedition " year not given." This diary supplies that date 
in full, with the days, months and year, also gives many 
names of those who participated in that service. Nearly all 
these men served at various times in other companies. 

Ichabod Corbett was private in Capt. Gershom Nelson's 
company, that marched to Cambridge and Roxbury on the 
alarm of April 19, 1775, serving eight days; also served 
again in Capt. Nelson's company July 19, 1776. He also 
served in Capt. John Tyler's company, Col. Joseph Read's 
regiment; return endorsed Dec. 10, 1775. 

Then followed the service he rendered, which is recorded 
in this diary, now for the first time published. He also 
enlisted Aug. 23, 1778, in Lieut. Hezekiah Ware's company, 
Col. Haws's regiment, and was discharged Sept. 12, 1778. 
This service of twenty-one days was rendered in Rhode 
Island and the roll sworn to in Suffolk County, Mass. 

The names of his fifty-nine or more associates which 
appear in this diary may give their descendants records 
of a service perhaps not elsewhere disclosed. 

DIARY OF ICHABOD CORBETT OF MENDON, MASS. 
3 Months' Service. 

On Monday, the 22d day of December, 1776, I marched 
for Providence with 8-7-0 of cash. Spent at Lanlord Pen- 
niman, 0-0-3-0. At Elias Thayer's* . . . . m . . 

December. 

25. Marched into town and bought an inkstand 0-3- 
0-0, and spent 0-1-2-0, and received of Jonathan 0-1-6-0. 

*The entries made during the 23d and 24th have become so faded that they are 
illegible. But they relate to his march from Mendon to Providence, R. I. 



172 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

26. Spent 0-0-8-0*. 

27. To a ribbon 0-1-9-0. To a " silkhankerchif " 
0-15-0-0. 

28. To a "pockethankerchief" 0-6-2-0. To a sheet of 
paper 0-0-2-0. To a pair of scissors 0-1-0-0. 

29. Received orders to march to York.* 

30. To a cake of chocolate 0-1-6-0, and marched out 
of Providence about one o'clock and lodged at Cranson. 
For cider and vitals 0-1-8-0. To a dram 0-0-3-0. 

31. To a Sugar Box 0-1-2-0. To a half pint of rum 
0-1-0-0. 

Coventry. Bowin's for dinner 0-1-0-0. At Bennet's in 
Volintine [Voluntown] lodged. 

January, 1777. 

1. Plainfield, at Mr. Hawls [Hall's]. Went to breakfast, 
0-1-0-0 at lanlord Eaton's. Received my billiting from 
Providence to Danbury, L. I., 1-8-0-0. At Canterbury 
bought sugar 0-2-4-0. To Mr. Bond's supper 0-0-4-0 
and lodging there. 

2. potland [Portland], at Webb's, breakfast 0-0-10-0. 
At Landlord Hibbard spent 0-0-3-0. At Lebenon supper 
and lodging 0-0-6-0. 

3. To a breakfast at the same place 0-0-10-0. At 
Landlord English's Lebanon to a dram 0-0-3-0. At 
Briant's, East Hartford to a supper 0-0-8-0. and lodged 
there. 

4. At Landlord Woodbridge to a dram 0-0-3-0. At 
Mr. Mackee's Pak and garded the cart the same day. At 
Hartford two pounds of chocolate 0-5-4-0. At Landlord 
Simson (or Simon) received for my feather 0-6-0-0. Re- 
ceived for a cake of chocolate Hartford 0-1-6-0. To a 
dram and supper 0-0-9-0. 

5. To a dram at same place 0-0-3-0, and breakfast 

*New York. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 173 

0-0-10-0. At Landlord Lues's [Lewis's] of Farmingtown 
to cider 0-0-2-0. At Mr. Lanktons supper 0-0-8-0. At 
Landlord Deming to a dram 0-0-3-0 and lodged there. 

6. To a dram and breakfast at same place 0-0-8-0. 
At Landlord "Duese" to cider 0-0-1-0. At Waterbury to 
a dinner 0-0-8-0. At Landlord Bridson's to cider 0-0-2-0. 
To supper 0-0-4-2. and lodged at Mr. Abbott's. 

7. At Mr. Taylor's of Woodbury to a breakfast 0-0- 
10-0. At Landlord Thompson's to a dram 0-0-3-0. At 
Mr. Curtis to a dinner 0-0-8-0. To a supper 0-0-6-0. To 
washing shirt and stockings 0-0-4-0. 

8. To a breakfast at Mr. Hacock's 0-0-6-0. At New- 
town to cider one " Copper." At night arrived at Danbury. 
To supper 0-0-9-0. To apples 0-0-2-0. To bread 0-0-3-0. 
Received 0-0-4-0. 

9. To cider 0-0-2-0. 

10. To a dram 0-0-4-0. To bread 0-0-3-0. To mend- 
ing my shoes 0-0-4-0. To a part of the "Chist" 0-0-8-0. 
Received for chocolate 0-0-6-0. To a drink of " Samson" 
0-0-6-0. Received for chocolate 0-0-6-0. 

11. To a bottle 0-0-6-0. To a part for pail 0-0-2-0. 
To cider 0-0-2-0. About one o'clock in the afternoon we 
marched for the Peekskills and at Mr. Lovel's lodged in 
Salem and a supper and cider 0-0-6-0. 

12. To cider 0-0-2-0 In Plombrook a quart of rum 
0-3-0-0, and garded the cart, and lodged at Mr. Delanu 
[Delano] in Crompond. 

13. Received 0-0-2-0. Received orders for the North 
Castle, and arrived there at night. Then received orders 
for Tarrytown. At Mr. Rights [Wright's] lodged. 

14. Marched for Tarrytown. In Philipsborough at land- 
lord Hammond's to a dram 0-0-4-2. Arrived at Tarry- 
town about the middle of the afternoon. To bread 
0-0-2-0. 

15. Mounted guard at Capt. "Maguars" for four and 
twenty hours. To bread 0-0-3-0. 



174 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

16. We received orders to march at four o'clock with 
three days provision and blankets. 

17. Received orders to marcfl at two o'clock and ar- 
rived at the Mild [mile] Square. 

18. Marched about five o'clock in the morning* for 
Roggers [Rogers'] at "yuneas" in Philips Borrower [Philips- 
borough]. To a quart of rum 0-4-0-0. At night marched 
back about three miles to supper 0-1-0-0. 

19. Marched back again and marched for West Chester 
for quarters at night. 

20. To breakfast 0-1-0-0, and marched away towards 
the North River and back again at night. 

21. To cider 0-0-2-0. Received orders to march to- 
ward the North River and built a tent to lodge in. 

22. To a dram 0-0-4-0. 

23. To bread 0-0-4-2. And went upon main guard 
and saw the skirmish between our men and the enemy. 

24. Marched in a bad storm to Tarry town. 

25. Received orders to march to "Mild" Square. Re- 
ceived for the cards 0-1-6-0. Received for chocolate and 
bullets 0-0-9-0. About three o'clock paraded for a march 
and were dismissed until two o'clock at night. 

26. At about four o'clock in the morning marched for 
the "Mild" Square and as soon as we got there had orders 
to march to "Volentines" Hill, and at night marched back 
to the "Mild" Square. 

27. Marched to Volentines Hill and laid siege against 
Fort Independence, and laid there until night, and then 
marched back to the Mile Square again. 

28. 

29. To bread 0-0-6-0. At night received orders to 
parade at five o'clock at the Generals and marched to 
Tarrytown in a snow storm. 

30. Marched about three miles towards the White plain 
and went upon "Doar" guard at night. 

31. To sugar 0-1-6-0. To washing my cloths 0-1-0-0. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 175 

February. 

1. To brandy 0-1-0-0. To choping wood 0-0-2-0. To 
milk 0-0-2-0. 

2. To brandy 0-1-0-0. Received for a gun that we 
took 0-7-6-0. Received for rum 0-1-8-0. 

3. To brandy 0-0-9-0. 

4. To brandy 0-0-6-0. Mounted guard for four and 
twenty hours. 

5. To rum 0-0-9-0. 

6. To brandy 0-0-6-0. Went upon picket guard. 
7. 

8. About three o'clock marched down to Philips [Castle 
Philips] and got back again at night. 

9. To sugar 0-1-9-0. Received for chocolate 0-2-0-0. 

10. To brandy 0-0-6-0. Marched for the Jersey's this 
morning. "Courtling Manner" at "Bleeniee" to supper 
and lodging 0-1-0-0. 

11. To bread O-tf-4-0, and marched to "Crompond." 

12. To milk 0-0-1-0. At the Peekskills to a dram 
0-0-4-2. To cheese 0-6-0-0. To rum 0-2-6-0. To gin- 
ger 0-0-4-0. Lodged at the Peekskills. 

13. Marched to the King's Ferry and crossed and lodged 
at Hervistown [probably HaverstrawJ. 

14. To bread 0-0-2-0. and marched to "Rammapo" 
and lodged there. 

15. Lodged at Morris County. 

16. "Cuponic" at Lanlord Ecubo's to cider 0-0-6-0. 
Lodged at Boontown. 

17. Marched into Morristown then marched back about 
two miles for quarters. 

18. 0-0-6-0. 

19. Received orders to march to Bounbrook. 

20. Received for bottle 0-0-6-0, and marched about 
four miles beyond Morristown. 

21. To washing 0-0-4-0. 



176 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

22. To a pint of milk for Thayer and I 0-0-2-1. 

23. We drawed the first allowance of preaching. At 
night we received orders to cook four days' provision and 
be ready at a minutes warning, when we had but two 
days' rations drawn. 

24. To a pint of milk 0-0-2-1. 
25. 

26. To a pint of milk for Thayer and I 0-0-2-1. To 
a pint of milk 0-0-2-1. 

27. Went upon fatigue. 

28. To a pint of milk 0-0-2-1. 

March. 

1. To a pint of milk 0-0-2-1. 

2. Had a meeting. 

3. To a pint of milk 0-0-2-1. To a pint of milk 0-0- 
2-0. 

4. Went upon quarter guard. 

5. To washing 0-0-4-0. To baking at sundry times 
0-1-11-0. 

6. Had a sermon preached to us. 

7. Went upon picket guard. 

8. Tapping my shoes 0-3-0-0. 

9. To nails 0-0-6-0. 

10. To milk 0-0-2-1. Went upon picket. 

11. To a dram 0-1-0-0. 

12. To a pint of milk 0-0-2-1. 

13. Received for a Baggonet 0-5-6-0. Went upon 
main guard. 

14. Received for a sugar box 0-2-0-0. To a dram 0- 
0-7i 

15. Received for a pair buckles 0-4-0-0. To a dram 
0-1-0-0. Paid for carying my pack 0-3-8-0. 

16. Went upon guard. 

17. To a dram 0-1-0-0. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. Ill 

18. Received my wages 6-17-4-0. 

19. Went upon main guard. 

20. To rum 0-1-0-0. 

21. Paid for cooking 0-2-6-0. 

22. Went upon main guard. To cider 0-0-3-0. and 
found 0-10-0-0 to a gun case. 

23. Marched for home. At Quponix 0-0-9-0. Lodged 
at Pumtown. To some milk 0-0-3-0. 

24. To a dram 0-0-6-0. To breakfast 0-0-3-0. At 
Rammapo to a dram 0-0-6-0. Smith's Clove to a dram 
0-0-6-0, and lodged in the same town. In Cornwall to 
breakfast and a dram 0-0-10-0. 

25. For crossing "New Winsor Ferry" 0-1-0-0. Fish- 
kill's to cider 0-0-6-0. "Hopewill," "Bacans presink" 
lodged and a dram 0-0-6-0. To milk 0-0-2-1. In Dover 
to a dram 0-0-4-2. At Kent to dinner 0-0-8-0. New 
Milford to cider 0-0-2-0. To a dram 0-0-6-0. At Kent 
to lodging and supper 0-1-0-0. To breakfast and a dram 
0-1-4-0. Litchfield to a dram 0-0-6-0. Hedrintown to 
a dinner 0-0-10-0. Farmingtown to a dram 0-0-8-0. 
Lodging, supper 0-1-0-0. To a dram 0-0-3-0. Hartford 
to a breakfast 0-1-3-0. East Hartford to a dram 0-0-9-0. 
To a dinner 0-1-3-0. Bolton. Coventry to lodging 0-1- 
3-0. Mansfield to breakfast 0-1-3-0. Willington. Ash- 
ford to a dram 0-0-3-0. Pomphret to a dinner 0-0-10-0. 
Killingly lodged and a dram and supper 0-1-4-0. Thomp- 
son to a dram and breakfast 0-1-3-0. Douglas to cider 
0-0-1-2. Uxbridge to a dram 0-0-8-0. To a dinner 
0-0-9-0. Mendon to a dram 0-0-6-0. 

ICHABOD CORBETT, 

of Mendon. 

On the pages that follow are to be found this record: 

Darius Sumner, Ser. Jacob Haywood, 

Caleb Boyenton, Drum, Ichabod Albee, 

Samuel Nelson, Samuel Warfield, 



178 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

Simeon Chapin, Eleazer Daniels, 

Joseph Nelson, Ichabod Corbett, 

John Nelson, James Sprague. 

All belonging to one mess: 
Nathan Allen, John Harthorn, 

David Boyden, Alpheus Lion, 

Oliver Chickerre [Chickering], Bennone Moxe [Morse], 
Timothy Cudwith, David Owen, 

Rufus Clap, Lot Perry, 

Ichabod Corbett, Ebenezer Page, 

John Fuller, Joseph Rockwood, 

John Ferret, Eleazer Streeter, 

Jesse Ferret, Benjamin Twitchel', 

Darius Holbrook, Nathan Thayer, 

Seth Wright. 

Mr. Corbett was evidently a man of business and appa- 
rently acted as cashier for those of his friends who wished to 
take advantage of his comfortably well filled purse for that 
time. The reader will, however, have to balance the indi- 
vidual accounts. 

The account kept with his customers has the following 
heading: For value received do promise to pay Ichabod 
Corbett or order the sum of nine pounds L. M. on demand 
with interest till paid as witness my hand, Tom Dick. 



Ichabod Albee, Debt. 


9-0-0-0. 


Samuel Warfield, Debt. 


0-8-0. 


Samuel Warfield, Debt. 


0-4-0. 


Debt, to Samuel War. 


0-2-0. 


Joseph Rockwood, Debt. 


0-0-4-2. 


Jer Perry, Debt. 


0-0-4-0. 


Due to Perry, 


0-0-4-2. 


Due to Perry, 


0-0-6-0. 


Rufus Clapp, Debt. 


0-0-6-0. 


Darius Holbrook, 


0-0-6-0. 


Due to Perry, 


0-1-10-2. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 



179 



Twitchell, Debtor, 


0-0-2-2 


Perry, Debt. 


0-0-4-0 


An account of what sugar we lent at times: 


Twitchel, 1 




Daniel, 1 




Perry, 2 




Darius, 2 




Perry, Dept. 


0-0-9-0. 


Paid for milk, 


0-0-2-0 


, Debt to Henry, 


0-0-1-2. 


Debt to Amariah, 


0-0-6-0. 


Rufus Clapp, Debt. 


0-1-0-0. 


Nathan Thayer, Debt. 


0-1-0-0. 


Twitchell paid for pail. 




Streater paid " " 




Thayer " " " 




Debt to Thayer, 


0-0-9-0. 


JVitchell, Debt. 


0-0-6-0. 


Thayer, Debt. 


0-0-3-0. 


Joseph, " 


0-0-4-0. 


Darius, " 


0-4-0-0. 


To Rum, 


0-0-8-0. 


Due to Perry, 


0-1-0-0. 


Perry, Debt. 


0-0-2-0. 


Cor Fuller, Debt. 


0-0-2-0. 


Debt to Perry, 


0-0-1-2. 


Cook paid for chocolate. 




Perry Debt, one copper. 




Twitchell, Debt. 


0-0-6-0. 


Joseph, " 


0-0-4-0. 


Darius, " 


0-1-8-0. 


Darius paid for chocolate and pail. 




Debt to Twitchel, 


0-1-0-0. 


Lot paid for pail. 




Joseph paidffor pail. 





180 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Amariah paid for pail. # 

Joseph Rockwood, Debt. 0-1-0-0. 

Cor Cook, " 0-1-0-0. 

Nathan Thayer, " 0-0-6-0. 

Twitchel, " 0-0-2-0. 

Nathan Thayer, " 0-0-2-0. 

Darius, " 0-0-2-0. 

Streater, " 0-0-3-0. 

Joseph, " 0-0-2-0. 

January 11,1 paid for a pail for the meals, 0-2-0-0. 
Nathan and Perry paid their part of the chocolate. 

Debt to Cor Fuller, 0-0-4-2. 

Joseph, Debt. 0-0-2-0. 
Cook paid for pail. 
Perry " " " 
John " " " 



SECOND EXPEDITION. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL CRAGGIN'S COMPANY. 

January, 1778. 

8. Marched for Providence and lodged at Mr. Bucklin's 
in Smithfield. 

9. Marched into Providence town. 

10. Got into Barracks till further orders. 

12. Received orders to march to Quonset point. 

13. We "drawed" ammunition. No. of C. 17. 

14. About 12 o'clock we marched for "Quonset pint," 
lodged at lanlord "Arnolds" in Greenwich. 

15. Marched to. 

16. Received orders to march to Quidneset and marched 
about sunset and when we get there I mounted gard. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 181 

17. Was as stormy a night as most ever was. 

19. Phineas Ward like to be drowned. 

20. Mounted gard. 

21. Received for a pare of taps 0-6-0-0. 

22. Went to Jobdik's; Newtown; by water to draw 
provision. 

23. Mounted gard. " Countersine " Mendon. 
27. Mounted gard. 

31. Mounted gard. 

February. 



2. 


Had a large "hangon." 


4. 


Mounted gard. 


6. 


Mounted gard and were taken by the Grand Round. 


8. 


A Barge chased one of our boats. 


10. 


Mounted gard. 


13. 


Mounted gard. 


15. 


Marched home. 


20. 


Marched back to Providence. 


21. 


Marched to Quidnesset pint. 


23. 


Stephan Nigh received a bad wound in his thy. 


24. 


Mounted gard. 


25. 


Our gard at Boston Neck was fired upon by the 


tories, 


as was supposed. 


26. 


Altered our allowance, for a half pound of beef 


received a half pound of rice. 


28. 


Mounted gard. 



March. 

3. Mounted gard, Countersign, Rosebury. 

6. Mounted gard, Countersign, " Homer." 

11. Marched to Littlerest in South Kingstown. 

13. Mounted gard. 
13 



182 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

14. Marched back to Quidnesset Point. 

22. Mounted gard. 

24. 

26. 

28. Was called of to go to Pindjuda [Point Judith]. 
Boat hired. 

29. Mounted gard for the man that went for me. 
31. Received orders to march towards home and marched 

to Pawtuxet. 

April. 

1. Marched home. 

A provision return of Captain Samuel Craggin's company 
in Colonel Ebenezer Sprout's regiment for three days, viz. 
March 16, 17 & 18, March 16th, 1778. 



Captain, 


3 • 


1. Lieutenant, 


2 


2 


2 


Non commissioned & Privates, 


72 


Rations pr day, 


79 


Whole Rations, 


237 


Rations returned, 


12 


Rations drawn, 


225 


Bread, 


225 


Beef, 


225 


Rice in place of beef, 


112i 


Jacob Hay ward debtor to me 0-11-0-0. 


i 


Ser. Sumner 61, 62. 




Eleazer 64. 




Samuel Hill 63. No. 65. 


, 


Silas Holbrook 66. 


| 


Joel Legg No. 67. 


1 


Joseph Torry 68. 


I 


Jacob Haywood 69, 70. 


! 

! 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 183 

James 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81. 

Ichabod 82, 83, 84, 85, 86. 

Ser. Chase 89, 90. 

"Paroes" No. 36, 37. 

Morse 30. 

Timothy Wood No. 22, 23, 24, 87, 88. 

John Allen No. 17, 16, 48. 

David Haywood 53, 54. 

Simeon Morse 47. 

Isaac Strate 38. 

Benjamin Rob 20. 

Jesse Marsh 39. 

Ser. Keith 19, 26, 27, 28, 29. 

Morse 3, 42. 

Samuel Nelson 21. 

Joshua Wood 1, 2. 

Moses Warren 5, 6. 

Josiah Nelson 4, 40, 41. 

Phineas Ward 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 91. 

Ichabod Albee No. 13, 14, 15. 

Simeon Chapin No. 43, 49, 55. 

Denis Darling No. 56. 

Pellatiah Dorr No. 57. 

Daniel Haz [Haws] No. 44. 

Daniel Fiske No. 45, 46. 

Lemuel Munro No. 58, 59, 60, 50, 51, 52. 

Simeon Fish No. 11. 

Baley No. 12. 

Jesse Chapin No. 18. 



184 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

G F E D C B A 

9 2 3 1 

47 12 6 11 8 5 10 



8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

3 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

o> 29 30 31 



In the army of the State of Rhode Island. I for Samue 
Warfield of Mendon and Margery Joy Intend marriage. 

Samuel N. 0-6-0. 

J. Sprague 0-6-0. 

I. Albee 0-6-0. 

Ichabod C. 0-12-0. 

E. Daniels 0-6-0. 

Simeon Chapin 0-6-0. 

Samuel Ward 0-6-0. 

Ichabod Albee 0-5-0. 

Simeon Chapin 0-4-6. 

Cor Boynton 0-3-0. 

Samuel Nelson 0-2-0. 

John Nelson 0-4-0. 



Diary of a Revolutionary Soldier. 185 

Eleazer Daniels 0-11-6. 

Hayward 0-2-6. 

Warfield 0-2-6. 

Ser. Sumner 0-2-6. 

James Sprague 0-2-6. 

Samuel Craggin of Mendon, marched as private in Capt. 
John Albee's company on the alarm of April 19, 1775, 
and from that time until the close of the war was most 
of the time actively engaged in the service. He soon was 
appointed Sergeant, Captain and Lieut.-Colonel, 1779. 



ATTEMPT AT RHYME. 

General Lee our second commander 
may he prove valliant in fighting 
as great Alexander. 
Our civil rights be a defender 
and scatter the troops of the pope 
and pretender. 

General Putnam whose courage was ritten 

that struck such dread on 

the troops of Great Brittan, 

At Bunker Hill fight they all 

ran like Devils, and for a shelter 

crept under their swivels. 

General Montgomery who talkes 
of his praises that liberty loves 
and Regiments he raises, St. Johns 
was taken, and the rest did 
surrender, and " Camel ' ' is taken 
that hellish pretender. 

When this news get's home, 
Lord O North will tremble, to 
think that America doth not 
resemble But quick to revenge 
and histed a swivel and bid 
a defiance to Brute and the Divel. 



186 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Here is a health to the Congress 

our gard and protector, 

and they prove valliant as Hiram that great art Pirectoi 

God grant them success in their 

place and his station, and 

may they act wise for America Nation. 

May General Washington have his 
desire and conquer his foes and 
kill the goliah, our people's rights 
keep which are to be prised, 
and holter the troops of the 
uncircumcised. 



ANCESTRY OF ICHABOD CORBETT. 

Robert Corbett, the records say, was of Weymouth, 
Mass., where he took the oath of allegiance 1679. He was 
soldier in King Philip's War, and subsequently actively 
interested in the settlement of the town of Woodstock, 
Cpnn., at that time considered in Massachusetts. For a 
time was a resident of that place. He married Priscilla 
Rockwood of Mendon, Mass., Feby. 23, 1682. 

Had: 

1. John, b. Dec. 7, 1683; m. Mehitabel Holbrook. 

2. Joseph, b. April 20, 1685. 

3. Probably, Daniel, who m. Sarah Jones, Dec. 4, 1717. 

John m. Mehitabel Holbrook, Dec. 23, 1703. He wai 
a skilful physician of liberal education and enjoyed i 
large practice among the people of his district. 

Had: 

1. John, b. Nov. 4, 1704; m. Hopestill Chapin, Dec) 

27, 1727. Recorded in Boston. 

2. Priscilla, b. Aug. 14, 1706; m. Nathaniel Jones, so' 

of John. 

3. Margaret, b. April 3, 1708; m. Walter Cook, sol 

of Samuel. ! 



Ancestry of Ichabod Corbetl. 187 

4. Joseph, b. Sept. 4, 1712; m. Deborah Albee, July 

3, 1733. 

5. Rachel, b. Aug. 1, 1717; m. Josiah Ball, July 3, 

1733. 

6. Mehitabel, b. July 13, 1722. 

7. Josiah, b. June 13, 1725; probably d. in infancy. 

Joseph Corbett m. Deborah (Thayer) Albee, July 3, 
1733, by Rev. Joseph Dorr of Mendon, Mass. He died 
Nov. 26, 1797. 

Children : 

1. Jesse, b. Mch. 2, 1734; m. Mary . 

2. Isaiah, b. June 26, 1737; m. Lydia Vickery, Jany. 

12, 1758. 

3. Mehitable, b. Mch. 13, 1742. 

Jesse Corbett m. Mary . It is stated he was drowned 

not long after his marriage, in the Charles River, leaving 
but one child: 

1. Ichabod, b. April 21, 1756, on the Corbett homestead, 
opposite the Bicknell family cemetery in that part 
of Milford now South Hopedale; m. Olive Lassall. 

Ichabod Corbett was married to Olive Lassall, of Mendon, 
Sept. 16, 1779, by Rev. Joseph Willard. She was born July 
7, 1758. 

To this man belongs the credit of writing out the re- 
cord which we find in this diary, and the man to whom 
homage is due for furnishing to posterity a memorandum 
of special historical moment. Although his life may not 
have been marked by numerous brilliant events, his ser- 
vice during that eventful struggle, rendered at various 
times during that trying period, together with the preser- 
vation and transmission to his descendants of this valuable 
document, is sufficient cause for holding the man in high 
esteem. He was a noted singer of patriotic and old-time 
songs, and frequently entertained his neighbors and the 



188 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

people where he went with his selections. He was the 
village veterinary, a man of kind heart and generous im- 
pulse, and frequently called to attend the sick. 

He died in Milford, Feby. 19, 1829. His widow died Oct. 
12, 1837. Katherine Fuller, a granddaughter, is now, 1903, 
living in Milford. 

1. Truelove, b. Jany. 22, 1780; m. 1st David Adams, 

2d John Knights. 

2. Otis B., b. July 29, 1782; d. 1868, Worcester. 

3. Pamelia, b. May 2, 1785; d. Jany. 14, 1859, un- 

married. 

4. Leavitt, b. Aug. 7, 1787; removed to Charlestown, 

and from there to Maiden, where he purchased the 
" Chittenden Farm " of Joseph Hurd in 1831, for 
forty-five hundred dollars. Here he d. Aug. 9, 
1855, an honored citizen. Published to Lucinda 
Winn Nov. 21, 1813, in Charlestown. 

5. Jesse, b. April 18, 1789; m.; settled in Keene, N. H.; 

d. there. 

6. Nancy, b. April 15, 1792; d. Sept. 9, 1866, unmarried. 

7. Polly, b. Jany. 25, 1795; d. Sept. 2, 1832, unmarried. 

8. Horace, b. April 13, 1797; settled in Lisbon, Maine, 

where he was a manufacturer of wooden wares and 
a prominent citizen of that place. 

Truelove Corbett [1] m. 1st David Adams; he d. in 1815 
and she m. 2d John Knights. By her first husband she 
had three children: 

1. Otis C. (Adams), b. Aug. 14, 1805; d. Oct. 16, 

1859. 

2. Adeline (Adams), b. Jany. 10, 1808; d. Jany. 28, 

1852. 

3. David (Adams), b. Jany. 17, 1815. 

David Adams [3] m. Feb. 9, 1841, Jemima Rawson, 
daughter of Simon, and in line of descent in the seventh 



Ancestry of Ichabod Corbett. 189 

generation from Edward Rawson, Secretary of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony. 

Mr. Adams was born in Milford. But soon after the 
death of his father went to live in Mendon, where he grew 
to manhood and passed a long and useful life, enjoying 
the confidence of the entire community. He died April 
14, 1900, after having held the office of Town Clerk, by 
annual elections, for thirty-five years, resigning the charge 
at his own desire on account of failing health in 1890; 
at which time his son, Horace Corbett Adams, was elected 
to succeed his father as Town Clerk, and now, 1903, re- 
tains that position, having also enjoyed the distinction of 
representing his district as representative to the General 
Court for two years. Children of David Adams and Je- 
mima his wife were: 

1. Isabella Phipps (Adams), b. Oct. 27, 1841; m. 

Charles H. Spencer. 

2. Horace Corbett (Adams), b. July 18, 1848; m. Cora 

G. Taft. 

3. Maria Miller (Adams), b. Oct. 31, 1850. 

Truelove Corbett, by 2d marriage with John Knights, 
of Woburn, July 20, 1820, had: 

2. Augustus (Knights), twin, b. Dec. 24, 1822; m. Sarah 

Wheelock. He d. Aug. 17, 1889. 

3. Charles (Knights), twin, b. Dec. 24, 1822; m. Esther 

C. Warfield. He d. June, 1902. 

Otis B. Corbett [2] m. Mary S— . Mr. Corbett came to 
Worcester when a young man and served his apprentice- 
ship with Mr. Geer Terry, a native of Enfield, Conn., who 
kept a watch and jewelry store on the east side of Main 
street just south of School street. About the year 1814, 
Mr. Terry returned to his native town, where he died 
May 26, 1856. 

Mr. Corbett early entered into business on his own ac- 
count, occupying a store on the west side of Main street, 



190 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

opposite the site of the present Mechanics Hall. Being 
quite successful, through frugality and strict attention to 
business, he soon accumulated a competency and became 
interested in other enterprises. In 1844 he was associated 
with W. A. Draper & Co. in the shoe and leather trade, 
and three years later he was conducting that business 
alone, continuing it, until 1852, when he seems to have 
retired. His first home for twenty years was on Front 
street, on the site of the present Chase Building. But in 
the early forties he removed to a new home on Corbett 
street, on the site now occupied by the Young Women's 
Christian Association Building, corner of Chatham and 
High streets. 

Mr. Corbett, from his first introduction into business, 
enjoyed the entire confidence of the community. As early 
as 1815, he was called to assume duties of public life, and 
from thenceforward nearly to the time of his death there 
was very little time that he was not engaged with the 
responsibility of some public trust assigned him by a vote 
of the inhabitants of the town. He filled with credit and 
honor nearly every station within the gift of his constituents : 
Moderator at town meetings, Assessor, Selectman, School 
Committeeman, Representative to the General Court for 
six years and on numerous special important committees. 
In May, 1829, he was chosen cashier of the Central Bank, 
but resigned the office in the fall of the same year. He 
was for many years one of the trustees of the Worcester 
Academy; always interested in educational institutions; a 
man of strict integrity, sound judgment, of kind and cour-i 
teous manners. 

He died Feby. 6, 1868. 

Their children, born in Worcester, were: 

1. Caroline Mary, b. Feby. 18, 1808; school teacher inij 

Worcester for many years. 

2. Calista, b. Jany. 16, 1810; m. Levi A. Dowley, Oct.] 

29, 1828. ! 



Ancestry of Ichabod Corbett. 191 

3. Charlotte, b. Sept. 4, 1811 ; m. Theophilus B. Thomp- 

son of Bangor, Me., Nov. 1, 1841. 

4. Emeline, b. Dec. 7, 1813; m. Jonathan Day of 

Webster, Sept. 23, 1835. 

5. Eliza, b. Mch. 19, 1816; m. Henry P. Stevens of 

Augusta, Me., Aug. 22, 1839. 

6. Otis Grafton, b. Feby. 1, 1819. 

7. Sidney, b. Aug. 10, 1826. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY -THIRD MEETING. 
TUESDAY EVENING, JUNE 2, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Crane, Davidson, Eaton, E. T. Estey, Gould, 
Daniel Kent, M. A. Maynard, Geo. Maynard, Marston, H. 
G. Otis, C. E. Parker, E. J. Russell, Salisbury, Williamson, 
Mrs. Boland, Mrs. Hildreth, Miss May, Miss Moore, Mrs. 
M. A. Maynard, Mrs. T. C. Rice, Miss Reed, Miss Smith, 
Miss M. Agnes Waite, Mrs. Williamson, Thomas C. Rice, 
Miss Boland. 

Contributions for the previous month as reported by the 
Librarian were: nineteen bound volumes, ninety-six pam- 
phlets and three articles for the museum. 

Attention was called to the donations of a complete set 
of the publication "All Saints Parish," and the vital re- 
cords for the towns of Lee, Leicester, Medfield, Becket 
and Westboro, Mass. 

The Standing Committee on Nominations presented the 
names of Professor and Mrs. Alexander F. Chamberlain, 
and they were elected active members of the Society. The 
names of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Ball were referred to 
the same Committee for their consideration. 

Mr. M. A. Maynard called attention to the Society's 
need of a flag and staff, that the national colors might be 
displayed at the front of the building on public days and 
at other times when thought advisable; and on his motion 



Proceedings. 193 

it was voted to procure the same, to be the property of 
the Society. 

Mr. Crane referred to the question of erecting statues 
in memory of certain men who in the past had made them- 
selves conspicuous by services rendered the Town, County, 
State and Nation, and that, owing to the public interest 
attending the subject, it had been thought best to have 
a committee of fifteen representative, competent citizens 
to carefully consider the subject in all its phases; that 
the City Council had already selected a committee of five 
persons, the Board of Trade were to select five from that 
body, and it was to be hoped that five persons might be 
appointed from this Society to complete the general com- 
mittee of fifteen; and on his motion the following named 
persons were appointed, Mrs. Daniel Kent, Mrs. Wm. T. 
Forbes, Hon. Ledyard Bill, Charles A. Chase and Orlando 
W. Norcross. 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury was introduced and read a paper 
prepared by Mrs. E. 0. P. Sturgis, including brief sketches 
of Sarah Chandler, born 1725; Timothy Paine, born 1730 
Dr. William Paine, born 1750; Col. Murray, born 1750 
Elizabeth Chandler, born 1732; James Putnam, born 1756 
Katherine Chandler, born 1735. These sketches will be 
found printed in No. 2, Vol. XIX., with the other papers 
written by Mrs. E. 0. P. Sturgis and read by Hon. Stephen 
Salisbury at the April meeting, it being thought desirable 
to bring the contents of the two papers together. 

The Librarian read a letter from Hon. George Sheldon 
of Deerfield, Mass., containing an invitation to members 
of the Society to attend the bi-centennial of the sacking 
of that town by the Indians; the exercises to be held 
July 29, during "Old Home Week," under the direction 
of the Pocomtuck Valley Historical Society. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



194 Worcester Society in Antiquity. 

FLAGG FAMILY IN WORCESTER. 

Thomas Flagg, 1 the ancestor of nearly if not all of that 
name in this country, settled in Watertown, Mass., as early 
as 1643. He died Feby. 6, 1697-98. His wife Mary was 
born 1619. She made a will, dated Dec. 30, 1702, which 
was proved April 21, 1703. 

Their children: 

1. John, b. June 14, 1643; m. Mary Gale. 

2. Bartholomew, b. Feby. 23, 1644-45. 

3. Thomas, b. April 28, 1646; m. Rebecca Dix. 

4. Gershom, m. Hannah Leppingwell. 

5. Michael, b. Mch. 23, 1650-51; m. Mary Bigelow, 

Worcester. 

6. Eleazer, b. May 14, 1653. 

7. Elizabeth, b. Mch. 22, 1654-55; m. Joshua Bigelow. 

8. Mary, b. June 14, 1657; m. Samuel Bigelow. 

9. Rebecca, b. Sept. 5, 1660; m. Stephen Cook. 

10. Benjamin, b. June 25, 1662; m. Experience Child, 

and d. in Worcester. 

11. Allen, b. May 16, 1665; m. Sarah Ball. He d. 

Nov., 1711. 

Captain Benjamin Flagg 2 [10] married Sept. 26, 1690, 
Experience Child. It appears by the early town records 
of Worcester that he purchased the rights of Thomas 
Brown and also those of Jacob Leonard; and after the 
birth of his children, in Watertown, removed to Worcester, 
locating first on the sixty-acre home lot formerly owned 
by Thomas Brown, where the latter built a house ; and as 
early as December, 1674, was licensed to keep an ordinary 
or tavern for the accommodation of travellers. 

As early as 1686 Mr. Flagg seems to have come into 
possession of this Brown estate. But doubtless owing to 
the Indian depredations throughout the country, he did not 
remove his family hither until about the year 1717. At the 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 195 

first town meeting, held in Worcester on the last Wednesday 
of September, 1722, Mr. Flagg was chosen one of the select- 
men. At the next town meeting, held on the first Monday 
in March, 1722-23, he was re-elected selectman and 
also elected one of the assessors. In 1724, on May 20, 
Benjamin Flagg was given one of the front seats in the 
meeting-house, and in September of that year he with 
Gershom Rice were chosen to "make adress to the Rev 
Mr Thomas White in behalf of ye church and town for 
his further assistance in ye work of ye Gospel." At the 
February town meeting in 1724-25, he was placed on a 
committee for auditing town accounts. At the following 
meeting in March he with Richard Wheeler and Tiras Rice 
opposed the work of completing the galleries in the meet- 
ing-house. 

He was also selectman 1726 and for many years there- 
after, also moderator t>f the town meeting in May, 1728, 
and on various occasions. He was on committee to settle 
accounts between the town and Rev. Mr. Isaac Burr in 
1731, and secured on June 4 a statement from Mr. Burr, 
showing all accounts balanced to March, 1730-31. In 
1733, at the reseating of the meeting-house, Mr. Flagg and 
his wife were assigned a place in "ye fore seet in ye body" 
of the house. He was chosen on committee in 1738 to 
provide some proper scheme for more profitably applying 
the profit received from the ministerial and school lands 
lying in the south part of the town, and Mch. 5, 1738-39, 
he was elected town treasurer. 

April 16, 1739, he was with Major Jonas Rice, Deacon 
Moore, James Taylor and John Curtis chosen a committee 
to treat with a committee of the Court of General Sessions 
of ye Peace for ye County of Worcester about purchasing 
" a bell that may serve the town as well as the county, and 
also a proper place to hang ye same," and lay the proposals 
before the town for further consideration as soon as may 
be. This committee made a report at a town meeting, 



196 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

May 23, 1739, which was read and accepted and the town 
voted to pay sixty pounds towards purchasing a bell, not 
to weigh less than three hundred pounds, and that one- 
half of the frame, with the necessary appurtenances for 
hanging said bell, be paid by the town; said frame to 
be erected near a small tree on the northerly side of the 
highway, a little • northeasterly of Captain Heywood's 
dwelling-house; and a committee was appointed to pur- 
chase said bell and see to the building of said frame in 
conjunction with a committee from the Honorable Court. 

Dec. 24, 1740, Captain Flagg was appointed on a com- 
mittee with Col. John Chandler, then representing the 
town at the General Court, and Henry Lee, Esq., to answer 
in behalf of the town a petition of Captain Daniel How 
and others, inhabitants of Shrewsbury, relating to the 
"Maldin Farm/' This appears to be the last public ser- 
vice assigned him by the town. He died May 3, 1741, 
and at the meeting of the inhabitants of the town, held 
Nov. 16, 1741, it was voted that the account of Captain 
Flagg, late Treasurer for the last year, as represented by 
John Chandler, Esq., and others a committee, be accepted 
and allowed and ordered to lie on file. At this same 
meeting a vote was passed placing an assessment of forty 
pounds upon the polls and estates, to be levied that year, 
the money to be used to pay for one-half the bell pur- 
chased by the town and county, and Henry Lee, Esq.,! 
and Capt. Heywood were appointed to see to the erection 
of the building for hanging the same on the spot formerly 
agreed to by the town and county. 

It therefore appears that the senior Captain Benjamin 
Flagg did not live to see the first public bell set up in 
Worcester, although taking part in the preliminary step 
to secure that object. His widow, Experience (Child' 
Flagg, died in Worcester, July 11, 1747. 

Their children were: 

12. 1. Benjamin, b. Aug. 25, 1691 ; m. Elizabeth Fiske; 



14. 


3. 


15. 


4. 


16. 


5. 


17. 


6. 


18. 


7. 


19. 


8. 


20. 


9. 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 197 

13. 2. Experience, b. May 5, 1693; m. Caleb Ball of 
Concord, Oct. 26, 1713. 

Abigail, b. April 16, 1694; m. William Jennison. 

Bartholomew, b. Nov. 16, 1699. 

Elizabeth, b. Dec. 28, 1700; m. Peter King 
alias Rice, Feby. 15, 1719-20. 

Gershom, b. July 11, 1702. 

Mary, bapt. April 9, 1704. 

Ebenezer, b. Jany. 21, 1705-6. 

Richard, b. May 20, 1708; m. Grace. 
Captain Benjamin Flagg [12] m. Jany. 25, 1715-16, 
Elizabeth Fiske, daughter of Nathaniel Fiske of Watertown. 
She was born June 24, 1692. 

Captain Flagg was chosen one of the selectmen at the 
town meeting held in Worcester on the first Monday in 
March, 1722-23, at the same time his father was elected 
to serve on the same board, and for many succeeding years. 
The fourth day of June following he was chosen with Na- 
thaniel Jones to defend the town against the suit of Mr. 
Andrew Gardner, which was to be heard and tried on the 
second Tuesday of the same month; June 24 appointed 
to act with the committee from the Church to settle with 
Mr. Gardner and also to secure a candidate for a minister. 
No settlement with Mr. Gardner having been reached, he 
was, the 8th of July, chosen one of the arbitrators to 
represent the town in the case. He was on the committee 
to give Rev. Mr. Bourn a call to preach for the town. In 
1724 he was given a place in the " third seat " in the Church. 
One of the assessors 1724-25, 1728-29, 1730; at the April 
meeting, 1726, appointed on a committee to see that the 
town was provided with a " stock of Ammunition as the 
law directs"; at town meeting Mch. 2, he was chosen 
town clerk; chosen moderator at meeting, Mch. 31 1729, and 
to teach the school; also on committee for finishing the 
meeting-house ; and the following year to look after the ac- 
counts for highway work; and in 1732 on committee with 

14 



198 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

William Jennison, Esq., and Capt. Jonas Rice to account 
with the trustees for the last Bank money due the town, 
and pay what is due to the inhabitants of the north part 
of Worcester out of it, agreeable to the vote of the town 
at the sixth of March last past, and to make report to 
the town, and to be accountable to the town for the re- 
mainder. 

November, 1732, appointed by the court one of a com- 
mittee to see to building the court house, not to exceed 
twenty-six by thirty-six feet square and thirteen-foot posts. 
May 15, 1733, he was chosen with Daniel Heywood and 
Thomas Stearns to look after the locating and building of 
the first school-house in the town. It was to be twenty- 
four feet long, sixteen feet wide and seven feet studded, 
to be completely finished, with a good chimney and glass 
windows, with suitable tables and benches for the scholars. 
He, in 1733, was elected County Treasurer and re-elected 
for several years, and also given leave to build in the rear 
part of the floor of the meeting-house a pew for his own 
family use. 

The high position in which he was held by the inhabi- 
tants of the town is further indicated by the fact of his 
having been frequently chosen moderator at various town 
meetings, and his continued service on the board of select- 
men; showing that he was a worthy citizen, enjoying the 
full confidence of his townsmen and earning, as his father 
had done, the honorable title of Captain, no doubt through 
military service in defence of the settlement against depre- 
dations from the Indians. 

He was representative to the General Court 1743-1744, 
1746 and 1751, and succeeded Daniel Gookin as sheriff of 
the county in 1743, and held the office until 1751. 

He died June 12, 1751, in the sixty-first year of his 
age, and his remains were deposited in the burial-ground 
on the Common. 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 199 

Their children: 

21. 1. Elizabeth, b. May 24, 1717, in Waltham; m. 

Absolom Rice, son of Jonas of Worcester. 

22. 2. Abigail, b. Sept. 6, 1721; m. Samuel Hubbard. 

23. 3. Benjamin, b. Feby. 1, 1724, bapt. in Waltham, 

Aug. 26, 1723; m. Abagail Chadwick. 

24. 4. William, b. Feby. 5 or 6, 1726-27. 

25. 5. Asa, b. Mch. 3, 1728-29; d. Mch. 20, 1728-29. 

26. 6. Asa, b. June 14, 1730; an ensign in 1757. 

27. 7. Mary, b. Nov. 27, 1732. 

Benjamin Flagg [23] m. Abigail Chadwick. He was 
twenty-seven years of age at the time of his father's death 
and was very soon called upon to assume public duties 
as highway tax collector and fence viewer. But it is pos- 
sible that the holding of public office was not the height 
of his ambition, although he was given his choice in select- 
ing his pew in the new meeting-house, 1764, selecting No. 
55. More than thirteen years slipped away before we find 
him recorded as holding any official position in the town. 

At March meeting, 1766, he was elected to a position 
on the board of assessors. He was then living on what 
is now Plantation street. The same year his name appears 
on the list of selectmen and on the committee to instruct 
the town's representative at the General Court. In 1769 
he is member of the school committee and for several 
years retained in that capacity, as well as that of assessor. 
At the March town meeting in 1772 he was one of the 
committee elected by the town to build a work-house, not 
exceeding eighteen by forty feet square, on the town's 
land, between the malthouse of Captain Goulding and 
Holmes Bridge, as near as may be to the brook. In ad- 
dition to his duties as one of the selectmen he, in 1774, 
was called upon to serve on the committee to reply for the 
town to the Protest of William Elder, John Curtis and 



200 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

others, the copy of which protest Clark Chandler, the town 
clerk, was obliged to obliterate from the town's book by 
dipping his finger in the ink and drawing it over the written 



Mr. Flagg was recognized as one of ( the stanch patriots 
of the town, and April 19, 1775, on the alarm at Lexington, 
he as Captain marched at the head of a company of Worces- 
ter militia to repel the attack of the Britishers. But this 
service of seven days was only the beginning of the period 
of his active service in the field. He responded to the 
call and marched to reinforce the continental army, join- 
ing Col. J. Ward's regiment, receiving his commission Jany. 
29, 1776. He belonged to the First Worcester County 
Regiment. He was Lieutenant-Colonel in Col. Samuel 
Denny's First Worcester County Regiment, Massachusetts 
Militia, commissioned Feby. 2, 1776, serving, as it appears, 
in February, March and April. Again he marched, Aug. 
19, 1777, as Lieut.-Colonel in Col. Samuel Denny's regiment, 
to reinforce the northern army, at which time the march 
was made to Hadley on the alarm at Bennington. This 
service lasted only five days, as the men were recalled at 
that point. But with his duties at home to his family and 
as member of the Board of Selectmen, who were charged with 
securing the town's quota of soldiers, and his own military 
life he could have enjoyed no perfect rest. For not only 
was the head of the family thus engaged, but at least 
three of his sons, Abel, Benjamin and Phineas. 

In the town records, under date of March 31, he is given 
the title of Colonel, also in July, 1777, it was voted in 
town meeting that the town provide one hundred firearms 
with bayonets for the use of the Militia of the town, and 
also that when the committee have provided them they 
acquaint Colonel Flagg, who is to call upon the captains 
of the militia of said town, to call their companies together, 
at which time the aforesaid committee are to deliver the 
arms to such of the said militia as are destitute, they paying 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 201 

therefor. He subsequently served on committee for fixing 
prices of labor and also to assist the town in raising its 
quota of soldiers to reinforce the army in the field. In 
fact he was frequently called to audit the town accounts 
and to adjust differences that might occur and to serve 
the public in various ways, including consideration of the 
petition of the inhabitants of the Gore to be annexed to 
Worcester. Jany. 13, 1785, he was one of the many signers 
requesting the call of Rev. Aaron Bancroft to the Old 
South Parish. 

Colonel Benjamin Flagg died Oct. 8, 1818, at the age 
of ninety-five years, at that time the oldest man in the 
town, and from an article published in the Worcester Spy 
of Oct. 14, 1818, we quote the following words: "His 
surviving posterity are 4 children, 41 grandchildren and 
83 greatgrandchildren. At his advanced age he had out- 
lived many more of each generation. Few have lived so 
long and descended to the grave more respected.'* 

Their children : 

Benjamin, b. Mch. 10, 1746; m. Hannah . 

Abigail, b. Jany. 21, 1748; m. Samuel Hutchin- 
son of Lunenburg. 

John, b. Oct. 6, 1749; d. Dec. 29, 1772. 

Phineas, b. Oct. 9, 1751; m. Rhoda Stone, 
May 25, 1777. 

32. 5. Abel, b. Oct. 12, 1753; d. Sept. 18, 1775. 
Marched on April 19, 1775, in his father's 
company of minutemen. 

33. 6. Lydia, b. Dec. 21, 1755; m. Joseph Terry, 
April 3, 1777. 

34. 7. Isaac, b. April 21, 1758. 

35. 8. Eunice, b. July 16, 1762. 

36. 9. Hannah, b. July 18, 1764; m. Joseph Patch, 
Nov. 7, 1782. 

37. 10. Mary, b. Dec. 9, 1765 or 1766. 



28. 


1. 


29. 


2. 


30. 


3. 


31. 


4. 



202 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

38. 11. Aaron, b. Mch. 2, 1769. 

Benjamin Flagg [28] m. Hannah . He d. Mch. 9, 

1819, aged 73. She d. July 21, 1843, aged 97. 

Had children. He was sergt. in his father's company, 
April 19, 1775, and also enlisted in Capt. Wm. Gates' Com- 
pany, Sept. 4, 1776, and with the nine months' men on 
resolve General Court, April 20, 1778. 

1. Molly, b. Jany. 9, 1780. 

2. Hannah, b. May 19, 1782; m. Oliver Kimball of 

Grafton and had three children: 

1. Mary (Kimball), b. Feby. 20, 1803 ; m. Jasper 

W. Putnam. 

2. Noah (Kimball), b. Dec. 10, 1804, and d. June 

3, 1876. He m. Martha Warren Brown of 
Bath, Me., and settled in Westborough. A 
manufacturer of boots and shoes. They 
had: 

1. Adelia D. (Kimball), b. June 8, 1829 ; 

d. May 28, 1901. She m. John Q. 
Adams and left a son, Winthrop 
F. Adams. 

2. Sarah E. (Kimball), b. Jany. 23, 

1831. Residence, Westborough. 

3. Frederick W. (Kimball), b. Feby. 9, 

1833; m., April 23, 1856, Susan 
F. McGinnis. Residence, West- 
borough, Mass. Had four chil- 
dren. 

3. Hannah Kimball, b. Mch. 10, 1808; m. 

Ebenezer Aldrich of Grafton, and had: 

1. Ellen E. (Aldrich), b. Sept. 2, 1830. 

2. Augustus K. (Aldrich), b. Dec. 2, 

1832; d.Feby. 15, 1835. 

3. Augustus K. (Aldrich), b. April 15, 

1835. 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 203 

4. William T. (Aldrich), b. Oct. 14, 

1837. Residence, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

5. Samuel W. (Aldrich), b. Nov. 28, 

1839. 

6. James E. (Aldrich), b. Jany. 6, 1843. 
Phineas Flagg [31] m. Rhoda Stone, May 25, 1777. She 

was daughter of Jonathan and Ruth Stone of that part 
of Worcester now Auburn. When the alarm was sounded 
that the British soldiers were marching upon Lexington 
and Concord, Phineas Flagg was twenty-three years of age, 
and he immediately volunteered his services to repel the 
invasion; joining Colonel Timothy Bigelow's company of 
minutemen he marched for Cambridge on the 19th of 
April, 1775. He then re-enlisted in Captain Jonas Hub- 
bard's company, Col. Jonathan Ward's regiment, and from 
a certificate dated Cambridge, June 18, 1775, we learn that 
he and others were in need of cartridge boxes; also from 
a muster-roll dated Aug. 1, 1775, that he enlisted April 
24, 1775, serving three months and fifteen days. The re- 
turn for his company was dated Dorchester, Oct. 7, 1775. 
He also served as second sergeant in Captain William 
Gates' company, Col. Jonathan Holman's regiment, roll 
dated in Chelsea Camp, New York, Sept. 4, 1776; his 
brother probably being the Benjamin Flagg mentioned as 
private on the same roll. 

He died Oct. 1, 1791, aged thirty-nine years. 

Their children : 

39. 1. John, b. June 11, 1778; m. Sarah Ward, April 

22, 1800. 

40. 2. Abel, b. Oct. 31, 1780; m. Susanna Harrington, 

Oct. 31, 1802. 

41. 3. Sarah, b. Mch. 5, 1783; m. Sullivan Taft, Oct, 

18, 1804. 

42. 4. Daniel, b. April 17, 1785; d. unmarried, Mch. 

12, 1810. 



45. 


1. 


46. 


2. 


47. 


3. 


48. 


4. 



204 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

43. 5. Polly, b. Dec. 11, 1787; d. unmarried. 

44. 6. Benjamin, b. June 12, 1790; m. Julia Holbrook, 

Sept. 28, 1815. 

Aaron Flagg [38] m. Lucre tia Curtis, Jany. 1, 1800, and 
had: 

Benjamin, b. Jany. 7, 1801. 
Eunice, b. Sept. 20, 1802. 
Mary, b. Sept. 27, 1804. 
Leonard, b. Feby. 17, 1807. 

49. 5. Samuel C, b. Oct. 19, 1813. He went to New 

England Village in 1831, residing with Jasper 
Putnam, of whom he learned the trade of 
shoemaking and was employed in North- 
borough and also Westborough. He removed 
to Grafton Centre in 1846 and with Luke F. 
Allen manufactured shoes, retiring from ac- 
tive business in 1877. He was representative 
to the General Court in 1854. He married, 
Nov. 23, 1836, Elizabeth W. Merriam. Had: 

1. Ann E., b. Jany. 17, 1839; m. Ed- 

mund P. Capron. 

2. Caroline A., b. Mch. 5, 1843. 

3. Ida F., b. Dec, 1849; m. Geo. R. 

Newton. 

4. Jennie C, b. Jany., 1857. 

John Flagg [39] m. Sarah Ward, April 22, 1800. 
Their children: 

50. 1. Rhoda, b. Mch. 12, 1801; m. Darius Rice. 
Phineas, b. Sept. 30, 1802; d. Jany. 20, 1807. 
Sarah, b. 1804; m. Brigham Goss, Mch. 26, 1834. 
Lucy, b. 1807; d. May 8, 1810. 
Mary W., b. 1810; m. Eden Davis of Webster, 

Oct. 19, 1848; both d. in Thompson, Ct. No 
children. 



51. 


2. 


52. 


3. 


53. 


4. 


54. 


5. 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 205 

55. 6. Nahum, b. 1812; m. Lydia Flagg Harrington, 

April 13, 1843. 

56. 7. Hannah, b. 1815; d. unmarried, Jany. 11, 1860. 

57. 8. Charles, b. 1821; m. Mrs. Sarah B. Whiting, 

May 15, 1862. 
Abel Flagg [40] m. Susannah Harrington. 
Their children: 

58. 1. Elizabeth, b. Dec/ 26, 1802. 

59. 2. Lucretia, b. July 15, 1805; m. Benjamin Har- 

rington. 

60. 3. Samuel H., b. May 3, 1808. 

61. 4. Nancy White, b. Jany. 7, 1811. 
62; 5. Daniel, b. Sept. 25, 1813. 

63. 6. Susannah, b. June 4, 1816; m. 

64. 7. Ebenezer, b. May 8, 1819; m. 

65. 8. Franklin, b. Oct. 3, 1822. 

66. 9. Henry, b. June 29, 1826. 

Lucretia Flagg [59] m. Mch. 18, 1834, Benjamin Har- 
rington of Worcester and resided in Harrington court. 
Their children: 

1. Mary Elizabeth, b. Jany. 25, 1836. 

2. Benjamin Franklin, b. Sept. 2, 1838. 

3. Hannah Flagg, b. Nov. 12, 1842. 

4. Henry Augustus, b. Sept. 8, 1846. 
The latter has served the city on the Board of Overseers 

I of the Poor and in the upper Board of the City Council. 
j Benjamin Flagg [44] m. Sept. 28, 1815, Julia Holbrook, 
[daughter of Joseph and Milly (Fisher) Holbrook. She was 
p. May 7, 1790. Their two eldest children were born in 
past Sudbury, Mass., the others in Worcester. She d. 
|3ept. 6, 1830, and he married 2d, Mrs. Lucy (Mann) Hol- 
brook, by whom he had a daughter. 
\ His children were : 

{ 67. 1. Julia H., b. Aug. 3, 1816; m. Joseph M. True, 
I Dec. 8, 1842. 



206 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

68. 2. Joseph H., b. Nov. 10, 1817; d. June 17, 1858. 

69. 3. Eliza, b. May 3, 1821; m. George Newton, Nov. 

10, 1842. 

70. 4. Lucy M., b. Feby. 24, 1824; m. Willard E. 

Allen, April 25, 1844. 

71. 5. Martha M., b. Mch. 10, 1828; m. Geo. F. New- 

ton, June 14, 1854. 

72. 6. Aaron, b. Aug. 6, 1830; m. Elizabeth Crosby, 

Sept. 6, 1854. 

73. 7. Edna Jane, b. May 15, 1832; m. Charles H. 

Baldwin. 

Julia H. Flagg [67] m. Joseph H. True, Dec. 8, 1842. 
Their children : 

1. Julia M. (True), b. Sept. 19, 1843; m. John S. Fowler; 

residence New Haven, Conn. 

2. Joseph (True), d. in infancy. 

3. Benjamin F. (True), b. Oct, 3, 1849. 

Eliza Flagg [69] m. George Newton, Nov. 10, 1842. 
Their children: 

1. Lizzieanna (Newton), b. Oct. 3, 1851; deceased. 

2. Benjamin S. (Newton), b. Oct. 14, 1853. He is an 

architect by profession, was employed for several 
years in the office of Stephen C. Earle of Worcester. 
But for a number of years has been conducting 
business on his own account, being the designer of 
several costly buildings. Residence, Worcester, 
Mass. 

Lucy M. Flagg [70] m. Willard E. Allen, April 25, 1844. ■( 
Mr. Allen was a trunk and harness-maker and for many 
years conducted business on Foster street, occupying a 
store in Bank Block, which is now used by the Worcester i 
County Institution for Savings. 

Their children : 

1. Eliza G. (Allen), b. Oct. 9, 1846; m. W. 0. Patten. 



Flagg Family in Worcester. 207 

2, Josephine F. (Allen), b. Jany. 10, 1849; residence, 

Worcester. 

3. Juliette M. (Allen), b. Jany. 1, 1852; m. John Wash- 

burn. Residence, Martha's Vineyard. 
Martha M. Flagg [71] m. Geo. F. Newton, June 14, 1854. 
Their children : 

1. Julia B. (Newton), deceased. 

2. Lizzieanna (Newton), deceased. 

Aaron Flagg [72] m. Elizabeth B. Crosby, Sept. 6, 1854. 
Their children: 

1. Ida M. (Crosby), m. Leonard Stebbins of Spring- 

field, Mass. 

2. Eliza Belle (Crosby), m. Frederick Bowman. Resi- 

dence, New Haven, Conn. 
Edna Jane Flagg [73] m. Charles H. Baldwin. 
Their children: 

1. Henrietta (Baldwin), m. Albert Murdock. 

2. Charles H. (Baldwin). 

3. Frank H. (Baldwin). 

4. Martha F. (Baldwin), m. Myron W. Houghton. 

5. William S. (Baldwin). 

Rhoda Flagg [50] m. Darius Rice, Nov. 18, 1828. Mr. 
[ilice was an active, enterprising, prosperous farmer; more 
ihan that, he possessed an inventive genius and con- 
jtructed some of the earliest implements for the saving of 
|i)oth time and labor in cultivating the farm. He was the 
pioneer in raising and marketing produce from the garden 
J a large quantities in Worcester and one of the first to 
ltroduce the peddling of milk in the streets of Worcester. 
He, for several years, served on the Board of Selectmen 
If the town, and when Worcester became a city he was 
fleeted a member of the first Common Council from ward 
|)ur. He was interested in furnishing the first water supply 
y gravitation used in the town. The water being con- 
eyed in both lead and iron pipes. His home was on 



208 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Plantation street, at its junction with Grafton street, where 
he died. 
Children were : 

74. 1. Sarah Elizabeth, b. Oct. 4, 1829; m. Samuel 

Warren. 

75. 2. Francis, b. Oct. 23, 1835; d. Jany. 11, 1836. 

76. 3. Ellen Maria, b. Mch. 1, 1838; d. Oct. 29, 1839. 

77. 4. George Henry, b. Nov. 28, 1840. 

George Henry Rice [77] m. 1st Charlotte Greenwood, 
Feby. 15, 1866; m. 2d Evelyn E. Town, May 3, 1887. He 
succeeded to his father's farm, and aside from cultivating 
the broad acres constituting the old homestead, he owns 
considerable real estate in Florida, from whence he ships 
oranges to the northern markets and is also engaged quite 
extensively in the real estate business in Worcester. Resi- 
dence, Number 2 Rice square. 

Children : 

1. Charles Herbert (Rice), b. May 30, 1867; m. Anna 

Sprague. 

2. Harrison Town (Rice), b. Aug. 13, 1889. 

3. Elsie Eloise (Rice), b. May 3, 1891. 






PROCEEDINGS 



iHtoptFsfop JSoriflg of jSLirtiquftg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1903. 



Volume XIX. 








PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

1903. 



- 



U. S. A. CXXVTI. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 
Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Fourth Meeting 209 

Annual Field Day at New London and Groton . . . . 211 

Letters by Christopher C. Baldwin and Rev. Warren 

Burton . . . .... . .... . . . . . 235 

Manual of Arms, 1638 ... . . . 244 



PROCEEDINGS. 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-FOURTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, JULY 7, 1903. 



Pkesident Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Belisle, Crane, Davidson, Eaton, Gould, Harrington, 
Geo. Maynard, Marston, G. M. Rice, G. H. Rice, Salis- 
bury, C. E. Staples, Edward Thomas, Williamson, Mrs. 
Darling, Mrs. Hildreth, Miss Moore, Miss May, Miss Reecl, 
Miss M. Agnes Waite, Miss White, Mrs. Williamson, Mrs. 
George F. Tinker of New London, Conn., Miss Helen Guy 
of Kingston, Jamaica, Mr. Keith and several visitors, 
names not taken. 

The Librarian reported the following additions since the 
last meeting: twelve bound volumes, fifty-five pamphlets 
and three articles for the museum. 

Special mention was made of the narrative of Mary 
Rowlandson, first printed in 1682, and reprinted in fac- 
simile, with notes, etc., in 1903. The copy was presented 
by Messrs. John F. Thayer and Henry S. Nourse of Lan- 
caster; also the gift from the Secretary of State, Wm. 
M. Olin, of the vital statistics of Maiden and Southborough. 

One article for the museum was a picture of the Wheeler 
mansion, once the home of Joseph and Theophilus Wheeler. 
It stood on Main street and was built in 1785, and de- 
stroyed by fire in 1885. Rev. Joseph Wheeler was appointed 

Register of Probate for Worcester County in 1775, but 
15 



210 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

retained his home in the town of Harvard until 1781, 
when he removed to Worcester and built a house on Main 
street about opposite the Court House. Later, however, 
he built the one represented in this picture. It was located 
upon the same lot and by the side of his first house. He 
continued to hold the office of Register of Probate until 
his death in 1793, and was succeeded by his son Theophilus, 
who was seventeen years of age when his father removed 
to Worcester and who had served as clerk in the probate 
office prior to his father's decease. Theophilus Wheeler 
was Register of Probate until 1836. He served as Town 
Clerk from March, 1787 to 1792; also held the offices 
of Town Treasurer, Overseer of Schools, and of the House 
of Correction, and was a Director in the Worcester Bank. 

The other articles for the museum were: a plow and 
a corn-sheller, once the property of Nathaniel Harrington, 
a Revolutionary soldier, who resided on the Harrington 
homestead near Lake Quinsigamond and on what is now 
Harrington court. He was the great-grandfather of Ex- 
Mayor F. A. Harrington, and also of Ex-Alderman Henry 
Augustus Harrington, who presented these family relics 
to the Society. 

The Committee on Nominations presented the names 
of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Ball, and they were elected 
to active membership. Mr. Williamson, Treasurer of the 
Committee on the Annual Field Day, reported that all 
bills were paid and there was a balance of eleven dollars 
and seventeen cents in the hands of the Committee. On 
motion of Mr. Crane it was voted to transfer the sum 
into the hands of the Treasurer of the Society. 

Mr. George Maynard then presented the following 
report of the field day trip to New London and Groton, 
Conn. 



Annual Field Day at New London and Grolon. 211 

ANNUAL FIELD DAY AT NEW LONDON 
AND GROTON. 

Saturday, June 20, 1903, will be a day long to be re- 
membered by Worcester antiquarians, for on that day 
our Society, ever fortunate in the past in the matter of 
its field days, achieved a crowning success, which may 
well be a source of pride to its members and of pleasant 
recollections to all who participated. 

As has often been said in these reports, the object of 
these excursions is twofold: on the one hand, the pleasure 
to be derived from social intercourse and the sight of 
beautiful scenery and the products of human art and skill; 
and on the other, the study of history and the gaining 
of that inspiration which comes from a closer acquaintance 
with the actual scenes of the great events of history. In 
thus combining pleasure and profit, we make our field 
days of great value to our members and all others who 
are privileged to participate. 

For several years our Society, in selecting places to be 
visited on our annual trips, has had in mind New London 
and Groton, but various circumstances have heretofore 
prevented our going there. This year, however, we con- 
cluded to make the effort, and the result fully justifies 
our choice. That section of New England combines rare 
charms of natural scenery with more of historic interest 
than any other which we have not yet visited, while the 
well known hospitality of Connecticut people presents an 
added attraction to every visitor. 

Early in the year the matter of going to New London 
and Groton was brought up in our meetings, and these 
places were practically selected as our objective point for 
the coming trip. Fortunately for us, at least two mem- 
bers of our Society, President Lyman A. Ely and Hon. 
Ledyard Bill, of Paxton, were natives of this section of 



212 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Connecticut, and closely connected by ties of kinship 
with New London and Groton people, and it is but justice 
to them to say that the Society is under great obligations 
to them both for their earnest and unwearied efforts to 
make our excursion the grand success it proved to be. 

By appointment of the President, the following Com- 
mittee of Arrangements have served as best they might, 
each in his appropriate sphere, and with complete har- 
mony: Hon. Ledyard Bill, Chairman; M. A. Maynard; 
F. E. Williamson; Geo. Maynard; C. F. Darling. 

The Committee held several meetings, and aided by 
President Ely, as an ex-officio member, laid such plans 
and made such arrangements for the excursion, as seemed 
best. Our original plan was to go on our trip as we had 
done in previous years, making our own arrangements 
for dinner, etc. Our Chairman, in company with Mr. 
M. A. Maynard, visited Boston, and obtained desired in- 
formation relative to railway facilities and rates, and 
subsequently the former gentleman went over the route 
to New London on a similar errand. Our Committee then 
voted to recommend the New London trip to the Society, 
and this recommendation met with the Society's approval. 

Arrangements were made by the Chairman for the 
Society's reception at New London by representatives of 
the New London County Historical Society, of which he 
was a founder, and by ladies and gentlemen of the various 
Groton societies. 

Later on, a generous invitation was extended to our 
Society by the New London Board of Trade, through Hon. 
George F. Tinker, its former President, a brother-in-law 
of President Ely, to be their guests on that occasion, and 
the invitation was accepted. 

All arrangements were finally completed, and at the 
June meeting our Committee reported that our trip would 
be made, rain or shine, on Saturday, June 20, leaving 
the Union Station at 6.40 a. m., and that tickets would I 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 213 

be sold for the round trip at $2.75, the sale to be limited 
to members of our Society and the four patriotic societies 
of this city, the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
the Daughters of the Revolution, the Sons of the American 
Revolution, and the Sons of the Revolution, these societies 
having been invited at an early stage of our arrangements 
to participate with us in the excursion, many of their 
members being also members of this Society. 

The weather for several days previous to the excursion 
had been very unpropitious, hardly bearing out the poet's 
declaration : 

" Oh, what is so rare as a day in June? 
Then, if ever, come perfect days." 

Cold, easterly winds and intermittent showers of rain 
were rather calculated to dampen the ardor of pleasure- 
seeking excursionists, but, as we have often said before, 
bad weather never daunted a Worcester antiquarian, 
and as the date drew near, tickets sold with increasing 
rapidity, and a goodly number of patrons was assured. 

Saturday morning dawned cloudy and threatening, but 
at the appointed hour, the two special cars at our disposal 
for our trip over the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railway were well filled, and a canvass revealed the fact 
that our party consisted of the following eighty-seven 
persons : 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury, 

Lyman. A. Ely, 

Hon. Ledyard Bill, 

Hon. E. B. Crane, 

Mr. & Mrs. M. A. Maynard, 

Walter Davidson, 

Miss Adaline May, of Leicester, 

Major William T. Harlow, 

Miss Margaret Harlow, 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Parker, of Holden, 



214 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

Miss M. A. Waite, 

Frank B. Waite, 

Miss M. E. Grover, 

Miss M. A. Smith, 

Mrs. Isaac Hildreth, 

George Calvin Rice, 

Mr. & Mrs. C. C. Baldwin, 

Miss Grace P. Baldwin, 

Mrs. Gilbert Harrington, 

Mrs. F. F. Hopkins, 

Mrs. S. Nixon, 

Mrs. G. W. Sigourney, 

Mr. & Mrs. E. P. Clapp, 

Mrs. E. Warner, 

Dr. Helen A. Goodspeed, 

Miss Gertrude Turner, 

Frank Marshall, 

Mrs. John C. Stewart, 

0. M. Ball, 

Miss Lizzie McFarland, 

Miss Emma Buckley, 

Miss Alice Pike, 

Mr. & Mrs. C. B. Eaton, 

B. N. Gates, 

Charles B. Gates, 

L. A. Browne, 

S. B. Parsons, 

Mrs. S. H. Bennett, 

Miss Carrie E. Bennett, 

Ephraim Tucker, 

Alexander Belisle, 

Geo. Y. Lancaster, 

Mr. & Mrs. Adin A. Hixon, 

Mr. & Mrs. C. F. Darling, 

Mrs. A. P. R. Parsons, 

Miss Ethel Howland, 



Annual Field Day at JSfew London and Groton. 215 

Mrs. H. A. Hovey, 

Dr. & Mrs. Edwin B. Flagg, 

Miss Sally A. Flagg, 

Mrs. S. E. Crane, 

Mr. & Mrs. W. F. Cole, 

Mrs. Paul Bauer, 

George M. Rice, 

Mrs. T. B. F. Boland, 

Miss M. G. Boland, 

Mr. & Mrs. F. L. Hutchins, 

Everett Hutchins, 

Harrison Gray Otis, 

George E. Arnold, 

A. K. Gould, 

Miss A. M. White, of Farnumsville, 

Dr. & Mrs. F. L. Banfield, 

Hon. Alfred S. Roe, 

Miss A. M. Moore, 

Mr. & Mrs. F. E. Williamson, 

Mrs. Geo. M. Woodward, 

Geo. Temple Woodward, 

Mrs. Charles W. Chamberlin, 

Mr. & Mrs. Corwin M. Thayer, 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles M. Goffe, 

G. H. Coates, 

D. B. Williams, 

George Maynard. 
It is seventy-two miles from Worcester to New Lon- 
don, and the journey is made without change of cars, 
and through a country much of which is unrivalled for 
beauty of scenery. Our route lies nearly directly south, 
and as we pass along, each mile of our pathway traversed 
discloses to view some point that recalls to the antiquarian 
mind visions of the vanished past. For instance, on 
yonder hill to our left lies the old Huguenot Fort in Ox- 
ford, the scene of a chapter in Massachusetts history which 



21G Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

has been celebrated in song and story. We soon reach 
Webster, and are near that fine old lake, whose full Indian 
name is said by some of the historians to have been 
CHARGOGGAGOGMANCHAUGGAGOGGCHAUBUNAGUNGAMAUG. 
No wonder the modern Websterites have abbreviated it 
for every-day use! 

Soon we cross the line into the Land of Steady Habits, 
where wooden nutmegs were formerly supposed to come 
to full maturity every year, except in very unfavorable 
seasons. Connecticut is a goodly state to look upon. 
It, has a grand and noble history, of which its citizens 
may well be proud, and it is a good state to be either born 
in, to live in, or to die in. 

We pass through Thompson, and soon reach the thriv- 
ing young city of Putnam, a name famous in American 
history. We are reminded that in this vicinity lived and 
died the Hero of Bunker Hill, Gen. Israel Putnam, 
who never flinched from the post of duty. The historic 
Wolf Den, the scene of one of his exploits, the story of 
which used to be familiar to every American youth, lies 
but a short distance to the west of our route, in the town 
of Pomfret, and in clear weather the locality might have 
been visible from our car windows. We have now reached, 
and will follow southward, the banks of the Quinebaug 
River, along whose course the busy wheels of industry 
are in motion, and the scenery between the neat factory 
villages grows more and more attractive. Here and there, 
white lilies in profusion gem the waters, and, beyond the 
winding stream, the green shores, fresh with their early 
summer verdure, are a feast for eyes tired with the vision 
of brick walls and city pavements. 

Plainfield, with its beautiful old stone church, lying on 
a hill to our left, is passed, and we soon cross the Shetucket I 
River, and enter the town of Norwich. The city of Nor- 
wich lies at the junction of and between two rivers, the 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 217 

Shetucket and Yantic, both of which flow through wild 
scenery and over rocky beds. 

Norwich, known as "The Rose of New England/' is 
not only a beautiful city, but, from an historical point 
of view, it is an exceedingly interesting place, and one 
that it would be well for our Society to visit at some op- 
portune time in the near future. Well does the writer 
recall a clay spent in rambling over Norwich and the ad- 
joining country, in congenial company, more than thirty 
years ago. This territory was the scene of many Indian 
battles in the olden days, and sanguinary tragedies have 
been enacted within its borders. The story is too long 
to rehearse in detail here; but it will well repay any one 
who feels an interest in such matters to read up the history 
of the place, and then pay it a visit. A mile to the west- 
ward, opposite the Falls of the Yantic, lies the old Indian 
burying-ground, where sleeps the great Uncas, in company 
with his braves and many of his posterity. And near to 
it is the birthplace of one of whom we shall hear more 
to-day, — a name that has been the target for more op- 
probrium than any other in all American history, — a 
name that has stood for more than a century as the symbol 
of treason and shame, and has been ever linked on the 
pages of history, and by orators on the rostrum and in 
the pulpit, with that other awful example, who sold his 
Master for thirty pieces of silver. The treason of Benedict 
Arnold was without excuse. The crime was black, and 
has received a merited punishment. The unanimous verdict 
of history cannot be reversed. But while we condemn 
the treason, and contemplate with horror its awful train 
of consequences, let us, in justice to him and to ourselves, 
not forget his eminent services in the cause of American 
liberty, in the years which preceded it. Let us not quite 
forget that Benedict Arnold had more than once shed his 
blood in defense of the cause he afterwards betrayed, 
and that his brilliant military exploits had, up to that 



218 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

time, won the admiration and favor of Washington and 
the American people. He fell, in an evil hour, from his 
high pedestal of fame, and, like the ruined arch-angel, 
forever lost the glory that might have been his ; but when 
we, in these later days read his history dispassionately, 
let us at least do him the justice to read it from the 
beginning, and not commence at 1780. He was born in 
Norwich, and Norwich is not especially proud of that 
fact; but she has had sons who have honored the place 
of their nativity. 

As the spires of Norwich fade from our view, our eyes 
are attracted by the wonderful beauty of the Thames, 
that river whose thirteen miles of length, from the junction 
of the Shetucket and Yantic to New London, present one 
continual panorama of loveliness, whose counterpart one 
may go far to find. It winds through the verdant Connec- 
ticut hills in an ever widening stream, with a grace and 
charm peculiarly its own, affording at every turn new 
and delightful vistas to attract the eye. 

We are now passing through the Mohegan country, 
once thickly peopled by the red men, but now the abode 
of only a few feeble remnants of that race. The days 
of their glory are forever past, and the white man's iron 
horse thunders along the valley where of old they wandered, 
and wakes the Mohegan echoes with shrieks that would 
have put their ancient war-whoops as far in the shade as 
the roar of Niagara might surpass that of the Falls of 
the little Yantic. 

Our train draws near its goal. Yonder, across the 
river, rise New London's spires, and we have passed the 
town of Ledyard, the birthplace and early home of the 
worthy Chairman of our Excursion Committee, and are 
now within the limits of Groton, from which town Ledyard 
was originally taken, it being formerly known as North 
Groton. Groton is a town of stirring memories. It has 
witnessed heroic deeds, and produced great men. Among 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 219 

them was John Ledyard, the celebrated traveller, whose 
name is known the world over for his intrepid explorations 
of hitherto unknown lands. The river is here nearly 
half a mile wide, and after passing the United States Navy 
Yard, located in the limits of the town of Ledyard, the 
train slackens its speed and cautiously moves over the 
long bridge which spans the tide, looking very frail in 
the distance, but showing its great strength as we pass 
over it. 

We arrived in New London at 9.55 a. m., and were wel- 
comed by the committees from the New London County 
Historical Society and the New London Board of Trade, 
among them being Hon. George F. Tinker, Chairman of 
the Committee of Arrangements, Mr. Frederic Bill, of 
Groton, and Mr. Frederic S. Newcomb. 

Soon after our arrival we were escorted to the ferry- 
boat "Col. Ledyard," on which we made the passage back 
to the Groton side. The view down the harbor and up 
the river from the boat was very enjoyable, but was only 
a foretaste of what was to follow. The rain of the early 
morning had ceased, and the sun, which had come out as 
we passed Norwich, now occasionally lighted up the scene, 
and continued to do so during most of our visit. The 
weather was delightfully cool, and on our arrival in Groton, 
we found little difficulty in surmounting the famous Heights, 
which were the scene of one of the bloodiest battles of 
the Revolution. Carriages had been provided for all who 
desired to ride, but the larger part of our party preferred 
the exercise of walking, and soon made the ascent. 

We were welcomed to Groton by the officers and repre- 
sentatives of the Anna Warner Bailey Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and were enter- 
tained by them with suitable refreshments. 

As one approaches Groton, the most prominent object 
on the Heights is the Groton Monument, rising aloft in 
simple grandeur, like that more lofty shaft on Bunker 



220 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

Hill, — fitting memorials, both of them, of great events 
and noble men. It is not the province of this report to 
recall in detail the history of New London or Groton, 
and we shall simply quote the inscription on the monument 
itself, which tells the story briefly and well: 

THIS MONUMENT 

WAS EREOTED UNDER THE PATRONAGE OF THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT, A. D. 1830, 
AND IN THE 55TH YEAR OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE U. S. A. 

IN MEMORY OF THE BRAVE PATRIOTS 

WHO FELL IN THE MASSACRE OF FORT GRISWOLD NEAR THIS SPOT 

on the 6th of September, A. D. 1781, 
when the British under the command of 

THE TRAITOR BENEDICT ARNOLD, 

BURNT THE TOWNS OF NEW LONDON & GROTON, AND SPREAD 
DESOLATION AND WOE THROUGHOUT THIS REGION. 

In that battle a force of about 1600 of the enemy landed, 
one-half, under the immediate command of Arnold, coming 
up the New London side of the river and burning the larger 
portion of that town, while the other division, under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Col. Eyre, landed at Groton Point on the 
east side of the harbor and attacked Fort Griswold on 
Groton Heights, a small, but fairly strong fortress, defended 
by about one hundred and fifty brave men, only a small 
portion of whom were trained soldiers, the remainder 
being men and boys, who, at the sound of the alarm, flocked 
in from the farms and hamlets roundabout, but who knew 
little of the art of war or of how to handle cannon. As 
a result, they were finally overpowered by four or five 
times their numbers of trained British soldiers, and forced 
to surrender. The story of the massacre that followed 
has been told again and again, but it will bear repeating, 
now that we stand on Groton Heights. 

The British columns had suffered severely in their as- 
saults upon the fort, and were doubtless greatly exasperated 
by the loss of their commander, Lieut.-Col. Eyre, and 
his successor, Major Montgomery. It is said that the 
dying words of the latter were, "Put every man to death !" 




GROTON MONUMENT. 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 221 

and it was an order that was practically obeyed. As 
Capt. Bromfield, Montgomery's successor in command, 
entered the fort, he demanded, "Who commands this 
fort?" and Col. William Ledyard, than whom no braver 
son of Connecticut ever wielded the sword, came forward 
to meet him, and presenting his blade with the hilt to- 
wards Bromfield, replied, "I did, sir, but you do now." 
Bromfield received the weapon, and immediately plunged 
it into the heart of the gallant Ledyard, and he fell dead 
at his feet. This was the signal for a general massacre 
of the brave men who had thrown down their arms at 
the order of their commander, when he saw that a con- 
tinuance of the fight was useless. When they saw the 
intention of the foe, they again resumed their arms, and 
fell fighting desperately. As Gen. Hawley said in his 
centennial address, after the surrender, " Honorable war- 
fare ceased, and hell reigned." 

Near the monument stands the Bill Memorial Library, 
erected by Mr. Frederic Bill, a prominent citizen of Groton. 
This gentleman, who welcomed us to the town, and did 
all in his power to entertain us while there, accompanied 
our party throughout the day, and to him we owe many 
thanks for his hearty endeavors to make our sojourn agree- 
able. He had the memorial building open for our inspection 
and here we were one and all permitted to view and take 
in our hands the celebrated sword with which Colonel 
Ledyard was slain. 

After viewing this interesting relic, and the monument, 
which is one hundred and thirty-five feet in height, and 
about twenty-four feet square at the base, and which 
several members of our party had the hardihood to ascend 
by an interior spiral staircase leading to the summit, we 
all went over to the ruins of the Old Fort, 

"Whose walls are now silent and crumble 
With storms and the weight of years, 

That were once loud with strife, and the rumble 
Of guns and the rush of cheers/' 



222 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

and there, upon the soil once reddened with heroic blood, 
we read upon a stone tablet this inscription: 

ON THIS SPOT 

COL. WILLIAM LEDYARD 

fell by his own sword in the hands 

of a british officer to whom he had 

surrendered in the massacre of 

Fort Griswold, Sept. 6, 1781. 

The stone foundations of the fort with the earthworks 
surmounting them, are still nearly intact, and it is con- 
sidered to be one of the best preserved Revolutionary 
relics of the kind to be found on the New England coast, 
and its ruins will very likely stay there for a thousand 
years to come, if nothing disturbs them. The gate and 
sally-port can still be seen and, a few years ago, the ruins 
of the magazine were still visible. The present flagstaff 
marks the spot where the ancient one stood on the day 
of the battle. From the summit of the earthworks a 
magnificent view is obtained of the country lying around 
Groton, the Thames River, Long Island Sound and its 
islands, the city of New London lying across the river, 
the fine harbor, and old Fort Trumbull, situated just 
below the city, on a peninsula jutting out into the harbor. 
And standing there, and looking afar over that glorious 
panorama, perhaps the inspiration of the moment may be 
our sufficient excuse for allowing our thoughts to wander 
into rhyme about New London and her sister town: 

To-day, above her peaceful towers, 
No dark and gloomy war cloud lowers; 
No hostile fleet in menace rides 
On yonder gently flowing tides ; 
No battle's din affrights the air; 
No roar of flames is rising there; 
No shrieks of wounded, and no cry 
For mercy that the fates deny. 
All these have vanished from the scene, 
And Peace looks down with smile serene! 
Long may it rest on land and wave, 
Made free by life blood of the brave ; 
While History shall each honored name 
Through the long ages crown with fame! 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 223 

During our trip down, our party had been joined at 
Norwich by Mr. Jonathan Trumbull of that place, Vice- 
President of the New London County Historical Society, 
a great-great-grandson of the famous Governor Jonathan 
Trumbull, of Revolutionary days, and when the party 
had all assembled in the interior of the fort, he was called 
upon to make some remarks about the history of the fort 
and the battle, which he did. 

The party then returned to the ferry-boat landing, 
stopping on our way to inspect the Ensign Ebenezer Avery 
house, where the wounded Americans were carried after 
the battle, and upon the floors of which it is said the stains 
of blood where they lay are still visible. History tells 
us that after the massacre in the fort was ended, the British 
soldiers loaded the wounded men in the fort into an am- 
munition wagon, and started to draw them down the hill 
as they intended to blow up the fort. But losing control 
of the wagon, it descended of its own accord, until finally, 
when near the bottom of the hill, it struck an apple tree, 
with such force as to throw the unfortunate victims out 
upon the ground, killing several of them, and causing 
the rest such intense suffering that their shrieks of agony 
were heard a half mile distant across the river, above the 
roar of the flames. To the Avery house the survivors 
were finally carried, and their wounds dressed. 

Among the other interesting sights seen in Groton, was 
the new Fort Griswold, which lies somewhat below the 
old fort, and in which some heavy guns are mounted. 
Near the monument we also saw a grim relic of the Spanish 
War, a heavy bronze gun of large dimensions, which was 
taken from the Maria Theresa, the flagship of Admiral 
Cervera. 

This battle of Groton appears in some respects to have 
been the reverse of that at Bunker Hill. There, it was not 
so much a lack of men as of ammunition that lost the 
day; here, there seems, to have been a sufficiency of guns 



224 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

and ammunition, but not of men to handle them, — at 
least of properly trained men. 

At 11.30 we bid farewell to Groton, and again crossed 
by ferry to New London, and immediately were escorted 
to the Crocker House, where we were welcomed by the 
New London Committee of Reception, and, after a half 
hour of social intercourse, our line of march was taken 
up to the dining room, where a sumptuous dinner, pro- 
vided for our entertainment by the New London Board 
of Trade, was served, after a blessing invoked by Rev. 
J. P. Brown. 

It was a feast long to be remembered by those who 
enjoyed it, and was worthy of a place in song as well as 
story. But as our poet has gone on a vacation, we will 
say in simple prose, that we were royally entertained, 
the whole affair being a credit both to the hotel and to 
the New London Board of Trade. 

After the party had done full justice to the viands set 
before them, Hon. George F. Tinker, a former President 
of the New London Board of Trade, Ex-Mayor of the 
city, and one of its most popular and enterprising citizens, 
called the assembfy to order, and in a few well chosen 
remarks welcomed the Worcester people to New London, 
and expressed his pleasure in the fact that a goodly number 
of ladies were present among them. "We know," he 
continued, "in New London, something of the history of 
Worcester, and that in the arts and sciences she is always 
in the advance." He referred in a complimentary way 
to a distinguished citizen of Worcester, Hon. George F. 
Hoar, as "The Oracle and Sage of one of the great delibera- 
tive assemblies of this country," and added that there 
were present a pretty good sprinkling of those who had 
been the philanthropists of Worcester. 

He then introduced Hon. Bryan F. Mahan, President 
of the New London Board of Trade, who said: "Ladies 
and Gentlemen of the Worcester Society of Antiquity: 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 225 

It gives me great pleasure to welcome you here to-day. 
I hope you may find nothing but pleasure, and carry back 
nothing but agreeable remembrances. We have noticed 
with pride your growth and prosperity. If your Society 
had come to New London twenty years ago, you would 
have found quite a number of what might have been called 
antiques; but the hand of time has gathered them in. 
You will pardon me here to-day if we call your attention 
to the school-houses of New London. Permit me, in 
closing, to express the hope that this visit will not be 
your last to our city." 

The next speaker introduced was Mr. Ernest E. Rogers, 
President of the New London County Historical Society, 
who, after referring to the arrangements which had been 
made for the entertainment of their guests, spoke at some 
length about the history of this territory, which was origi- 
nally conquered from the Pequots. Governor Winthrop 
was its first governor under the Charter. The speaker 
said it had been his privilege to be born within the city 
limits, and he referred to the view of yonder towering 
monument across the river as both educational and in- 
spiring. He then spoke of the points of interest which 
the Society was about to visit in New London; — the old 
burial-ground, where the first settler of English descent 
was buried, many of the tombstones being unlettered, 
and the Nathan Hale school-house, which, he said, formerly 
stood on the very spot where the Crocker House now stands. 

Mr. Frederic Bill, of Groton, Vice-President of the New 
London County Historical Society, was then introduced, 
and spoke briefly, expressing his regrets that our party 
had not had more time to examine the points of interest 
in Groton. 

The next speaker was Mr. Lyman A. Ely, President of 

the Worcester Society of Antiquity, who expressed his 

gratitude to those who had treated us so generously, and 

said he hoped they would sometime visit Worcester, where 
16 



226 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

we could return the favors we had received. He said that 
our Society was working upon the same lines as the New 
London Society, only in a more local way than its name 
might seem to indicate. He moved a rising vote of thanks 
to the New London Board of Trade, The New London 
County Historical Society, the Mother Bailey Chapter 
and to the New London people, generally, for their hospi- 
tality, the response to which was unanimous. 

Hon. E. B. Crane, Librarian of the Worcester society, 
was then introduced, who, in the course of his remarks 
said: "For the information of the people of New London, 
I will say that the Worcester society was instituted about 
twenty-eight years ago, and two years later it was incor- 
porated under the laws of Massachusetts. From that 
time it has flourished. It has a membership now of about 
two hundred and sixty, including active and corresponding 
members. In 1891, we erected a home for our members. 
Since that time we have started a museum. We have 
now about 6000 relics, colonial, Revolutionary, etc. We 
have a library of over 18,000 volumes. This collection 
has been made during the last thirteen years. In it we 
have a copy of the first book which was printed in Connec- 
ticut. It was printed here in New London, by a man 
whose name was Short. 1 If the New London people 
should ever visit Worcester, we can show them the site 
of the first printing office in Worcester. I want to extend 
our thanks to the several societies here for the generous 
way in which they have entertained us to-day." 

President Ely, of the Worcester society, then introduced 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, of Worcester, President of the 
American Antiquarian Society, who spoke as follows: 

"Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: This is the 
second time that I have had the pleasure of visiting New 



1 It. appears that Thomas Short, the printer referred to, died in 1711, and was 
buried in the Old Cemetery in New London, where his tombstone can yet be seen. 
The books he printed were bound by his widow. 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 227 

London in the capacity of a guest. It is very evident 
in coming here, that we touch historic ground, where, in 
other days, patriots of the sternest and highest type were 
created. That you wish to preserve their memorials, is 
shown by the Daughters of the Revolution here at Groton. 
In Worcester, we have the same interest shown by the 
women. Their efforts go farther than the efforts of the 
men in that direction. The American Antiquarian Society, 
with which I am connected in Worcester, was founded by 
Isaiah Thomas, in 1812. He was the great printer of 
his day. He established the Society for antiquarian re- 
search. Books and relics of that time are preserved in 
the library, and are exceedingly useful." 

Mr. Ely then introduced Hon. Ledyarcl Bill, of Worcester, 
who, after telling a good story, spoke briefly and expressed 
his pleasure at being present. 

The next speaker called upon was Hon. A. S. Roe, of 
Worcester, who spoke in his usual interesting way of the 
places we had visited and were yet to visit on this occa- 
sion, saying that he was sure every one was going home 
filled with pleasure at what they had seen here. He said 
it was a long time since the events which made these towns 
famous took place, and we are not here to fight old issues 
over again. He told how he had visited Hartford, after 
his service in the War of the Rebellion, and had there 
seen the vest worn by Col. Ledyard, when he was killed, 
and he was glad that it was no man of English birth who 
did the deed. " To-day," he said, "we have climbed the 
hill to the old fort, and we have held the famous sword 
in our hands. Then some doubting Thomas says, ' Are 
you sure that it was the very sword he was killed with?' 
Away with all such doubts! Now we come back to this 
side of the Thames to see the place where Nathan Hale 
taught school." In concluding his remarks, the speaker 
expressed the wish that the New London societies might 
some day return our visit, and come to Worcester. 



228 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

At this point in the speech-making, an announcement 
was made that there was present in the room a veritable 
Son of the Revolution, whose father fought at Bunker 
Hill. This gentleman, Mr. Burbeck, son of Brigadier-Gen. 
Henry Burbeck, was then introduced, and, upon rising 
was greeted with three hearty cheers. He is now past 
eighty years of age, and after the close of the speaking, 
the members of our party had the pleasure of shaking 
him by the hand. 

The last speaker of the da}^ was Mr. Jonathan Trumbull, 
of Norwich, President of the Connecticut Society Sons 
of the American Revolution, who spoke substantially as 
follows: "Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: I feel 
that I have done more talking than I should have done 
to-day, but I have the same excuse that the old minister 
had for his long sermon, — that he had not time to make 
it shorter! I believe that I have the distinction of being 
the only representative from Norwich here to-day. But 
we are all really now one in any undertaking of this kind. 
I represent the town which is said to be about twenty 
years behind New London. That ought to make it all 
the more interesting to antiquarians. I hope you will 
sometime take in the town of Norwich. We, also, are 
distinguished for possessing a great battle-field, the one 
where the great battle was fought between two tribes of 
Indians. Uncas won the fight, and captured Miantonomoh. 
We have the place in Norwich where he was captured, 
but Winthrop's Journal says that he was executed some- 
where between Norwich and Hartford/' 

The speaking, which had been frequently applauded, 
now being concluded, the party took their departure from 
the hotel, and found two electric cars waiting for them. 
These were soon filled, and, under the guidance of our 
New London friends, we started to visit as many of the 
interesting historical points of the city as our time would 
permit. There is an abundant opportunity here for the 



Annual Field Day at New London and Groton. 229 

visitor to indulge his antiquarian tastes. It is true that, 
in 1781, Benedict Arnold burned a large part of New Lon- 
don, but many old houses escaped the general doom, and 
stand to-day as memorials of the long vanished past. 1 

Perhaps the most interesting thing which we saw in 
New London in the way of buildings was the old mill, 
a venerable relic of the olden time. This mill, the first 
place we now visited, is said to have been built by Governor 
Winthrop, in 1651. We heard a whispered remark that 
the original mill was burned in 1710, and this present 
building was erected a year or two later; but even allow- 
ing this to be so, the structure would still be at least one 
hundred and ninety years old, and is in fine preservation, 
it being, strange to say, still in running order, as was soon 
demonstrated to us by the obliging miller, who turned the 
water on to the great overshot wheel, thirty feet in di- 
ameter, setting the machinery in motion. This was one 
of the most fascinating sights of the day, and I think 
every one who saw it will say that the old mill alone is 
worth a visit to New London to see. It is a venerable 
relic connecting us with the early history of the place, 
and with the sturdy pioneers who hewed down the prime- 
val forests, and here laid broad and deep the foundations 
of New London's material prosperity. Upon yonder point 



1 The following list of books which wholly or in part relate to New London or 
Groton and their history, and are all excellent in their way, may be of interest to 
those who wish to study the subject in detail. Most if not all of them may be 
found in our Free Public Library, those named first being especially desirable for 
perusal and study. 

"History of New London, Conn.," by F. M. Caulkins. 

"The Battle of Groton Heights, and Groton Heights Centennial," by C. Allyn 
and W. W. Harris. 

"History of the Town of Ledyard, Conn.," by Rev. John Avery. 

"Nooks and Corners of the New England Coast," by S. A. Drake. 

"Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution," by B. J. Lossing; and "Pictorial Field 
Book of the War of 1812," by the same author. 

"Connecticut Historical Collections," by J. W. Barber. 

New London County Historical Society, Records and Papers. 

Interesting articles on New London, in the New England Magazine. Vols. 12 and 
14, New Series, and Vol. 5, Old Series. ('86-'87.) 

"History of the Indians of Connecticut," by J. W. DeForest. 

"Connecticut State Atlas of Towns and Cities," by D. H. Hurd. 



230 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

of land, jutting out into the blue waters of the Thames, 
that river known to the Indians as the Mohegan, Winthrop 
built his residence, that he might have a good outlook 
both up and down the river, and both the Point and the 
Cove enclosed by it still bear his name. 

Passing on, by other interesting locations, we finally 
came to the celebrated school-house in which Nathan Hale, 
the martyr spy of the Revolution, was once the master. 
This was in 1774, just prior to the beginning of the American 
Revolution. The limits of this report will not permit us 
to rehearse the story of his life and death, but no American 
youth should fail to read and ponder upon it, and remem- 
ber how 

"While fond Virtue wished in vain to save, 
Hale, bright and generous, found a hapless grave. 
With genius' living flame his bosom glowed, 
And science charmed him to her sweet abode ; 
In worth's fair path his feet adventured far ; 
The pride of peace, the rising grace of war; 
In duty firm, in danger calm as even, 
To friends unchanging, and sincere to heaven. 
How short his course, the prize how early won ! 
While weeping friendship mourns her favorite gone." * 

This building has been kept in perfect repair, and is 
used as a depository of relics. Here one may see specimens 
of Hale's handwriting and many other interesting memo- 
rials of the past. 2 

In the immediate vicinity of the school-house lies the 
old cemetery of New London, that historic God's Acre, 



1 " The Conquest of Canaan," by Timothy Dwight, Book I., 75-84. 

2 It may be of interest to some of you, if I say that for several years I had in 
my possession an interesting relic of Nathan Hale, it being an ancient volume on 
the art of short-hand writing, which bore on its flyleaf the autograph of Nathan 
Hale, dated in 1774, about two years before his capture and execution by the British, 
and at the very time that he was teaching school here in New London. The volume, 
as shown by other inscriptions preceding Hale's, had been owned by various noted 
Connecticut divines, from one of whom he had purchased it. It is well known that 
at this time Hale was himself studying for the ministry, and he doubtless intended 
to master the art as an aid in writing his sermons. I may say that autographs of 
Nathan Hale are very "rare birds," perhaps not more than a half dozen of them 
being in existence. 




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Annual Field Day at Neiv London and Groton. 231 

where sleep in peace the fathers of the town. Not all of 
them came to their resting places in peace, however, for, 
among the quaint and venerable tombstones there, one 
may read inscriptions which tell that there lie the victims 
of warfare, slain on that terrible day when Arnold burnt 
the town, and so many widows and orphans were made. 
And it is not only here, but in many a village cemetery 
for miles around New London and Groton, that similar 
sad memorials may be seen, recalling to our minds the 
fearful price our patriot sires paid for our country's liberty. 
May their sons never forget their debt to those heroes of 
the olden day, and safeguard to all future time the freedom 
they so dearly won. 

" Our past is bright and grand 
In the purpling tints of time, 
And the present of our land 
Points to glories more sublime. 

For our destiny is won, 

And 't is ours to lead the van 
Of the nations marching on, 

Of the moving hosts of Man." 

At the northern end of this cemetery rises a tomb, upon 
a conspicuous height of land, from which, tradition says, 
that on Sept. 6, 1781, Benedict Arnold watched the battle 
of Fort Griswold on the opposite side of the river. 

Among other places of interest seen on our ride was the 
old Shaw mansion, erected in 1784. Here Washington and 
Lafayette have both been entertained, and the furniture 
in the rooms, so we are told, remains the same as then. 
The old Huguenot house, built in 1760, is a venerable 
looking relic of antiquity, as is also the Hempstead house, 
the oldest in New London, supposed to have been erected 
in 1678, and which was at one time fortified for defense 
against the Indians. 

We should have liked very much to have more closely 
inspected many of these places, but time did not permit, 



232 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

and we made our way back to the railway station, stop- 
ping for a moment to view and admire the fine Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Monument in the square at the foot of State 
street, arriving at the station just in time for our train, 
and also just in time to avoid the rain, which, while kindly 
waiting for us to complete our visit, now began to fall 
once more, and so continued till our arrival home. Taking 
leave of our kindly New London and Groton friends, we 
left the city at 4.30, and after an uneventful ride were 
landed safely in Worcester at 7.30, having had no accidents 
or other unpleasant occurrences to mar the pleasure of 
our trip. As we look back upon it now, we feel that it 
was an unqualified success, and we desire to thank all who 
in any wise helped to make it so. 

One pleasant feature of our excursion was the elegant 
silk badges furnished to every one in the party, and which 
bore the Seal of our Society, with the words "New Lon- 
don, June 20th, 1903." For these we are indebted to 
Messrs. Ledyard Bill and C. F. Darling, the latter of whom 
executed the printing in a tasty manner. 

Mr. Bill has spared neither time nor expense to make 
our outing a success, and the same can be said of our 
worthy President, Mr. Lyman A. Ely, and to them, and 
to the full Committee, and to the many New London and 
Groton people who did so much for us, we would again 
tender our thanks, coupled with our congratulations that 
the whole enterprise was conducted so harmoniously and 
brought to so happy a termination. 

For the Committee, 

GEORGE MAYNARD. 

At the conclusion of this report Mr. Crane spoke on the 
social life of the martyr Nathan Hale, and referred to 
his courtship with Alice Adams of Canterbury, Conn. 

Richard Hale, the father of Nathan, is said to have 





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Proceedings. 233 

twice married, first to Elizabeth Strong, who was the 
mother of Nathan. 

She died and Mr. Hale married second Abigail Adams, 
widow of Abijah Adams of Canterbury, Conn., who had 
two daughters, Alice being the youngest. Not long after 
the union of the two families under one roof at Coventry, 
Nathan's older brother fell in love with the eldest step- 
sister and they were married, not however without the 
protest of the parents, they believing that one bond of 
union between the families sufficient. Finally Nathan 
found this step-sister Alice most agreeable, and a person 
of faultless character, engaging of manner, of gentle dis- 
position, and a lasting fondness sprang up between them. 
Nathan was attending college and during his vacations 
the attachment between these two lovers became noticeable. 
But as our hero was then less than twenty years of age 
and Alice only in her sixteenth year the parents thought 
by keeping Nathan away at Yale the intimacy might be- 
come lessened, for the third marriage between these families 
could not be tolerated; and influence was used to pursuade 
Alice to become the wife of Judge Eliphalet Ripley of 
Coventry, a gentleman much older than she, but in the 
possession of a handsome property. The Judge died 
within two years, leaving Alice a widow at the age of 
eighteen years; and when, in 1773, Nathan returned from 
his graduation at college he found that Alice still retained 
her love for him. Proper time having elapsed after the 
Judge's decease, the young couple again made known to 
their parents their attachment for each other. As they 
both were of age and could decide for themselves the 
engagement was publicly announced. 

About this time Nathan was employed as teacher at 
New London in the Union Grammar School. On learning 
of the result of the battle of Lexington he wrote to Alice 
that he intended to enlist in the cause of the patriots. 
But before taking that step he visited his home in Coven- 



234 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

try for the purpose of bidding them all farewell; at that 
parting, pledges for faithfulness were interchanged by 
these lovers, and with earnest solicitation for his comfort 
and safety she watched the career of the young soldier. 
And when the news of his capture and execution reached 
her she was completely prostrated. After the intervention 
of several years she married William Lawrence of Hart- 
ford, son of the Colonial Treasurer of Connecticut, John 
Lawrence. 

The following sketches and letters were read by Nathaniel 
Paine, A. M., at a meeting of the Society held May 5, 1903, 
and the committee on publications are very glad of the 
opportunity to print them in this number of the proceed- 
ings. 



Letters. 235 



LETTERS BY CHRISTOPHER C. BALDWIN AND 
REV. WARREN BURTON. 

Through the courtesy of the Library Committee of the 
American Antiquarian Society, I have been allowed to 
present to this Society copies of two letters written sixty 
odd years ago, which seemed to me to be of interest. The 
first was written by Rev. Warren Burton, formerly a 
resident of Worcester, to Christopher Columbus Baldwin, 
Librarian of the American Antiquarian Society, 1829-1835. 

Mr. Burton was born at Wilton, New Hampshire, Nov. 
13, 1800; graduated at Harvard College in the class of 
1821. Among his classmates was Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
Josiah Quincy, Charles W. Upham (the writer on Salem 
witchcraft), and Dr. Oliver H. Blood, for many years a 
prominent dentist in Worcester. 

Mr. Burton studied for the ministry and was settled 
over the Unitarian Church at East Cambridge. He was 
minister at large in Boston from 1844-1848. Came to 
Worcester from there and was Chaplain at the Jail and 
House of Correction in 1849. 

He was a state senator in 1852; representative to the 
General Court 1858-1860; and a member of the State 
Convention in 1853. While in Worcester he preached oc- 
casionally in the Unitarian Church, and also gave courses 
of lectures. 

Mr. Burton was the author of "The District School as 
it was, by one who went to it." The first edition was 
published in 1833, and is referred to in the letters following. 
It had an extensive sale, several editions being published, 
one of which was brought out in London. Other works 
were " Uncle Sam's Recommendations of Phrenology," 



236 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

"Helps to Education in the Homes of our Country," "My 
Religious Experience at my Native Home." 

Mr. Burton died at Salem, June 6th, 1866. His letter, 
written Jany. 30, 1834, is as follows: 

South Hingham, Mass. 
Jany. 30, 1834. 
Mr. Baldwin, 
Dear Sir: 

I propose writing a book on our present military system, 
similar in character to the "District School as it was." 
My object is to aid as far as just a trifle may, the trans- 
formation of said system to that better form and condition 
which the late most excellent governor x has suggested 
and which all the intelligent desire, and also to put into 
a sort of frame for preservation, the peculiar customs and 
associations of the militia as it used to be. 

Now what man or boy ever went to a training or muster 
without seeing some amusing incident or development of 
character. 

Could I get at the materials that are slumbering in the 
memories of the people all over the Country, I might 
select materials for as interesting, as laughter stirring a 
book as could be well made. 

All that would be wanting would be a better workman 
to put it together. As I cannot get all the minds of folks 
except by writing to them I prefer to address those few 
whom I know to have an observant eye and a keen per- 
ception of the ludicrous. You are one of this class says 
fame, and as attests my collegiate recollections. 

You will oblige me very much by putting on paper in 
the same style that you would let me have them viva voce, 
whatever of incident or characteristic you have in memory 
as connected with officers and soldiers, training and musters. 

Perhaps as you are in the midst of many minds and 



1 Levi Lincoln, of Worcester, governor of Massachusetts, 1825-1834. 



Letters. 237 

much talk you can collect from others some valuable 
reminiscences. 

As you are an antiquarian, if you will let me know some- 
thing about the uniforms and disuniforms of the days of 
our fathers and grandfathers it will be an important ac- 
quisition. Anything relating to the ancient history of the 
tarry-at-home warriors will be acceptable. Perhaps you 
can direct me to some books, pamphlets and newspapers 
that would be of use. 

Anything from you on the subject will be gratefully 
received by your obt servant. 

WARREN BURTON. 

C. C. Baldwin, Esq., 

Please to answer this by the first of April and as much 
before as you please. Direct to South Hingham. 

Christopher Columbus Baldwin, the writer of the other 
letter herewith presented, was born at Templeton, in that 
part now called Baldwinsville, August 1, 1800. 

In Mr. Baldwin's diary, just published by the Antiqua- 
rian Society, under date of August 1, 1832, he thus refers 
to his birth: "I was born thirty-two years ago this day, 
if there is any reliance to be put in the family record. 
The record in the Bible is in this way ' Christopher Colum- 
bus, born August first, 1800, sign of the thighs.' My 
father entertains a curious notion that the temper is influ- 
enced in some way by the particular time of birth, so the 
place of the sign in the Almanack is put in the record 
against each of the family." 

His father was Capt. Eden Baldwin, and his mother 
Abigail Force, daughter of Lieut. Jonathan Force of Wren- 
tham, Mass. Jonathan Baldwin, grandfather of Christo- 
pher, was one of the early settlers of Templeton and became 
a large land-owner, also had a saw and grist mill. He 
was succeeded by his son Eden, who also carried on an 
extensive business. The name was given to the village 



238 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

on account of the enterprise and public spirit manifested 
by both father and son. Christopher studied at Leicester 
Academy and entered Harvard College with the class of 
1823. 

Soon after leaving college he came to Worcester and 
studied law with Gov. John Davis and Hon. Charles Allen. 
He was admitted to the Worcester County Bar in October, 
1826, and began practice in Worcester. Afterwards he 
practiced in Barre and Sutton. The law was not to his 
taste; he preferred to devote himself to historical and 
genealogical studies. His work in this direction soon 
brought him into fellowship with William Lincoln, the 
historian of Worcester, and from 1825 to 1827 they jointly 
edited and published the " Worcester Magazine and His- 
torical Journal." This was not a financial success, but has 
proved of value to the student of local history, for a large 
part of the Magazine was given up to historical notices 
of Worcester County towns. Mr. Baldwin prepared a 
chapter on the town of Templeton. 

His interest in antiquarian and historical investigation 
undoubtedly was the cause of his election as a member 
of the American Antiquarian Society, in October, 1827. 
He was at once elected temporary librarian and cabinet 
keeper, resigning on his removal to Barre in May, 1830. 

Mr. Baldwin remained in Barre but a few months, re- 
moving to Sutton in the fall of 1830, where he began the 
practice of law in partnership with Jonas L. Sibley, then 
U. S. Marshal. 

He returned to Worcester in the winter of 1831, and 
was soon after elected permanent librarian of the Anti- 
quarian Society, which office he held till his death. 

Mr. Baldwin at once took a lively interest in the duties 
of the office and used every exertion to increase the library. 
Probably to him more than to any other person the Anti- 
quarian Society is indebted for its collection of early news- 
papers of the United States. 



Letters. 239 

Mr. Baldwin was a natural antiquary and genealogist; 
wherever he travelled he visited the burial-places and copied 
names and epitaphs, examined town records, and inter- 
viewed aged men, many examples of which appear in the 
diary. 1 

He also took great interest in natural history, and spent 
many hours in searching for specimens, returning after 
long tramps in the woods and fields, "with his hat wreathed 
with butterflies and his shoulder loaded with ores." In a 
letter, written in July, 1832, to Thaddeus M. Harris, libra- 
rian of Harvard College, he encloses insects for his cabinet, 
the smallest of which "was found in a new locality, in 
the midst of a large folio volume, having by appearance 
passed directly through the binding into the leaves of the 
book." 

His interest in historical study caused him to collect a 
mass of material with the intention of writing a history 
of Sutton, Mass., but his early and unexpected death 
prevented him from arranging it for publication. He pre- 
pared for the Worcester Historical Magazine a paper entitled 
the "Topographical View of Templeton"; also various 
historical and biographical papers signed "B." 

Owing to ill health, brought on largely by his incessant 
labors in building up the library, and increasing the use- 
fulness of the Antiquarian Society, Mr. Baldwin felt the 
need of rest and a change from the daily routine of his 
vocation, and in July, 1835, he left Worcester with the 
intention of making an extended trip in the West. 

The journey was undertaken at the suggestion and by 
the approval of the Council of the Society, with the hope 
and expectation that he might regain his health, and at 
the same time afford facilities for examining the ancient 
mounds in Ohio, and in other ways promote the objects 



1 The Antiquarian Society has in its library a volume of epitaphs, collected by 
Mr. Baldwin, containing copies of over a thousand inscriptions from monuments 
and gravestones in various burial-grounds in New England. 



240 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

of the Society. At a meeting of the Council of the Anti- 
quarian Society it was voted to request Mr. Baldwin "to 
visit the Western Country for the purpose of making 
examinations as contemplated by the will of Mr. Thomas 
and that one hundred and fifty dollars be appropriated 
for the purpose." 

He started on this journey about the middle of August, 
1835, reaching Pittsburgh, as appears by the diary, Aug. 
15. Five days after, as he was about to enter the field 
of his intended investigations, he was suddenly killed by 
the overturning of a stage on which he was travelling from 
Wheeling, Va., to Zanesville, 0. 

Mr. Baldwin's letter is as follows: 

April 10, 1834. 
Rev. Warren Burton, South Hingham. 
My dear Sir: 

I am really mortified that I have so long delayed an 
answer to your letter which I received in February. 

I felt quite pleased when I read it, because I thought 
I could entertain you with some passages in my own mili- 
tary career which would be particularly to the point. 

But to confess the truth to you, I have never encountered 
any subject which I have found so difficult to manage. 

It is easy enough to be extravagant, but it is a hard 
matter to utter the truth. 

You want the exact truth without any coloring. This 
is what has given your " District School" the favorable 
reception by the public. I have found several individuals 
who have gravely assured me that the author of the Dis- 
trict School must have lived in their own neighborhood 
because there were so many circumstances related which 
had actually taken place under their own eyes. 

Now this is what you want touching the militia and 
although my memory is burthened with the most absurd 



Letters. 241 

and ridiculous comedies yet I cannot put them on paper. 
I have essayed to do it but I have failed utterly. 

There is one part of your letter which I feel bound to 
answer: I mean the militia antiquities. But I fear I can 
do you but little service in this part. 

Such facts as I know I will thankfully impart. My 
information is derived from pictures, old soldiers and old 
men. 

The organization of the Militia was different under the 
Colony from what it was under the Province. Before 1692 
the soldiers were trained 8 days x in the year and a general 
muster in each regiment once in three years. 

The Arms of the soldiers were required to be inspected 
twice a year. 

The regiments were commanded by Majors who were 
chosen by the freemen, householders and listed soldiers. 

The major might call out the under officers and disci- 
pline them as often as he chose. 

If a company had not sixty-four men it was commanded 
by Sergeants. 

Every company was entitled to two drums and this 
was all the musick allowed it. 

Every foot soldier was required to be well armed and 
if he was too poor to procure equipments he was required 
to deliver to his officers so much corn, which the officers 
disposed of and applied the proceeds to the purchase of 
the necessary accoutrements. 

The pike men were required to have a good pike well 
headed, corslet, head pieces, sword and snap sack (a sol- 
diers' bag), and the musqueteers a good fixed musquet 
not under bastard musquet bore, nor under three feet 
nine inches, nor more than four feet three inches long with 
a sword rest, bandileres, one pound of powder, twenty 
bullets and two fathom of match. Flint locks were not 



In 1675 it was altered to 6 days. 

17 



242 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

used I believe until about 1680, and before that time 
match locks were in fashion. The match was most gener- 
ally coiled up and carried in the hat, though sometimes 
it was carried in a tin tube, the lid of the tube being pierced 
with small holes like the lid of a pepper box. 

By bastard were to be understood a barrel that carries 
a ball of twelve to the pound, which is one third larger 
than those now required by the military regulations of 
the United States. Only think of a gun barrel four feet 
three inches long, big enough to carry a ball of twelve to 
the pound. It would kill a modern soldier to carry such 
a gun, no wonder they required a rest. But I will explain 
what is meant by a rest. It resembled somewhat the 
apparatus which supports a surveyor's compass. It con- 
sisted of two or three legs united by joints at the top with 
sharp iron feet, and a place to rest the gun when it was 
discharged. The guns were so heavy that they could not 
be held out and fired as in our days. You may remember 
that one of the proofs adduced to support the charge of 
witchcraft against the Rev. Mr. Burroughs in 1692, was 
that though a small man, he could put his finger into the 
muzzle of a gun " six foot long" and hold it out horizontally; 
and in one of the pictures of Gil Bias where the comic 
scene is described of a beggar asking charity, the beggar 
is represented as resting his gun upon a crotched stick. 
I will here mention that the events in Gil Bias are prob- 
ably from 1620 to 1660, so that this picture is not fancy 
but true history so far as regards the use of the musket. 

Persons were required to perform military duty after 
16, and I find no account of their ever being too old to 
help defend the country. After 1692, I believe the ages 
liable to duty were from 16 to 60. 

After 1692 there were four trainings in each year instead 
of 8. Flint locks were now in use and the laws were altered 
accordingly. I have picked up a few facts from old men 
'hat may interest you. 



Letters. 



243 



An ancient friend of mine (Jotham Sawyer of Templeton, 
aged 89), says he can remember a training in Lancaster 
in 1754 which is 80 years ago. The officers then wore 
cocked hats, trimmed with gold or silver lace with yellow 
waistcoats and breeches. Another ancient gentlemen (Mr. 
Stevens of Savoy aged 75) [says} that he thinks he had 
seen officers with red vests instead of yellow. I cannot 
learn that the common soldier ever had any uniform, and 
presume they never had. The Militia in the Revolutionary 
war had no uniforms, tho the regular soldier had, and I 
have seen the coats of the Revolutionary soldiers, such as 
belonged to the regular army adapted with some modi- 
fications to modern times. 

I saw your classmate Nat Wood Esq. of Fitchburgh a 
few days ago who told me [he] had received a letter from 
you, but had not answered it, finding much the same 
difficulties that I have mentioned. If he would undertake 
[it] I have no doubt he would treat the subject with ability. 
Excuse me for having delayed writing so long and also 
for the barrenness of my letter, and believe me to be with 
great respect, 

Your humble servant, 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS BALDWIN. 



244 



Worcester Society of Antiquity. 



Reference having been made in the published corres- 
pondence between Christopher Columbus Baldwin, Esq., 
and Rev. Warren Burton, to the match-lock gun, it may 
be interesting to present the Manual for the use of arms at 
a period in which they were in use. 

MANUAL OF ARMS, 1638. 

Withdraw your scouring stick. 

Turn and shorten him to a 
handful, [hand breadth.] 

Return your scouring stick. 

Bring forward your musket 
and rest. 

Poyse your musket and re- 
cover your rest. 

Joyn rest to the outside of 
musket. 

Draw forth your match. 

Blow your cole. 

Cock your match. 

Fit your match. 

Guard your pan. 

Blow the ashes from your cole. 

Open your pan. 

Present upon your rest. 

Give fire brest high. 

Dismount your musket join- 
ing the rest to the outside of 
your musket, uncock, and 
return your match. 

Cleere pan. 

Shut pan. 

Poyse musket. 

Rest musket. 

Take your musket off the rest 
and set the butt end to the 
ground. 

Lay down your musket. 

Lay down your match. 

Take your rest into your right 
hand clearing the string from 
your left wrist. 

Lay down your rest. 

Take off your bandelier. 

Lay down your bandelier. 



1. 


Stand to your arms. 


29 


2. 


Take up your bandeliers. 


30 


3. 


Put on your bandeliers. 




4. 


Take up your match. 


31. 


5. 


Place your match. 


32 


6 


Take your rest. 




7. 


Put string of rest about your 
left wrist. 


33. 


8. 


Take up your musket. 


34. 


9. 


Rest your musket. 




10. 


Poyse your musket. 


35. 


11. 


Unshoulder your musket and 


36. 




poyse. 


37. 


12. 


Join the rest to the outside of 


38. 




your musket. 


39. 


13. 


Open your pan. 


40. 


14. 


Clear your pan. 


41. 


15. 


Prime your pan. 


42 


16. 


Shut your pan. 


43 


17. 


Cast off your loose corn and 
grain. 


44 


18. 


Blow off your loose corn and 
bring about your musket to 






your left side. 


45. 


19. 


Trail your rest. 


46. 


20. 


Balance your musket in your 


47. 




left hand. 


48 


21. 


Find out your charge. 


49 


22. 
23. 


Open your charge. 
Charge with powder. 




24. 


Draw forth your scouring 


50 




stick. 


51 


25. 
26. 


Turn him and shorten him to 

an inch. 
Charge with bullet. 


52 


27. 


Put your scouring stick into 


53 




your musket. 


54 


28. 


Ram home your charge. 


55 



PROCEEDINGS 



$Hotrafop #orirtg of XttHquifg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1903. 



Volume XIX 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

1903. 
U. S. A. CXXVII. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Fifth Meeting 245 

Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester in Former 

Days . . . . 246 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Sixth Meeting 262 

Beginnings of New England 263 

The Rice Family . . 286 



PROCEEDINGS. 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-FIFTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, SEPT. 1, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Brannon, Crane, Davidson, Eaton, Gould, Harring- 
ton, Harlow, Geo. Maynard, Paine, Salisbury, Williamson, 
Mrs. Brannon, Mrs. Barrett, Mrs. R. B. Dodge, Miss May, 
Miss McFarland, Miss Smith, Mrs. Stone, Miss White, 
Miss M. Agnes Waite, Mr. Adams, Mr. Thos. C. Rice, 
Miss Barrett, Miss Chase, Miss Harlow, Mrs. McFarland 
and several others, names not given. 

Contributions for the past month as reported by the 
Librarian were: forty-two bound volumes, five hundred 
and sixty-two pamphlets, one hundred and nine papers 
and two articles for the museum, one of which was a 
bowl made from oak timber used in the construction of 
the second Court House, the other being a rare specimen 
of needlework executed in Paris, France, about fifty years 
ago. Both articles were presented by Miss Mary Louisa 
Trumbull Cogswell. 

The name of Abraham A. Rheutan was presented for 
membership and referred to the Committee on Nominations. 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury was then introduced and read 

the ninth of a series of interesting papers, prepared by 

Mrs. E. 0. P. Sturgis of Salem, bearing upon the local 

history of Worcester, including reminiscences of families 

residing here fifty and one hundred years ago, some of 

whose descendants may be found upon the streets in 

Worcester at the present day. 
18 



246 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

CONCERNING SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS IN WORCESTER 
IN FORMER DAYS. 

I attended five " Infant Schools." First to a Mrs. or Miss 
Collins in 1828, who occupied part of an old meeting-house 
or chapel in School street; and here at the mature age 
of two years I began my scholastic education. The only 
thing I remember about the place is, that I with other 
children used to be put in some of the old pews to take 
a nap, both in the forenoon and afternoon. Second, on 
the south side of the "Old Court House," then the "New 
Court House," stood a small wooden building, and in it 
some one, whose name I can't recall, taught young children. 
Recently I have seen a photograph, taken from an old 
print, showing the "Court House" and the little brown 
schoolhouse south of it, probably the Isaiah Thomas's 
office, which was removed to Grove street. The other 
three schools 1 recall distinctly, but not in what order I 
attended them. One of them was kept by Mrs. Jonathan 
Wood, who was Miss Sarah Styles, a cousin of the late Mrs. 
Alfred D. Foster, who lived in a small wooden house, on 
Salisbury street near the "Jo Bill Road," as a narrow 
lane was called at that time (now Institute road). In Lin- 
coln street, Miss Sarah Ward, a daughter of Artemas Ward, 
later Mrs. Wm. Bickford, rented a room in the rear of a 
new brick house, where a few small children were gathered 
together for instruction. The only event I can recall of 
this school, was learning to spell "Wednesday," after much 
trouble and perplexity. 

Lastly I went to school to Mrs. Hey wood, the mother 
of the late Rev. John Heywood, who taught a little school 
in a small wooden building, almost if not quite opposite 
the house of Dr. B. F. Heywood on Main street. To 
reach the room in which the school was held, one went 
up a short staircase on the outside and in front of the 
building. A painter's shop was on the same landing. 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 247 

Increasing in years, but probably not in wisdom, I was 
passed along to three schools of a higher grade; one was 
kept by Miss Sarah C. Ward, who later became Mrs. H. G. 
0. Blake, in a room in what was the post-office building, 
on Main street. Next, to Miss Lucretia Bancroft, who 
used one of the rooms in the rear of her father's house* 
for a schoolroom. She was a daughter of Rev. Dr. Aaron 
Bancroft, and later Mrs. Farnum. 

Miss Martha Stearns next appeared on the scene, and 
opened a school in a wooden building next to the north 
end of " Granite Block." I believe this house was called 
the "Dr. Robinson House," having been occupied by a 
gentleman of that name and his family at a former period. 
Two rooms up one flight, which were reached by a stair- 
case on the outside of the building, were used for the school. 
Miss Hannah Stearns, a sister of Miss Martha, also at one 
time opened a school for girls, in a white wooden house, 
next, or next but one, to Salisbury's Block on Main street. 
I think it was in the "Old Thomas House," however. 
She only occupied one room on the ground floor, on the 
left-hand side of the front door. Where this school was 
sandwiched in, among the multiplicity of places of in- 
struction I went to, I cannot recall. 

At two periods I attended a school kept by Mr. John 
Wright and his wife, who was a daughter of Judge Pres- 
cott of Groton. At one time he had rooms in the "Post- 
Office Building," on Main street, and later in his own 
house, at the northern end of Salisbury's Block, the 
school being in the upper story. In Mr. Baldwin's Diary, 
he refers to Mr. Wright as a native of "Westford," and 
as a classmate of his own, and styles the school "A Female 
Academy." According to Mr. Baldwin this was in 1834, 
and I was eight years old. Mr. Wright was a strict 
disciplinarian and he used to box the ears of the pupils, 
and make a girl hold out her hand, upon which he 

* Main near the corner of Thomas street. 



248 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

administered punishment with a ruler, when he was dis- 
pleased. 

In " Lincoln's History of Worcester/' he deems it to be 
worthy of mention that in 1836 Mr. Robert Phipps came 
to town, and opened a school for young ladies. What 
became of the " Wright School," I can't say, but I was 
transferred with other children to Mr. Phipps's care, he 
having opened his school in "Butman's Block," where he 
had two large rooms in the third story. The front one 
was the schoolroom, and in the back one a primitive gym- 
nasium was established for the use of the pupils at recess. 
How long this school lasted I can't recollect, but I fancy 
it soon went the way of those which preceded it. I was 
now getting on in years, being at the end of my first decade, 
and the impressions of a child of ten years of age are not 
to be depended on, but I think the school was carried 
on in a fancy fashion. There was a female assistant who 
taught French, and some one came to give us drawing 
lessons, so I learnt a smattering of the former, and drew 
impossible pictures of houses, etc., when I had better have 
been employed in learning to spell, for I can't spell cor- 
rectly now, and I believe in all the places of learning I 
attended, I was never taught punctuation, for even to 
this day, it seems a mystery where such marks should 
be inserted. I always felt a great sympathy with "Lord 
Timothy Dexter," as he was called, of Newbury port, who 
wrote a book and filled some of the last pages with punc- 
tuation marks, requesting his readers to put them in to 
suit themselves! Mr. Phipps, as I recall him, was a tall,, 
gentlemanly looking man, with pleasant manners, and no 
doubt did his best to keep his school up to the standard 
of the day. 

In those days schools began at nine o'clock a. m. and! 
lasted until twelve, with a recess of half an hour. From! 
twelve to two the school was dismissed, to begin againj 
at the latter hour, and to last until five with again a halfij 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 249 

hour of recess. The vacations were two weeks in summer 
and two in winter. I lived too far away to go home at 
noon so I dined every day with Judge Paine, whose house 
was close at hand,* and had an opportunity there to re- 
cruit from the intellectual labors of the forenoon, for I 
had the run of the house and the orchard and the great 
sunny kitchen, where Molly Grout, one of those old family 
servants so common in Worcester in those days, presided 
over the domestic affairs. Among the older girls who 
attended the "Phipps School," were: Miss S. R. Parker, 
later Mrs. Joseph Mason; Miss Hester Newton, who be- 
came the wife of Mr. John Wetherell ; Miss Elizabeth W. 
Wheeler, who married Professor Gird; and Miss Elizabeth 
Hubbard, an adopted daughter of Madame Salisbury's, 
who became later the wife of the Rev. Erskine Edwards, 
who was settled in Grafton, in which town she died in 
the early forties. 

I recall a pleasant act of Mr. Phipps, who invited his 
pupils to a picnic, to be held in Lincoln's Grove, in the 
beautiful glades of which, on the borders of the pond, we 
passed a pleasant day, and on which he invited us to risk 
our lives by allowing him to row us about in the Indian 
canoe, lent by Mr. Wm. Lincoln for the occasion. 

After the Phipps's school closed there was a period of 
some duration, when nothing offered to take its place, 
and it became a problem as to what could be done in the 
premises, when it was solved by the return of the Misses 
Hannah and Martha Stearns to Worcester, who opened 
not only a day, but a boarding school for young ladies, 
in the third house in Salisbury's Block, going south. This 
was an entirely new departure, and proved a most suc- 
cessful one, for the day pupils were numerous, and the 
boarders were as many as could be accommodated in 
rather close quarters. I am not certain, but I think this 
school opened before 1840, and it continued to flourish 



* Judge Paine lived at the corner of Main and Pleasant streets. 



250 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

for many years. I left there when I had " finished my 
education/' as the saying is, and as fast as the older girls 
left, younger ones took their places, while boarders were 
always waiting to fill any vacancies which might occur. 
These out of town young people brought a pleasant ele- 
ment into the young society of Worcester, and many 
friendships were formed which only ended with the lives 
of those interested. Probably there are not many people 
now living in Worcester who remember "The Stearns 
Girls," as the first set of boarders used to be called, or, 
as Miss Stearns used to call them, "My band of jewels." 
There were the two handsome Lymans from Northampton, 
and members of the Howard, Chapin, Bipley and Bangs 
families of Springfield, and later three daughters of Hon. 
Stephen C. Phillips of Salem, a granddaughter of Dr. 
Abbott (the former head of the Academy), of Exeter, 
N. H., with many others, too numerous to mention. All 
the first set of boarders have long since passed away. 

Miss Martha Stearns was married in the early forties 
to Mr. Joseph S. Cabot of Salem, and went there to live, 
but died a year or more later. In the meantime Miss 
Stearns carried on the school into the early fifties. The 
' ' Stearns Family " came originally, I believe, from Leomins- 
ter in Worcester County. The Rev. Oliver Stearns, a 
theologian of some repute in his day, and at one time 
Dean of the Harvard Divinity school, was one of the family. 
The two sisters had taught school in other places before 
coming to Worcester, Miss Hannah having been a private 
governess in the Randolph family in Virginia, by whom 
she was much esteemed. 

When Miss Stearns gave up her school, on account of 
ill health, and her aged mother, one of her family, having 
died, the Rev. E. E. Hale, the pastor of the Church of 
the Unity, became one of her household. She finally went 
to Exeter, N. H., to live, and there she died many years 
ago. 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 251 

The " Infant Schools/' or " Dames' Schools," were I 
suppose the foundation of the " Kindergartens " of to-day, 
and were considered good safe places to send small child- 
ren to, in order to learn their letters. The "Town Schools " 
were formerly out of the question for girls, and in scholastic 
advantages not to be named in the same day with the 
admirable public institutions of the present time. Before 
I left school and from the time I was two years old, I had 
attended twelve schools, and in looking back and consider- 
ing my advantages, I can only wish I had been born fifty 
years later than I was, and could have enjoyed the privi- 
leges which girls have now for acquiring a good sound 
education. "Live and Learn," is an excellent proverb 
and I find the longer I live the more I realize my deficiencies, 
and that one's education is never finished! 

Amusements of the Young People in Worcester in 
Former Days. 

A dancing school is the first thing I can remember, and 
that was kept in "Stockwell's Tavern," which stood, I 
believe, where the Bay State Hotel now stands, but the 
name of the teacher I cannot recall.* Later Mr. Weaver 
opened a dancing school in Brinley Block, which I attended, 
and there were the usual exhibitions connected with it, 
in order to show off the pupils. 

Picnics to "Long Pond," as this sheet of water was 
called formerly; drives in express wagons, in which we 
sat on board seats, to "Purgatory" in Sutton, a place 
said to be full of rattlesnakes; to Princeton and other 
towns; horseback rides to Leicester and West Boylston, 
where, in the latter place, there used to be a large circular 
field of grass, surrounded by woods, called Happy Valley 
or Vale of West Boylston ; sleigh-rides in old-time stages 
on runners, to Northboro, and other places in the vicinity 

♦Mrs. Potts (?). 



252 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

of Worcester, when we used to have supper on our arrival, 
generally a most primitive repast, boiled onions being a 
feature of the meal, and after dancing during the even- 
ing, we would reach home in the small hours of the 
morning, — these formed some of our chief entertainments. 
I remember- going to Leicester once, and the waitress 
announcing our repast, saying, "The victuals is ready." 

Miss Stearns introduced " Twelfth Night Parties," and 
we enjoyed them for several years. There used to be a 
meeting from time to time for young people of both sexes, 
called "The Club," but finding it anything but attractive, 
I only attended a few times. 

The last winter I went to school, I seem to have com- 
bined study with amusement, for I went to two sets of 
cotillon parties, one in each week. One set was held at 
the "Worcester House," then so called, in the dining- 
room of the hotel, and was composed of both old and 
young people; and the other in private houses, where only 
young men and girls were admitted. Tableaux we had 
sometimes, and on one occasion Mrs. John Davis invited 
company to see some at her house. Later there was "The 
Cattle-show Ball," and the one given the next evening by 
Mrs. Levi Lincoln to attend, an old custom of many years' 
standing. 

Military balls, too, I attended from time to time in 
Brinley Hall. When politically inclined, a party of young 
people would go to a caucus in the Town Hall, and the 
Lyceum Lectures were always well attended in the winter 
season. 

My father being for many years chairman of the select- 
men, I had full opportunity of seeing all the shows that 
came to town, for he always had tickets for his family 
sent to him. Before I was old enough to go to balls, the 
cattle-show was attractive, as was the noise and bustle 
of 4th of July. The "Muster," in its season, was well 
attended and on training-days we used to go to a field 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 253 

somewhere on Grove street, in the vicinity of Salisbury street 
to watch the soldiers parading; and how magnificent General 
or Major Hobbs used to look as he walked at the head of his 
soldiers down Main street ! I remember very well when there 
were only 5,000 people in Worcester, and what a rural, 
attractive place it was. Later when the population had 
increased, there were great complaints made in the town, 
that people were not intimate with each other, that they kept 
in certain sets, and did not mingle with their fellow towns- 
men. These complaints coming to the knowledge of Mrs. 
Gov. John Davis, I remember her holding up both hands, 
a favorite gesture of hers, and saying, "How can 7,000 peo- 
ple expect to be intimate with each other." "But," she 
said, "I will see what can be done." So she caused it to 
be noised abroad, that her house would be open on certain 
evenings, and that she would be glad to see her fellow 
townspeople on those dates, in order that those who desired 
to do so, might become acquainted with each other. 

As might have been expected the affair was a perfect 
failure, and after one or two gatherings nothing more was 
heard on the subject. One attempt was made to make 
the "Cattle-show Ball" a rather more general affair than 
usual, the result of which was, one set of people danced 
at one end of the hall, and another at the other end, both 
strangers to each other. I refer to the above to show 
what the social atmosphere was in Worcester sixty or 
seventy years since. None of the amusements now in 
vogue among young people of both sexes in these days, 
were known in my time. We enjoyed life, and it is to be 
hoped every generation will, according to the fashion of 
the day, do the same. 

How we used to travel between Boston and Worcester, 
and a few words about my first railway journey. Before 
1835, the Boston and Worcester stage left the latter place 
early in the day, reaching its destination about 2 o'clock 
p. m. The driver used to act as expressman when desired 



254 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

to do so, and would take any orders as he passed through 
the towns on his route, delivering the goods he had bought, 
on his way back the next day, or carry parcels to and 
fro. So if we had any business on hand that required 
his attention, we used to watch for him when he passed 
in the morning, give him a pattern of any goods we re- 
quired from the city, and he would bring the article the 
next afternoon, when we were on the lookout for him as 
he went down the hill, paying his bill at the same time. 
All this was very primitive, but served our purpose in 
those days. The stage also took the mail-bags from town 
to town, and the inhabitants were generally collected in 
front of the country store, or wherever " Uncle Sam" 
might have elected to have his mail deposited, to see the 
stage come in, the great event of the day, to wait for the bag 
to be opened, in hopes of a letter or to receive their news- 
papers. People bound from town to town used to wait 
all along the road, at their gates, for the coming of the 
stage, the women with their band-boxes, and the men 
dressed in their Sunday clothes. After the horses had 
been watered, the stage would start, to again go through 
the same experience at the next town it came to. 

The seat on the coach box with the driver was the most 
desired, and as these men had much experience with man 
and womankind, many amusing and queer stories were 
told by them of their experiences with their wayside cus- 
tomers, to their companions for the time being. 

Our family used to go to Boston every spring and autumn 
to visit my maternal grandmother, and it was a serious 
business to start a family of children on such an excursion. 
The regular stage-coach was out of the question, so an 
extra one was chartered, and being well provisioned, we 
were all packed in, leaving at as early an hour as possible 
for the city. We, being in a "Special," only stopped to ll 
change horses, and I only remember one mishap in all the i 
comings and goings, and that was in Franklin place, in j 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 255 

Boston, at the end of our journey, — in those days a beau- 
tiful street, lined with handsome houses, — when the stage 
capsized, and I was taken from the window by some one 
at hand. 

It was in the year 1834, that I had my first experience 
of travelling by rail. We had gone to Boston as usual 
by stage, and our return was to be made under different 
circumstances. We left the house in Boston one morning 
in the autumn, when it was hardly light, and going to 
the " depot," as railway stations were called in those and 
indeed in later days, we entered one of the little railway 
carriages, the whole passenger part of the train looking 
like a number of stage coaches joined together. In 
" Memoirs of a Hundred Years," recently published by 
Dr. E. E. Hale, there is an excellent picture of these ve- 
hicles. So we started, and at ten o'clock reached West- 
boro', the then termination of the road. "Sam Congdon," 
as people used to call the old livery-stable keeper, met us 
here with a carriage, and we drove the remainder of the 
way to Worcester, reaching our home in time for our one 
o'clock dinner. So our "adventure," as Carlyle would 
have called it, ended prosperously, and was considered a 
most wonderful performance ! It was not until the summer 
of 1835, that the first railway train came through to 
Worcester, and then there was a great celebration in the 
town in consequence. Mr. Baldwin in his "Diary," gives 
a most amusing account of his attempt to see the first 
train come in. He had invited his friend "Father Ken- 
dall," as Mr. Joseph G. Kendall used to be called, to 
accompany him in his wagon to an elevated spot in ' ' Pine 
Meadow," in order to have a fine view of the train on 
its first appearance and arrival in Worcester, but an un- 
ruly horse, frightened at its approach, required all his 
attention, so he failed to see the object of his excursion. 

Mr. Baldwin must have sympathized with that Biblical 
character of whom we read in the "New England Primer," 



256 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

who " climbed a tree his Lord to see, but, who had a fall, 
and did not see his Lord at all." If my memory does 
not fail me, two and two and one-half hours was the time 
allowed at first for the journey between Boston and Worces- 
ter, and was not to be undertaken without due consideration 
and forethought. Now people think no more of the journey 
to Boston, than they would of going into the house of 
their next-door neighbor. 

The "Deep Cut," so called, was considered a most won- 
derful piece of engineering, and used to serve the useful 
purpose of notifying us when our friends coming from 
Boston were nearing Worcester, for the town was a quiet 
place in those days, and we never heard the shrill whistles 
and electric bells, that now make a pandemonium of any 
place in the vicinity of a factory or railroad. So we used 
to hear the reverberation as the train passed through the 
"Deep Cut," and thus knew when it was time to be ready 
to greet the expected guests. The 12 o'clock bell at noon 
and the 9 o'clock one at night "were all the sounds we 
heard." 

I have heard my father say that when he was a young 
man, it used to take three days by stage to go to Spring- 
field from Boston; one week to reach New York; and 
for the round trip to Niagara Falls and return six weeks 
were allowed. Those who could afford it travelled in 
their own private carriages. 

Some Additions to and Corrections Regarding my 
Account of "Old Worcester." 

The Francis H. Kinnicutt house, at the head of Pearl 
street, was not built, as I supposed, by him, but by Judge 
Pliny Merrick, who lived there until he moved into his 
house on the corner of Elm and Chestnut streets, the 
entrance being on Elm street. He bought this house of 
Simeon Burt, who had built it for his own use, but being 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 257 

obliged to leave it sold it to Mr. Merrick. Mrs. Burt was 
so unhappy at leaving it, that she never passed it after 
she removed from it. I have heard since I last mentioned 
the " Merrick Family," that they came from Brookfield. 

In writing of Front street I did not mention that the 
first house on the street was occupied by Mr. Francis 
Merrick. I do not recollect it, but I am told it was there. 
I also omitted to mention the house built and occupied 
by Levi A. Dowley, on a portion of the "Nazro" estate. 
It was a large, fine, wooden house, painted white, standing 
almost directly on the sidewalk, with rooms on each side 
of the front door. A large party was given there soon 
after the family moved in, which I attended. Miss Mary 
Dowley married Mr. George Butman, and died soon after 
that event. The family left Worcester many years since. 

Mr. Isaac Davis built a handsome house on the site of 
the Gardiner Chandler mansion, standing far back from 
the street, as that did. In front was a lawn and flower- 
beds, between which a pathway led up to the piazza and 
entrance. A fountain, too, added to the beauty of the 
approach to the house. Here, too, I went to a large gather- 
ing soon after the family moved here, and I remember 
the late Mrs. A. H. Bullock being present, her first appear- 
ance as a bride in Worcester society. The Davis family 
moved from here to their new house on Elm street, now 
the Worcester Club. 

Almost opposite, on the corner of Main and Park streets, 
the Hon. Charles Allen and family lived in an old fashioned 
house. He was one of the most eminent lawyers in Worces- 
ter County, and at one period an attorney in New Braintree, 
but later removed to Worcester, where he became a partner 
of Governor John Davis. Mrs. Allen was one of the Misses 
James of Barre. One of these ladies married Rev. Dr. 
Thompson of the Barton Square Church of Salem, and 
another Dr. Alexander Young of Boston, at one time 
pastor of the " Church Green" meeting-house. There were 



258 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

seven children in the Allen household, five daughters, of 
whom only one is left, and two sons. Hon. Charles Allen 
was one of the first people to move to Elm street, having 
built a house on the Sever farm, just below the house of 
Gov. Lincoln. Mr. Samuel Allen was his brother (the 
father of Mrs. S. F. Haven), and had married a sister 
of Judge Pliny Merrick. Another brother was the Rev. 
George Allen of Shrewsbury, afterward Chaplain of the 
State Lunatic Hospital. 

When Governor A. H. Bullock was married he lived in 
a small house on Elm street east of the house now occu- 
pied by his son, but in time built himself a large, handsome 
wooden house,* on the eastern side of Main street, at that 
period seemingly quite out of town. Here was given a 
house warming which I attended, and here he lived until 
he moved into his new house on Elm street. 

"The United States Hotel" stood between Mechanic and 
Front streets, on the eastern side of Main street. Next to 
it were some low white wooden buildings, called "The 
Compound," which were the last on Main street before com- 
ing to Front street. The Hotel was a large brick building, 
standing a distance from the sidewalk, with stables, etc., in 
the rear. Before the "Worcester House," as it was formerly 
designated, the home of the late Governor Levi Lincoln, be- 
came a family hotel, many families lived in this tavern, 
making it their home. The late Francis H. Dewey lived here 
when he was first married to Miss Clark of Northampton, 
while his house was building on Chestnut street. Here 
Mr. Joseph Lee of Boston lived from time to time for some 
years. What brought him to Worcester I never knew, for 
the only relatives he had in the place were Dr. Paine and 
his son, he being my father's second cousin, they both 
belonging to the "Orne and Pickering" families of Salem. 
He was a constant visitor at our house in Dr. Paine 's day, 
and I remember "Uncle Joe," as he was called, very well. 

* Now the residence of F. H. Leland. 



Concerning Schools for Girls in Worcester, etc. 259 

Mr. Lee used also to be a visitor at Judge Paine 's office, 
corner of Main and Pleasant streets. In summer time 
he travelled about the country in a queer old roomy, 
covered carriage with no companion but his dog, gene- 
rally arriving at dinner time at the house of one of 
his relatives, though he never came empty-handed, for 
from the back of his carriage he would produce something 
welcome to his friends, perhaps a piece of salmon, early 
in the season, or some game, early vegetables or fruit. 
The first bananas I ever saw he brought one day. The 
"Brats," as he used to call the children of his relatives, 
were always pleased to see "Uncle Joe" drive into the 
yard. Sometimes he would bring rare shrubs or young 
trees and oversee the planting himself, and for man}^ years 
there were two large trees on the south side of Dr. Paine's 
house, which he had set out in their youth. He had ample 
means, for he belonged to the prominent and rich Lee 
family of Boston, and must have led the wandering life 
he did from choice. He was intimate in the family of 
Gov. Levi Lincoln and enjoyed sitting on the piazza of 
the Main street house, and discussing matters and things 
with his host. A portrait which was painted while living 
in Worcester, represents him sitting at a table, on which 
was a glass of wine, and his dog at his side. Mr. Baldwin 
in his "Diary," gives an interesting account of this old 
gentleman, who was living in 1845, but I think died soon 
after that date. 

A Curious Natural Feature in Worcester, in the 
Main Street. 

Dr. John Green's house was opposite that of Dr. B. F. 
Heywood's on Main street, and the front door in the second 
story opened out on to the top of a hill or mound, like 
or similar to the elevations in the north and south ends 
of the town, on a much smaller scale, however. The house 



260 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

must have been built on the side of a hill, and the lower 
part of it was left for no purpose as I can see except to 
cause inconvenience to pedestrians, for the sidewalk ran 
over this hill, and anyone going either north or south had 
to mount up one side and go down the other. Dr. Green, 
too, in coming out of his front door, had to go down one 
side or the other. On top of the hill was a tree, and I 
am told that children made this place a playground, slid- 
ing down or running up one side and down the other. 
The part which stood on the street, I suppose must have 
been cut off on a line with the sidewalk. In the course 
of time this mound was taken away, and Dr. Green, finding 
his front door too high up for constant use, had a window 
put in its place, and the parlors became chambers, and 
parlors were formed from what were cellars, the front door 
being between them,- directly on the sidewalk. I, person- 
ally, have no recollection of this hill in Main street, but 
there are two people in Worcester, who remember it very 
well and have described it to me. The 'inhabitants of 
Worcester could not have been in much of a hurry in 
those days, and the town fathers not very energetic to 
permit such an obstacle to remain in a public thorough- 
fare. 

The town school was just north of Dr. Green's house. 
It was a large white wooden building, set back from the 
street, the playground being in front. In the cupola was 
the school bell. 

At the close of the reading, Nathaniel Paine, Esq., ex- 
pressed his interest in the valuable paper prepared by 
Mrs. Sturgis and thought the thanks of the Society was 
due her for such interesting and valuable contributions to 
our local history. 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury stated that there was considerable 
interest being shown in the attempt to locate the Col. 
Timothy Bigclow house, which was removed from Main i 



Proceedings, 261 

street, corner of Lincoln square, about 1833, to make 
room for the brick block now standing there, Mrs. Daniel 
Kent and Mrs. Wm. T. Forbes, being very desirous of 
having this historic relic located; and that investigations 
were in progress which might eventually show that the 
house might be standing on Lexington street. 

The subject of marking the site of the home of Major 
Jonas Rice, first permanent settler of Worcester, came up, 
and it was suggested that it might be well to have the 
event take place on the day already selected for the Rice 
family gathering, to be convened at the rooms of this 
Society October seventh, and on motion of Mr. Crane the 
matter was referred to the Committee on Marking Histor- 
ical Places, with power to act. 

It was further voted, on motion of Mr. Crane, that the 
inscription be cut upon a granite boulder to be used for 
the marker, a suitable one having been found upon the 
Jonas Rice estate. 

Adjourned. 



19 



PROCEEDINGS 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-SIXTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 6, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Abbot, Arnold, Crane, L. B. Chase, Coombs, Davidson, 
Eaton, Gould, Hobbs, M. A. Maynard, Geo. Maynard, E. 
Thomas, G. M. Rice, Stiles, Williamson, Miss Boland, Miss 
Anthony, Mrs. Forbes, Mrs. Daniel Kent, Miss May, Miss 
Moore, Miss M. A. Smith, Miss M. Agnes Waite, Mrs. Wil- 
liamson, Thos. C. Rice, G. H. Rice, Miss Barker, Mrs. 
Bancroft, Mrs. Stiles and twenty others whose names were 
not taken. 

Contributions for the past month, as reported by the 
Librarian, were: thirty-four bound volumes, eighty pam- 
phlets, several papers and three articles for the museum. 
Attention was called to the souvenir of the trip of the 
Society to New London and Groton, consisting of a life 
preserver from the steamboat "Col. Ledyard," presented 
by Hon. Ledyard Bill; also of five volumes from the Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth, including the "Vital Statistics 
of the Towns of Bedford and Millbury, Mass."; and also 
the valuable collection of books from G. Stuart Dickinson. 

The Committee on Nominations presented the name of 
Abram A. Rheutan, and he was elected an active member 
of the Society. 

The following applications were received, Charles Irving 
Rice, Thomas C. Rice, Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Downs, and 
referred to the Committee on Nominations. 



Beginnings of New England. 263 

Notice was given that in case of rain on the morrow, 
the exercises arranged to take place on Heywood street, of 
marking the site of the Jonas Rice home, would be held 
in Salisbury Hall. It was also announced that extra cars 
had been secured to run on the Providence street line, 
also the Grafton street line, to accommodate those who 
wished to use the electrics in getting to Heywood street. 

Hon. Ellery B. Crane was then introduced and read a 
paper entitled: 

BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND. 

Whatever may have been the frailties of England's 
Queen Elizabeth, her wisdom led her to so direct the de- 
partment of state as to make it possible for her subjects 
to thrive under prosecution of their various callings and 
industries, thereby bringing prosperity upon themselves, 
while her realm advanced to such a degree of success and 
affluence as to render her reign famous in the annals of 
history. 

During the first twenty years of her reign, a material 
increase in her navy was accomplished, and special en- 
couragements were granted her sailors. The corporation 
of merchant adventurers empowered by her sister Queen 
Mary had already gained considerable prominence in the 
commercial world, and the success attending their efforts 
in the lines of trade and discovery had created no little 
enthusiasm among their English brethren. Enterprising 
navigators began to appear, conducting voyages to differ- 
ent parts of the world, bringing more or less profit and 
renown to the kingdom, while the volume of English com- 
merce was greatly enhanced. 

Intercourse through trade with other nations stimulated 
a desire to conduct new and more difficult undertakings. 
The knowledge of what Spain had accomplished, awakened 
a thirst among the English people to try their hand at 



264 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

planting colonies in the new world. Sir Humphrey Gilbert 
of Compton, in Devonshire, England, a military officer of 
note, who had been giving attention to the subject of navi- 
gation, was conductor of the first English colony to America. 
June 11, 1578, through letters patent by Queen Elizabeth, 
Gilbert was given powers to establish a colony in any 
remote and barbarous lands unoccupied by any Christian 
prince or people. It was the first charter to a colony 
granted by the English crown. Gilbert with his half 
brother, Sir Walter Raleigh, took possession of Newfound- 
land, where the attempt was made to plant a colony. 
Their efforts, however, resulted in a disastrous shipwreck, 
in which Gilbert lost his life. Raleigh, after securing a 
patent from the Queen, March 26, 1584, soon despatched 
two vessels on a prospecting tour. They reached the shores 
of what is now North Carolina, returning to England Sept. 
15. Amadas and Barlow, captains in charge of the vessels, 
presented such a flattering report of the country, the Queen 
gave it the name Virginia. Raleigh immediately fitted 
out the expedition that located on Roanoke Island. The 
result of the effort being the wasting of Raleigh's fortune, 
and the introduction of tobacco into England, — in the 
light of progress, possibly two very valuable accomplish- 
ments. But English grit prevailed, and after several 
attempts Jamestown was settled. 

In 1602, Bartholomew Gosnold sighted and named Cape 
Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Elizabeth Island, and on his 
return to England awakened great interest in the country 
he visited. The merchants of Bristol sent out an expe- 
dition to verify his report, and word was returned confirm- 
ing the statements. 

James I. had ascended the throne, and learning of the 
great value of his possessions across the Atlantic, extending 
from the thirty-fourth to the fifty-fifth degree of latitude, 
decided for certain political reasons to divide it into two 
nearly equal parts, naming one the South Colony and the 



Beginnings of New England, 265 

other the North Colony of Virginia. April 10, 1616, he 
authorized Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Summers, Richard 
Hakluyt and their associates (chiefly residents of London), 
to settle any portion of South Virginia, granting them 
right to a tract of land extending fifty miles north and 
south upon the coast, and one hundred miles into the 
interior. North Virginia King James granted to sundry 
knights, gentlemen and merchants of Bristol, Plymouth 
and other places in the west of England, with similar rights 
to the soil as that conveyed in South Virginia. 

The charters given were for trading purposes, allowing 
the companies to have a seal, and to act as a body politic. 
The supreme government, however, of either colony was 
to be vested in a council appointed by the King, and resi- 
dent in England. A subordinate council was also provided 
for, to be named by the King, to be resident in the colony, 
but to act on instructions. Special concessions were added 
to encourage persons to settle in those colonies, all necessary 
articles could be imported from England to those colonies 
for seven years free of duty. Liberty to trade with other 
nations, and the duty levied for twenty-one years on all 
foreign trade was to be used as a fund for the benefit of 
the colony. Consent was also given for those of his sub- 
jects who desired to settle in either colony, to do so. Al- 
though there were many favorable stipulations in the 
charters, the chief management and control of these 
colonies remained in the hands of the crown of England, 
thus depriving the settler of his rights as a freeman. Under 
such liberties and restrictions the first permanent English 
settlements were established in America. 

The London Company proved somewhat active and 
made considerable progress in South Virginia. The Ply- 
mouth Company, under a previous charter executed in 
1606, attempted in a feeble way to locate a settlement 
within their territory; their first ship, however, was cap- 
tured by the Spaniards. Although Sir John Popham, 



266 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Chief Justice of England, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and other 
prominent men at the west of England were at the head 
of this Plymouth Company, there was much less energy 
displayed by them towards carrying forward the work of 
colonization than by the London Company. In 1607 the 
Plymouth Company located a settlement of one hundred 
men at Sagadahock. They found the winter much too 
severe for comfort and returned to England. Only voyages 
for the purpose of fishing, and trading with the natives, 
were continued, until the year 1614, when Capt. John 
Smith of Jamestown fame, having been sent from England 
in charge of a trading expedition, landed on the shores 
of Cape Cod and prepared a map, covering many miles 
of the coast, outlining the rivers and harbors with great 
precision, which, on his return he presented to the company, 
and being called to lay the subject before the crown he 
performed the service in such forcible and convincing 
words that Prince Charles gave this locality the name of 
New England. From this time forward the Plymouth 
Company seemed to take on new life. Offers of encourage- 
ment to private adventurers were made, with the hope 
that some substantial beginning might be developed to- 
ward establishing a permanent colony within their borders. 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Capt. John Mason had each 
expended £20,000 [equal to $600,000, present currency], in 
the effort, but without success. 

The religious dissensions had been gradually working 
society in England into a state of unrest bordering on 
chaos. The people could endure the molestations, op- 
pressions and persecutions no longer, they would prefer 
to face a rigorous climate, the trials and exposures of 
life in a wilderness surrounded by savage men and wild 
beasts, than to be humiliated and tortured by their kins- 
men at home. The promulgation of the following decree 
struck deep into the hearts of the Puritans, "Any person 
absent from church one month was subject to a fine and 



Beginnings of New England. 267 

imprisonment, if after conviction he did not within three 
months renounce his erroneous opinions and conform to 
the laws, he must abjure the realm; if he refused to comply, 
or returned from banishment, he was to be put to death 
as a felon with no benefit of the clergy." This edict le£t 
no hope for the ultra Puritan to gain reformation or even 
reconciliation in the Church of England. The question 
that remained was either submission or depart the country. 
A band of the faithful had already taken refuge at Leyden, 
in Holland, where for several years they had enjoyed 
their freedom of conscience under the teachings of that 
beloved pastor John Robinson. But even there they were 
beginning to feel anxious for the future, the church was 
not gaining in numbers ; and while casting about for another 
place in which to locate, they turned toward America, and 
besought King James to grant them religious freedom in 
Virginia. Although he refused to fully acquiesce in their 
demands, he gave such signs of encouragement that nego- 
tiations were opened with the Council for Virginia to 
secure land on which to locate. 

From the fact that more than two years elapsed before 
consent was obtained, is evidence there was opposition 
from that quarter. But on the 22d day of July, 1620, 
sufficient means having been secured to defray the expense 
of transporting half of the Leyden congregation, they 
entered two ships and after an affectionate parting started 
on their perilous voyage. A storm soon drove the vessels 
to land again. Through craftiness of the Dutch and the 
misconduct of those not their friends, it was the 6th of 
September when the one hundred and twenty souls, with 
their scanty outfit, having been crowded into one vessel, 
sailed from the harbor of Plymouth, England, for Virginia 
or as they supposed Hudson's River. The captain of the 
vessel, at the instigation of the Dutch East India Company, 
landed them on Cape Cod, outside the territory for which 
they had bargained, outside the jurisdiction of the com- 



268 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

pany from whom they had acquired their right to settle. 
On account of sickness and lateness of the season, the little 
colony felt obliged, without further delay, to land, selecting 
a site for their settlement, named it out of respect, and 
perhaps to pacify the real owners of the location, New 
Plymouth. 

The severity of the winter, with disease incident to the 
new climate, reduced their number one-half by death 
before the return of spring. Their church government was 
copied from that in Holland. Their civil government was 
based on equality among men. Every freeman, member 
of the church, was admitted to the legislative body, who 
annually elected the governor and assistants. At first all 
property was held in common, work was performed by 
joint labor. They made a town plat, built houses, and 
surrounded them with a stockade, similar to the scheme 
adopted at Jamestown. 

At the end of ten years they were able to count about 
three hundred settlers. The sum of their riches seemed to 
consist in their supreme liberty of conscience. Up to 
this time they held no legal right to the land they occupied. 
But in 1630 they secured their title, although not incor- 
porated as a body politic by royal charter. They were 
merely a voluntary association of persons, bound together 
by common consent to recognize the authority of laws of 
their own making. Thus this colony remained until it 
became a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It 
would appear that James I. contemplated planting a 
colony in New England after his own model, for in the 
year 1620, he executed a charter to the Duke of Lenox, 
Marquis of Buckingham and other members of his court, 
granting extensive rights to territory in America, creating 
them a body politic, with powers and jurisdictions similar 
to those granted to the companies of North and South 
Virginia. It was styled the Grand Council of Plymouth 
for Planting and Governing New England. 



Beginnings of New England. 269 

The work may not have fallen into good hands. For 
some reason, after various trials, all schemes failed of 
success. Through the efforts of Mr. White, a non-conform- 
ist minister of Dorchester, a movement was started to 
organize an association to settle in New England. March 
19, 1627, this association purchased of this Grand Council 
of Plymouth all the territory lying between the point 
three miles north of the Merrimac and three miles south 
of the Charles Rivers, extending east and west from the 
Atlantic to the Southern Ocean. In addition to their 
rights to the land obtained of the Grand Council of Ply- 
mouth, they sought from Charles I. the right to govern 
the society they designed to establish. So eager was the 
King to enlarge his commercial circle that he assented 
even to the demands of those non-conformist leaders, and 
issued to them a charter corresponding to that given by 
his father to the Virginia companies, incorporating them 
as a body politic, confirming title to the soil with right 
to dispose of lands and govern the people that should 
settle with them. The first governor and assistants 
were to be named by the crown; their successors were 
to be elected by the corporation; legislation was left 
to the body of proprietors, who were to make laws not 
inconsistent with the laws of England, to govern their 
colony, and to enforce their observance. They were to be 
exempt from internal taxes, duties on exports and imports, 
and to remain English subjects, they and their descendants. 
King Charles may have overlooked the religious side of 
this movement or he may have thought it the best way 
to rid Old England of a class of citizens that had given 
and were giving the crown no small degree of trouble. 
Two years later (1629), when proper arrangements had 
been completed, five ships were employed to carry out 
three hundred or more persons with their effects, as the 
first installment to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. En- 
dicott, with his little band of Puritans of the Puritans, 



270 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

slipped away the year before (on June 29, 1628), and 
located Naumkeag (Salem), where the late arrival landed. 
So completely absorbed and bound up in religious thoughts 
and aspirations, that personal liberty in that special di- 
rection was the question uppermost in the minds and 
hearts of these newcomers. Without regard to conformity 
even to the laws of England, which their charter demanded, 
they, August 5, established an independent form of public 
worship devoid of all needless ceremony, after the strict 
Calvinistic type. This radical movement in ecclesiastical 
matters proved at the very outset a signal for dissensions. 
The very persons who for years had felt so keenly the iron 
heel of the oppressor in England, immediately assumed 
the role of the oppressor in New England. They declared 
no person should hereafter be received into their church 
until satisfaction was given of their faith and sanctity. 
Although the majority of persons who early came to 
New England were perhaps among the extreme wing of 
Puritans, there were many who took a middle ground. 
Besides, there were as they soon learned Independents. 
For three generations in England severe and animated 
theological and ecclesiastical discussions had developed 
many independent thinkers on these lines. Now that they 
were out from under the ban of Old England they became 
more bold and outspoken in presenting new ideas. But 
those in authority felt that a check would have to be placed 
upon such conduct at once, and within a very few months 
after the first arrival, two of the original patentees, John 
and Samuel Brown, men of note, were called up by En- 
dicott, expelled from the society and sent home to England. 
The severe measures put into operation by Wm. Laud, 
afterward Archbishop of Canterbury, continued to help 
increase the number in England anxious to escape the 
turmoils of both church and state, among them men of 
opulence, occupying high positions in society, who, in 
scanning the charter of the colony to which they contem- 



Beginnings of New England, 271 

plated removing, suggested that full corporate powers be 
transferred from Old to New England, believing that 
government of the colony should be vested in the settlers 
themselves. So reasonable was the suggestion, that the 
Plymouth Company, although contrary to their stipulated 
charter rights, acceded, and it was arranged that the 
charter should be transferred and the government settled 
in New England. 

The King, occupied with questions which perhaps seemed 
to him far more weighty, again overlooked the procedure 
and allowed the transaction to stand without apparent 
objection. Thus (as Mr. Robertson in his history says) , 
"It turned the jurisdiction of a trading corporation in 
England, into a provincial government in America." Those 
of the corporation who did not remove to New England 
were to retain a share in the trading stock and profits 
of the company during the term of seven years. In a 
General Court, John Winthrop was appointed Governor, 
Thomas Dudley, Deputy Governor, and eighteen assistants 
were chosen, in whom, together with the body of freemen 
who should settle in New England, were vested all the 
corporate rights of the company. 

Plans finally had reached a satisfactory conclusion. 
New England was to become the provincial home of the 
Puritans. During the following year (1630) seventeen 
ships, with over 1500 persons, set out from England to 
swell the new colony. It will be remembered the charter 
gave the right as a body politic to govern themselves in 
obedience to the laws of England. But on reaching Ameri- 
can soil they adopted such ordinances for their government 
as best suited the people, regardless of charter stipulations. 
The bounds of Salem proved much too narrow for the 
accommodation of the newcomers. Charlestown, Boston, 
Dorchester and even Watertown were required to con- 
veniently locate the fresh arrivals. Churches were soon 
established in each of these towns, on the same lines as 



272 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

the one at Salem. Their first General Court was held 
Oct. 19, 1630, when it was found the charter provided 
that the Council of Assistants, and not the freemen, must 
elect the governor and other officers, also make the laws. 
But in 1631, with the help of further additions to their 
number, the settlers resumed their former customs. A 
law was passed providing that hereafter no person, unless 
he be a member of their church (Congregational), should 
be admitted freeman, entitled to hold office, share in the 
government or even serve as juryman. By which means 
the civil rights of every settler were to be determined by 
the ecclesiastical standard alone. The year 1634 intro- 
duced another innovation. When the General Court was 
to be convened, the freemen, in place of attending in person, 
as the charter prescribed, elected representatives in their 
districts to appear in their name with full power to deliberate 
and decide all matters submitted to the General Court. 
These representatives acted in conjunction with the Gover- 
nor and assistants as the supreme legislative assembly of 
the colony, by which act the settlers assumed civil liberty. 
Having assumed civil as well as ecclesiastical liberty in 
the conduct of church and state, the spirit of liberty began 
to grow among not only the ministers and teachers, but 
among the laity. Roger Williams, preaching at Salem, 
declaimed against the cross of St. George in the standard 
of England, branding it as a relic of superstition and idola- 
try. Governor Endicott publicly cut it from the ensign 
displayed at the governor's gate. Some of the militia 
hesitated to follow colors in which the cross formed a 
part, claiming it was doing honor to an idol, others refused 
to serve under a mutilated banner, as if it were showing 
want of allegiance to the crown of England. A compromise 
was, however, effected by the cross being used on the 
forts and ships, but omitted in the ensigns of the militia. 
This silly episode, in connection with events that followed, 
drove Roger Williams from the colony of Massachusetts 



Beginnings of New England. 273 

Bay and led to the planting of the settlements in Rhode 
Island. Notwithstanding the little bickerings and (flash- 
ings among rivals for popularity in the colony, life of the 
people was tame and fraught with such light sequences, 
when compared with their experience on the opposite side 
the Atlantic, that New England had indeed become the 
harbor of rest for the Puritans of England. 

The year 1635 brought another large increase in popu- 
lation, Hugh Peters, chaplain of Oliver Cromwell, and 
Henry Vane among the number. The latter, the following 
year, was chosen Governor. Although a man of great 
promise, he became identified with the views of Ann, wife 
of Wm. Hutchinson; as the views were not in harmony 
with those adopted by the ministerial board and the 
court, she was banished from the colony in 1637. Vane, 
out of respect for himself if not for his lady teacher, re- 
crossed the Atlantic and became a famous political leader, 
but so tinctured with duplicity that Cromwell styled him 
a " juggling fellow." He ran his course, and June 14, 1662, 
came to the block, where he lost his head for the last time. 
Vane did however, while clothed with influence, serve Roger 
Williams a good turn in assisting him both in America 
and while in England to secure right to the territory on 
which he had settled in Rhode Island. Williams had his 
faults, but he possessed noble qualities and proved a man 
far in advance of his time. He was parent of the Providence 
and Rhode Island plantations, the government of which 
was derived from the freemen directly. Williams, Smith, 
Wheelwright, Peters, Shepard, Hooker, Cotton, Wilson, 
Winthrop, Endicott, Vane, Dudley, Nowell, Haynes, Bel- 
lingham and Ann Hutchinson kept the political and eccle- 
siastical atmosphere in and about Boston so hot, that 
many persons were forced to remove to other locations. 
The ministers felt that each one of them had the training 
and care of their respective congregations, while Endicott 
and his assistants felt they had the enormous responsibil- 



274 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

ity of the care and training of the ministers and parishion- 
ers combined, which together with the rivalry among the 
ministers for popularity, made matters lively in the Massa- 
chusetts colony for a few years. Rev. Roger Williams's 
chief offense and cause of banishment from the Massachu- 
setts colony, January, 1636, was denial of the civil magis- 
trate's right to govern in ecclesiastical affairs. In 1643, 
he published the following, which sounds quite familiar 
to the present generation, and seems good doctrine for 
to-day: "The sovereign, original, and foundation of civil 
power lies in the people ; and it is evident that such govern- 
ments as are by them erected and established, have no 
more power, nor for no longer time, than the civil power 
of the people consenting and agreeing shall betrust them 
with. This is clear, not only in reason, but in the experience 
of all commonweals where the people are not deprived of 
their natural freedom by the power of tyrants." 

Endicott planned to send Williams back to England, 
where very likely he would have been beheaded. But 
he slipped away from his home in Salem, and after wan- 
dering about for fourteen weeks in the winter of 1636-7, 
without food or shelter except that contributed by savages, 
he found himself among the Wampanoags and obtained 
of Massasoit, their sachem, a tract of land, where later 
he was joined by his family and a few friends. This was 
the beginning of the Providence Plantation, where first 
was granted absolute liberty of conscience in New England. 
Rev. John Wheelwright, who was preaching temporarily at 
Braintree, was also banished from the Massachusetts 
Colony by a General Court, chosen out of its turn, perhaps 
specially for that purpose, which met November 2, 1637. 
He was given fourteen days in which to settle his affairs. 
Ann Hutchinson, sister-in-law to Mr. Wheelwright, was 
also banished by order of the same General Court. Mr. 
Wheelwright, it is recorded, uttered these words in a dis- 
course delivered in Braintree on fast day January 19, 1673: 



Beginnings of New England. 275 

"The second sort of people that are to be condemned are 
all such as do set themselves against the Lord Jesus Christ : 
Such are the greatest enemies to the state as can be, if 
they can have their wills, You see what a lamentable state 
both Church & Commonwealth will be in: Then we shall 
have need of mourning: the Lord cannot endure those 
that are enemies to himself and kingdom and people, and 
unto the good of his Church.' ' The point seemed to be 
that "such utterances would tend to cause divisions, and 
make people look at their magistrates, Ministers and 
brethren, as enemies to Christ &c.' ; Wheelwright and his 
followers seemed to think they were a little better, a grain 
purer than the average members of the churches at Salem, 
Cambridge and Boston, and in order that they might 
remain thus pure, and avoid pollution by contact with their 
neighbors, turned their steps northward into what was 
then a cold, bleak, forbidding country, where none but 
the proper strain would be likely to follow. They located 
Exeter and Hampton, giving the settlements in New 
Hampshire a start much needed; and thus forged a link 
in the chain that bound her for a time to Massachusetts. 

Immediately following the banishment of Wheelwright, 
Mrs. Hutchinson and others, public opinion became so 
inflamed through discussions held in and about Boston, 
that the authorities feared an insurrection. As a precau- 
tionary measure an order was issued by the General Court 
to disarm seventy-six men, — fifty-eight in Boston, five in 
Roxbury, two in Charlestown, six in Salem, two in Ipswich, 
and three at Newbury. It was further ordered that these 
men "should not buy or borrow said weapons until fur- 
ther order of the Court." 

Among this list were those who had served as assistants 
and deputies. At this same time a law was passed to protect 
the courts from defamation, thereby admitting cause for dis- 
approval among the people, and providing a lash with which 
to punish those who should dare to publicly murmur. 



276 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Mrs. Hutchinson was a woman of strong mental powers, 
proud spirited, warm hearted, enthusiastic to a high degree 
and of good family. In her teachings on religious senti- 
ments, she argued that the evidence of Christian hope, con- 
fidence, trust, came from a desire within the person rather 
than from the observance of forms and ceremonies, the 
performance of divine precepts; supporting her ideas by- 
claiming special revelations and extraordinary inward 
knowledge, or light received through inward manifestations. 
She succeeded in winning many converts, a considerable 
number of whom retired with Wheelwright to New Hamp- 
shire, while others followed her to the Providence Plantation. 
After the death of her husband, she with her family re- 
moved to a place near the present city of New York, where 
she, her son Francis and a daughter, the wife of Mr. William 
Collins (a learned gentleman), were killed by the Indians 
while waging war against the Dutch settlers in 1643, one 
member of her family, however, escaping death by being 
made a captive. The site of their home is still pointed 
out near the village of Tuckahoe, where a stream known 
as Hutchinson's River passes, winding its way and entering 
Pelham Bay. 

As early as the year 1634, the people at Newton, after- 
ward called Cambridge, under the leadership of Rev. 
Thomas Hooker, asked the General Court at the September 
session, for permission to remove to the Connecticut River; 
at first they were refused, but the following year permission 
was granted on condition that the new settlement continue 
subject to the Massachusetts colony. Possibly the rivalry 
for power and fame between Hooker and Cotton (two 
popular divines), influenced the former to lead his little 
flock (in 1636), to the banks of that river, where in company 
with Rev. Samuel Stone and his followers the towns of 
Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield were planted. The 
first Genera] Court was held there April 26, 1636. 

In September, 1636, Mr. William Pyncheon with some 



Beginnings of New England. 277 

of his friends at Roxbury began the settlement at Spring- 
field. These settlers took authority to hold their lands 
from the governor and assistants of Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. The location they selected was principally outside 
the jurisdiction of that colony. The Dutch had already 
taken possession of that territory and built trading-posts 
along the banks of the river they had discovered, which 
act under the rules of that period secured to them the 
right of possession to that territory. Besides, Lord Say 
and Sele with Lord Brook, under charter from the crown, — 
men of noble birth, who, on account of the extreme meas- 
ures adopted by King Charles I. against his subjects, 
felt obliged to forego the comforts wealth and high positions 
in society might bring to them in England, and remove 
to America, — had located at the mouth of the Connecticut 
River and erected a fort, calling the place Saybrook. But 
Hooker and his people, having exhausted their means 
and a large share of their physical strength in traversing 
the wilderness from Cambridge to the Connecticut River, 
decided to go no farther, and under the dominating spirit 
of personal liberty pitched their tents, built their houses, 
planted their fields, apparently determined to hold the 
country against all comers. The Dutch were too feeble 
to enforce their rights by war, and Lord Say and Sele 
and Lord Brook soon conveyed to the colony their rights, 
leaving Hooker and his people masters of the situation. 
They immediately organized a government after that of 
the Massachusetts Colony, although later they were incor- 
porated by royal charter. 

The seeds were now planted for five colonies or settle- 
ments in New England, and the churches established 
within their borders furnished abundant opportunity for 
all those good people to find rest for their disturbed minds 
on theological subjects. 

At that time it may have been advisable to place con- 
siderable distance between the villages and hamlets of 
20 



278 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

those good men, in order that their daily lives might not 
become tarnished by the reckless inconsistencies of other 
minds less pure than they. But the scattered condition 
of those settlements proved a temptation for attacks from 
the crafty Indians, who began to realize they might soon 
be despoiled of their happy hunting-grounds, if the white 
men were allowed to continue multiplying their villages. 
Although the English were careful to secure from the 
natives the right to occupy their lands, there was more 
or less dissatisfaction among certain portions of the tribes 
in regard to the encroachments of the white people upon 
what they deemed their special privileges. The Pequots 
and Narragansetts both gave signs of uneasiness, and the 
far-seeing politicians of the Massachusetts colony thought 
to bring on a war between those tribes, knowing they 
were not specially friendly toward each other. As the 
Pequots were irritating the Connecticut settlers, and a 
powerful, warlike tribe, the English proposed to become 
allies to the Narragansetts and help them to punish the 
wicked Pequots. The scheme was put into execution, 
not however until considerable diplomacy had been used. 
The killing of John Oldham near Block Island and the 
severe punishment given the Indians by the English in 
return for the murder, developed a spirit and thirst for 
revenge, not only among the Pequots, but also the Narra- 
gansetts, that gave cause for serious alarm for the safety 
of the English settlements. A delegation of the Pequots 
called upon the Narragansetts for the purpose of securing 
their co-operation in a general campaign against the English. 
A letter was despatched from Boston to Roger Williams, 
asking him to intercede for the safety of the colonies. 
That noble, magnanimous man proceeded at once to the 
spot where the Indian war council was in session; there 
for the space of two days and two nights in the presence 
of the Pequot emissaries, he labored to prevent the union 
of those two powerful tribes against the English, and 



Beginnings of New England. 279 

finally succeeded in persuading Miantonomoh to become an 
ally of the English rather than the Pequots, — thus prevent- 
ing (it is firmly believed), the destruction of the English 
settlements at that time. Williams was always a friend 
to the Indian, the Narragansetts felt perfect confidence 
in him. He was not in danger. It was Boston, and the 
men who had been his persecutors, the men who ordered 
his banishment, that he went to save. 

The result of the compact perfected with the Narragan- 
setts by Williams was the complete overthrow of Sassicous 
and his Pequot followers during the years 1636 and 1637. 
For with the Narragansetts and Wampanoags as allies the 
English made short work of the war. The Pequots were 
slaughtered at every turn; the few that were not killed 
or taken prisoners, scattered into other parts of the country 
and lost their identity as a tribe. The prisoners taken 
were (some of them) sold into slavery, others distributed 
among Wampanoags and the Narragansetts. After one of 
the most decisive battles in which the Connecticut troops 
achieved a complete victory, word reached Boston that 
the war with the Pequots was raging, and the militia were 
ordered out to assist their Connecticut brothers. On 
being mustered and about ready to march, the discovery 
was made that some of the officers and privates were under 
a covenant of works. The blessings of God could not be 
implored or success be expected to crown the arms of 
such a band of unhallowed men, and the unclean were 
therefore cast out before the little army of one hundred 
and twenty men under Captain Stoughton, with Rev. 
John Wilson as chaplain, could proceed on their errand 
of destruction. Chaplain Wilson received £20 for services 
on this trip, and remained on board ship six miles from 
the scene of that decisive battle which almost exterminated 
the Pequots. 

The prosecution of the war against this tribe led the 
soldiers of the colonies over new fields, where a desirable 



280 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

place was discovered for planting a new settlement. They 
had no sooner reached their homes and put aside their 
arms, than the arrival of Rev. John Davenport, Samuel 
and Theophilus Eaton, Edward Hopkins, Thomas Gregson 
and others, was reported in Boston. Mr. Davenport and 
his company were men of standing and well supplied with 
means to carry forward their plans, and far better equipped 
than any previous company that reached Boston. Special 
inducements were offered to secure their co-operation. 
Charlestown made them a generous proposition, Newbury 
proffered them the whole town if they would settle there. 
But all offers were declined, preferring to be (as they said), 
out of the way of a General Governor of New England. 
March 30, 1638, they sailed from Boston and located the 
colony at New Haven, Rev. John Davenport performing 
his first Sabbath-day service there, April 18, 1638. Other 
towns, Guilford, Milford, Stamford, Branford with South- 
hold, L. I., constituted the New Haven colony. 

The fires of civil and religious agitation were still burn- 
ing in England. William Laud's inhuman course, cropping 
ears, branding foreheads and splitting the nose, was within 
a few years brought to a close, not however until he had 
driven many thousand English subjects to seek the shores 
of New England. In 1641, the tables were turned on this 
Bishop of Canterbury, and he was called to face the exe- 
cutioner, who not only robbed him of his hearing but his 
thinking on Jany. 10, 1644-45. These colonies became 
such a popular resort, that the authorities in England 
issued a proclamation forbidding masters of vessels carrying 
passengers to New England without special permission. 
This act dissuaded many persons from embarking openly, 
and forced a large number to slip away without official 
sanction, which fact, no doubt, accounts for the great 
trouble many families experience in connecting their pro- 
genitor in this country with the line in England. It is possi- 
ble assumed names may have been used in some instances. 



Beginnings of New England. 281 

Had King Charles allowed Sir Arthur Haslerig, John 
Hampden, Oliver Cromwell and a number of their associates, 
to proceed on their way to New England as they contem- 
plated, there might have been quite another chapter of 
events to chronicle in the history of his reign. But he 
forcibly detained them when on board their ships ready 
to sail. 

It is believed Hampden visited Plymouth colony some 
years prior to this fruitless attempt and passed the winter 
there. That he accompanied Edward Winslow on that 
memorable errand of mercy over the snow, and through 
the woods of Pakanoket in the month of March, 1622-23, 
for the relief of Massasoit, who was reported at Mattapoiset 
sick nigh unto death. Two days were consumed on the 
journey through the wilderness. Reaching the home of 
the sachem they learned the natives had lost hope in the 
recovery of their favorite chief. But under the skilful 
ministrations of Winslow he revived and finally recovered. 
This humane act riveted the friendship that lasted many 
years between Massasoit and his people with the Plymouth 
Colony. At this time Hampden was upon the threshold 
of his public life. Early in his career he displayed friend- 
ship for the Puritans. After a most eventful political ex- 
perience he received a wound at Chalgrovefield while 
leading a charge of the Parliamentary forces against the 
King's army under Prince Rupert, and died June 24, 1643. 

Notwithstanding the means adopted to prevent the rush 
of settlers to New England, about three thousand persons 
removed there from Old England during the year 1638. 
Chagrined at the lack of respect paid his proclamation 
Charles I. issued a writ of quo warranto against the corpo- 
ration of Massachusetts Bay. Having failed to control 
the action of his subjects on the east side the Atlantic, he 
now proposed to try those on the west side. The training 
given the Puritans for three generations had made them 
scrupulous non-conformists, not only in ecclesiastical 



282 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

matters, but in regard to the stipulated conditions in their 
charter. As might be expected, the case was decided 
against the colony. It was found they had forfeited their 
rights as a corporation, and the King was free to frame 
an entire new government, which step he held in contem- 
plation when the sovereignty of Charles I. was checked 
by a people goaded to desperation by a tyrant King. The 
colonists were so disturbed by the action of the King, 
that April 12, 1638, was observed in the churches as a 
day of fasting and prayer for divine deliverance from the 
threatening evil of a General Governor for the colonies, 
and the consequent dissolution of their charter privileges, 
and the loss of all their religious liberty. From the year 
1620 to 1640, 21,200 British settled in New England, 
nearly £200,000 was expended in fitting out ships, buying 
stock and transporting those settlers. 

On the meeting of the Long Parliament, 1640, the hopes 
of the Puritans brightened. If they had felt special un- 
easiness regarding their charter rights, they were now 
dispelled. Cromwell, always their friend, was now able 
to render greater assistance to the colonies than his mere 
presence as a citizen might have given them. In 1642 
the House of Commons voted to exempt all the various 
plantations in New England from payment of duties on 
all exports to, and imports from the mother country, a 
privilege most valuable, therefore most acceptable to the 
colonies. It stimulated new and extraordinary activity to 
trade throughout the entire settlements, the spirit of 
bitterness toward the mother country was immediately 
changed to filial regard. 

May 19, 1643, the colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts 
Bay, Connecticut and New Haven formed a federation 
called "United Colonies of New England/' each colony 
retaining its individual identity. But in case of war it 
was provided that each colony should furnish her quota 
of men and means for offense and defense in proportion 



Beginnings of New England, 283 

to her population. Two commissioners from each colony- 
were annually to meet and determine the course to be 
followed by the confederacy. Whatever action six of the 
commissioners were able to agree upon, that should de- 
termine, the action of the confederacy. 

The first commissioners were: for Massachusetts Bay, 
Governor John Winthrop, Thomas Dudley; for Plymouth 
Colony, Edward Winslow, William Collier; for Connecticut 
Colony, Edward Hopkins, Thomas Gregson; for New 
Haven Colony, Theophilus Eaton, George Fenwick. 

This confederacy of four colonies was the precursor of 
that later union of thirteen colonies that successfully waged 
the war for national independence. 

Although Roger Williams had rendered valuable assis- 
tance in negotiating with the Indians in behalf of the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay, this colony refused to allow 
the Providence settlement to come into the confederacy; 
and when in 1643, Williams asked the privilege of crossing 
the territory to Boston for the purpose of there taking 
ship for England, the authorities declined to grant him 
even that request, compelling him to travel to Manhattan, 
now New York, to embark from that point. And while 
there (waiting for a vessel to sail), the Dutch settlements 
were being threatened with total destruction by the Long 
Island Indians assisted by other tribes. Here Williams 
again displayed his remarkable powers of diplomacy. He 
went among the Long Island Indians and secured for the 
Dutch a renewal of peace and their friendship, and thus 
saved that settlement from destruction. Not only did the 
Massachusetts Colony deny Williams and his people privi- 
leges; many things were done to disrupt his little colony; 
brewing contentions, disputing title to, or jurisdiction over 
land on which he located: and when he returned from 
England armed with the charter obtained May 14, 1643-44, 
from the Parliamentary committee, of which Earl of War- 
wick was chairman, feeling sure he could rightfully claim the 



284 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

territory held in dispute, he was served with a notice that 
the Massachusetts Colony held a charter called the Narra- 
gansett Patent, dated three months prior to his charter, 
covering the same tract of land. For some reason, how- 
ever, this claim was not pressed. Was it a forgery? Wil- 
liams said Earl Warwick told him he knew of no other 
charter for that territory. 

Among the thousands of men and women driven to 
these New England shores were many of the very highest 
type England had produced. Some of them possessed of 
superior knowledge, wise, thoughtful, prudent, industrious 
people, trained in the principles of the pure religion of 
their time, they were prepared to formulate a popular 
government based upon human rights and equality among 
men. 

Although they knew what it meant to smart under the 
lash of theological and ecclesiastical dogma, they did not 
hesitate to apply the same treatment whenever and where- 
ever it seemed to them good for the community. That 
there were cranks among them cannot be denied. But 
God's elect were there, and to them is due the honor and 
glory of shaping the beginnings of New England. The 
colony of Pilgrims at Plymouth enjoyed the special dis- 
tinction of being first among the permanent settlers, and 
planting the seeds for popular government. But to the 
Puritans must be given the credit for dressing the ground, 
raking out the weeds, and preparing for the full rich harvest. 
Men of large estates and men of moderate means joined 
hands in the undertaking. But father Time, who levels 
all conditions in life, was there, and within a few short 
years, riches had taken wings, wealth was not to be found 
in the colony, it had gone to the aid of the common need. 

The hand of Gov. Winthrop was ever extended toward 
the needy. His estate when he left England was worth 
£700 (equal to $10,500), a year, yet it is related that as he 
was dealing out the last handful of meal in his cupboard 



Beginnings of New England. 285 

to relieve a starving family, a ship laden with provisions 
appeared in the harbor to the relief of the settlement. 

There were many persons who gave from their estates 
until they were spent in promoting the general welfare of 
the colony. Another writer, referring to the experience of 
those early days, says, " Their straits were sometimes so 
great that the very crusts from his father's table in England 
would have been as a dainty in this Wilderness/' If such 
scanty cupboards were found among the better classes, 
how must it have been among those of the middle or lower 
classes? 

I fear I have already wearied you, but in closing let me 
add: — 

Who can tell what the fate of this country would have 
been had not those civil and religious persecutions been 
enacted in England during the period to which we have 
referred? Queen Elizabeth, King James I. and Charles I., 
with their assistants Thomas Wentworth and William Laud, 
unwittingly engineered the grandest, noblest political 
achievement of the centuries. They forced to these shores 
many thousands of Old England's strong, resolute, high- 
minded, liberty-loving people, who mapped out and laid 
the foundations for a magnificent republic, which to-day 
is the pride and glory of her eighty-four millions of happy, 
thrifty people, — the envy of the whole world. Surely there 
must have been a power behind the throne, guiding and 
directing movements that brought forth such stupendous 
results in behalf of a noble type of humanity, and the 
true principles of a just and equitable government among 
men. 

Mr. Geo. H. Rice followed with remarks on the origin 
of the term Commonwealth of Massachusetts; and before 
taking his seat called attention to the collection of Rice 
family relics he wished to present to the Society. 

Adjourned. 



THE RICE FAMILY, 



In the early part of June, 1903, with the hope of en- 
couraging the observance of " Home Week" in Worcester, 
the Worcester Society of Antiquity through its Executive 
Committee voted to give the use of Salisbury Hall as a 
place of meeting, providing representatives of either of 
the early settlers of Worcester desired to call a family 
gathering; and in response to invitations sent out by the 
Librarian, Messrs. George M. Rice, George H. Rice, Thomas 
C. Rice, Franklin P. Rice and George Maynard held coun- 
sel with President Lyman A. Ely and the Librarian at 
the office of the Society, and as a result of this conference 
the five gentlemen whose names are first mentioned were 
constituted a committee on the part of the descendants 
of Major Jonas Rice, to act in conjunction with the Society's 
Committee for Marking Historical Places to arrange for 
marking the site of the home of this first permanent settler, 
Selectman, Town Clerk, Schoolmaster and Judge, and 
the calling of a Rice family gathering. But owing to the 
proposed absence from the city for a brief time of two 
members of the committee it was decided to postpone 
the exercises until the seventh day of October. Subse- 
quently the following programme was prepared and the 
day observed in accordance therewith. 



The Rice Family. 287 

Exercises held on Heywood Street, October 7, 1903, 

in placing a properly inscribed Boulder to indicate 
the location of the first home of Major Jonas Rice 
in Worcester 

Conducted under the direction of 

The Worcester Society of Antiquity's Committee for Marking 
Historical Places. 

Mrs. R. B. Dodge, Chairman, Chauncey G. Harrington, 

Mary Louisa Trumbull Cogswell, Abram K. Gould, 

Henry Brannon, George E. Arnold, 

Hon. Ledyard Bill, Charles E. Burbank. 

1. ADDRESS OF WELCOME, By President Ely 

2. PRAYER, By Rev. Dr. Frank Crane 

3. SINGING, By the School Children 

Under direction of Charles I. Rice. 

4. HISTORICAL ADDRESS, By Capt. Charles E. Burbank 

5. PRESENTATION TO THE CITY, By President Ely 

6. ACCEPTANCE, By His Honor Mayor Fletcher 

7. SINGING OF AMERICA. 



288 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 

By President Lyman A. Ely. 

To Your Honor, Edward F. Fletcher, Mayor of Worcester, 
Distinguished Visitors, Ladies and Gentlemen : — 

We are gathered here to do honor to the memory of 
Major Jonas Rice, the first permanent settler of Worcester, 
and to pause a few moments from the rush and turmoil 
of a busy city life to show in some degree our appreciation 
of the man who possessed the courage and fortitude to 
face the dangers incident to a life in a wilderness, which 
resulted in the laying of the foundation for this, our be- 
loved city of Worcester. 

And it is a special privilege enjoyed by each member 
of the Worcester Society of Antiquity to point out and 
bring to public attention the important service performed 
by this man towards whom our thoughts are turned to-day. 
We believe the placing of memorials of any kind to em- 
phasize and perpetuate the worthy deeds of our forefathers 
will prove a sign of culture among our inhabitants and 
reflect somewhat the character of our people. 

It is my pleasant duty in behalf of the Worcester Society 
of Antiquity to extend a most hearty welcome to all, old 
and young, gathered here to-day to witness these exercises. 
To all who have so faithfully assisted in bringing to a 
successful result the object of this gathering, I extend the 
earnest thanks of this Society. 

The Society is also largely indebted to the descendants 
of Edmund Rice, who are present in large numbers, for 
their co-operation in this celebration, and it is with great 
pleasure that the Worcester Society of Antiquity extends 
to them the full and free use of the Society's building on 
Salisbury street. Your presence has added greatly to the 
interest of this occasion and it is most fitting that you 
make this occasion an opportunity for the grand family 



The Rice Family, 289 

reunion which is to take place this afternoon at Salisbury- 
Hall. 



HISTORICAL ADDRESS. 
By Captain Charles E. Burbank. 

It is of no small moment that in this thrilling and ex- 
pansive age of American life, there should appear even in 
our most prosperous districts a sane consciousness of the 
past. It seems to presage the re-appearance among our 
democratic excellencies of that virtue so long wanting and 
so necessary to our symmetrical ethnic development, — the 
virtue of reverence. When Worcester and sister cities, 
Rutland and sister towns, begin to mark the spots where 
enterprises of great pith and moment sprang into life, it 
is eloquent evidence that social progress is marching grandly 
on. 

Yes, we are growing conscious of the heroisms of the 
past. We are what we are, not altogether because en- 
vironed by these hills of to-day, overarched by these skies, 
surrounded by these living, thinking men and women, but 
because of these other hills of two centuries ago, because 
these heights once rang with the murderous war-whoop of 
the savage, because two hundred years ago, there delved 
in these valleys and struggled upon these hills men of 
conscience and men of iron. Let us consider for a moment, 
in its relation to this community, that influence and that 
past. 

Worcester like so many other truly great things in Am- 
erican history was attempted several times before it was 
given local habitation and a name. 

According to the recent investigations of Francis E. 
Blake, Esq., the first settlement in this town, if settlement 
means the building of a house, must be credited to a com- 
mittee of which General Daniel Gookin was chairman; 
this was probably in 1672 or 73, and in the vicinity of 



290 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

the present city farm. At about the same time houses 
were built by Ephraim Curtis and Thomas Browne. The 
settlements by Gookin and Browne were designed to de- 
velop the new Plantation which the General Court had 
authorized in 1668. The enterprise progressed slowly till 
1675, when the outbreak of King Philip's war, which raged 
with violence in this vicinity, drove these early pioneers 
from their homes, and left Worcester, or Quinsigamond 
as it was then called, desolate and more inhospitable than 
when the attempted settlement was begun. 

With King Philip killed and the hostile savages driven 
from this vicinity, exertions were again made by the com- 
mittee of settlement, especially by General Gookin to 
occupy this district. The proprietors slowly returned; 
others joined them; the name was changed from Quinsiga- 
mond to Worcester; mills were erected; minor town officers 
were appointed, — and this time it looked as though perma- 
nency would be given the settlement; but such was not 
to be, for, though the town prospered from 1684 till the 
end of the century, on the breaking out of Queen Anne's 
war, the Indian once more began his murderous hostility 
and in the year 1702 (says the historian Lincoln), "The 
inhabitants fled; the place of their residence was delivered 
up to decay; the traces of cultivation were effaced; and 
the silence of ruin was again over the forsaken farms and 
deserted homes." 

It appears from the records that the settlers of this 
second attempt were courageous almost to recklessness, 
that it was only after warnings from the government at 
Boston that they would consent to leave their homes, and 
that one Digory Sargent, who had settled on Sagatabscot 
hill, but a little distance from where we now stand, refused 
to leave his farm for any reason whatever. So here on 
this historic hill, with no civilized neighbors within fifteen 
miles, with wife and young children, he worked his farm 
during that long summer of 1702. As winter approached, 



• 





CHARLES E. BURBANK, M.A. 



The Rice Family. 291 

the Indians began to plunder in this vicinity. The com- 
mittee of settlement in Boston sent messengers warning 
Sargent to remove to a place of safety, and as he refused, 
they despatched an armed force to compel him to leave 
the place. But before they arrived, the redskins had done 
their bloody work, and the troops found only the muti- 
lated body of Sargent and the deserted home polluted with 
his blood to tell the sad ending of the second attempt of 
the white man to settle this community. 

During the next ten years Worcester seemed forgotten; 
no records have anywhere been found of any returning to 
this twice abandoned settlement. But with the close of 
Queen Anne's war, and the annihilation of the Indian 
war-bands of Massachusetts Bay, the march of the settler 
into the alluring West again commenced; the proprietors 
of Worcester began to think either of returning themselves 
or of selling their lands to others who would settle upon 
them. During the second settlement one Atherton, or as 
sometimes called Allerton, took up land here on Sagatab- 
scot hill. This land he evidently worked till forced to 
leave at the abandonment of the second settlement. Aller- 
ton never returned, but sometime before 1713 sold his 
land to him who was to lay the lasting foundations of 
our vigorous metropolis, — Lieutenant Jonas Rice, real 
father and first permanent settler of Worcester. It was 
this man who late in 1713, not on October 21st, as most 
of the genealogies and histories state, established his home 
two hundred feet east of where I now stand. 

This Jonas Rice whom we are met to honor to-day was 
the son of Thomas and Mary Rice of Sudbury; Thomas 
being the son of Edmund Rice who came to this country 
from England in 1639. This Edmund Rice, grandfather 
of Jonas, was the founder of the Rice family in America, 
the original Rice of all the Rices before me and of the 
hundred thousand or more who, it is estimated, have lived 
in America since his day. 



292 Worcester* Society of Antiquity. 

The first trait in the character of Jonas Rice to catch 
our attention is that of resolute courage. He may well 
be taken as the typical Puritan pioneer settler. The re- 
cord has it that after coming here in 1713, he remained 
with his family alone in the forest, the solitary male in- 
habitant of Worcester until the spring of 1715. Mark, if 
you please, — though the settlers had been driven from 
this plantation, though the Indians had lately murdered 
Digory Sargent on this very hill, there came this man, sole 
male inhabitant of a wilderness of at least 100 square 
miles, to build his cabin and establish his home on the 
very tract of land stained by the blood of the murdered 
Sargent. I have said this pluck of Rice's was persistent, 
and so it was, it was not expended with the heroism of 
that first lonesome winter, for all through his life here 
this man was beset with danger which, if not so dramatic 
as that threatening him at first, was full as real and much 
more troublesome. There is the tradition that he had to 
move his cabin from its first site to the spot where yonder 
marker flies, because the rattlesnakes were so thick as to 
threaten the extermination of his family. I am inclined 
to credit this tradition, for I find in the early records that 
each town meeting for nearly half a century was careful 
to declare a generous bounty on rattlesnakes. The wolves, 
too, I find a constant menace to the settlers, it being many 
years before the town, by bounty and poison could drive 
them out. 

As we read the records of this community, we find an- 
other virtue illuminating the life of Jonas Rice, that of 
unselfish interest in public affairs. We find it was Jonas 
Rice who first petitioned the General Court for permission 
to call a town meeting here; and when the meeting met 
in 1722, it seems that the man in whom the citizens reposed 
especial confidence was this same Jonas Rice, electing him 
selectman, town clerk and assessor. This confidence of 
his fellow citizens it seems never abated, as they re-elected 



The Rice Family. 293 

him town clerk nearly every year thereafter till his death 
at eighty years of age, elected him selectman eight different 
times, and in fact appointed him to so many different 
positions of responsibility that in the index of the town 
records under Jonas Rice, instead of referring to the pages 
where his name occurs, it gives this summary sentence, 
"His name occurs on nearly every page of the book." 

The education of Rice was considerable for his time. 
He was chosen the first schoolmaster of Worcester and 
instructed children in reading and writing during the school 
year of 1726. The volume of records preserved in yonder 
City Hall and written in still unfading characters by the 
hand of Jonas Rice is no slight tribute to his scholarship. 

The interest of this man in church affairs was very deep 
and wholesome. The records show him not so much en- 
joying the privileges which the church then bestowed upon 
the faithful, as performing some service to the church and 
community. He was one of a small committee chosen to 
assign the pews in the first church; he was one of a com- 
mittee to distribute the ministerial land; he was deacon 
of the church from 1748 till his death. 

It does not seem that Major Rice was neglectful of his 
duties as a soldier. He seems to have been endowed with 
the qualities of leadership. When he settled here he held 
the rank of Lieutenant, and as the records show, rose to 
be Captain in 1732 and Major in 1734. 

The public spirit of this man extended farther than the 
limits of the town. In 1752 the County appointed him 
a Judge of the Court of General Sessions and Inferior Court 
of Common Pleas; one of his associates on the bench was 
General Artemas Ward's father, of Shrewsbury. It is in- 
teresting to notice that on the day of his appointment 
as Judge he was already eighty years of age, exceeding 
by ten years the age at which judges in so many states 
are required by law to retire from office. 

Of the domestic life of our first settler we wish we knew 
21 



294 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

more, but no journal or diary comes to our aid; the man 
was so busy working in the concrete, and keeping the 
records of others, how could he keep the record of himself! 
We are, however, warranted in saying, from documents in 
the hands of distant relatives, from his will, and from 
tradition, that his generous kindness towards those of his 
own family and name was very conspicuous. His will, 
though not disposing of a large estate, in all amounting 
to less than two hundred pounds, is written in a tone of 
such noble optimism, that we might well expect its author 
to be thirty instead of eighty years of age. 

In September, 1753, Jonas Rice was borne to his last 
resting-place in the old graveyard on the Common, and 
there his ashes repose to-day. Little he dreamed of the 
city that in a century and a half would grow up in sight 
of his early cabin home. Never a thought had he for the 
one hundred and thirty thousand now settled within the 
limits of the town he founded, but we look back to him 
with honest pride, hoping that in our private and public 
life we may be as loyal to duty, as sensitive to truth, as 
courageous in right living, as was the first settler of this 
community, Major Jonas Rice. 

PRESENTATION TO THE CITY. 
By President Ely. 

And now, Mr. Mayor, it becomes my further pleasure 
to pass over to your care, as the chief executive of this 
prosperous and growing city, this marker, placed here to 
record the home of the first permanent settler of Worcester. 
Trusting that our city fathers, present and future, will 
show their appreciation of the valuable services rendered 
this community by this prominent settler, by protecting 
and perpetuating it during the years that are to come, 
that it may remain as a public reminder of the deeds of 
an esteemed and trusty townsman. 




RICE BOULDER, 



HEYWOOD STREET. 



The Rice Family. 295 

ACCEPTANCE. 

By His Honor Mayor Fletcher. 

Mr. President and Members of the Society of Antiquity, 
Ladies and Gentlemen: — 

It seems fitting that a memorial should be erected desig- 
nating the site where the first permanent settler of Worces- 
ter, Major Jonas Rice, established his home. As has been 
stated by the preceding speakers, he was not only the 
first permanent settler, but was one of the judges of the 
Inferior Court of Worcester. He was also a selectman for 
eight years, town clerk for six years, and a deacon of the 
first church. He took a great interest in the education 
of the youth of the town, and freely offered his services 
as a teacher, without money or price. He was a deputy 
sheriff. He also held many other high and responsible 
positions in the town and state. A man of forceful character 
and a true type of the sturdy New Englander of those 
times. 

I am not here to give an historical address, but to per- 
form the pleasing duty of receiving and accepting, in 
behalf of the city of Worcester, this memorial, placed here 
by the Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Worcester is indeed favored in having such societies as 
this, the Sons and Daughters of the Revolution, and kin- 
dred organizations, whose aim and efforts are to perpetuate 
the memories and deeds of her sons and daughters, who, 
in the early days of her existence, passed through many 
hardships, and whose descendants enjoy to-day the fruits 
of their sacrifices and privations. 

Our city is rich in historic landmarks, and owes, in large 
measure, to the patriotic and historic societies the designa- 
ting and marking of memorable spots: among them being 
the Col. Timothy Bigelow monument on the Common; the 
birthplace of George Bancroft; the tablets on the Common 



296 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

in memory of the Revolutionary soldiers buried there; 
the star in front of the City Hall, marking the spot where 
the Declaration of Independence was first read in New 
England; and the site of the schoolhouse where the staunch 
patriot, John Adams, taught. 

It is well that the youth of this and future generations 
should be reminded of the hardships endured and the 
sacrifices made by the founders of our beautiful city by 
these memorials, and I wish there were more of them. 

It must be a source of great satisfaction to you to-day, 
as you look upon this boulder, to feel the consciousness 
of a duty well performed. Again, you will be rewarded 
by the thought that you not only bestow a great gift upon 
the present inhabitants of our city, but upon future genera- 
tions. 

In behalf of the city of Worcester, I accept this memorial 
and sincerely thank you for the gift, and express the city's 
appreciation of the spirit which prompted it. Let me 
assure you, Mr. President, that in accepting it the citizens 
of Worcester appreciate your patriotic endeavors, and 
would unite with you in every aspiration that looks to 
the advancement and honor of her citizens. 

The exercises on Heywood street closed with the singing 
of " America. " 



At two o'clock in the afternoon the descendants of 
Edmund Rice began to gather at the rooms of the Society, 
where, a half hour later, in Salisbury Hall, the assembly I 
of four hundred representatives of this numerous family 
were called to order by Mr. George M. Rice, Chairman of I 
the Committee of Arrangements, who in presiding, openedii 
the meeting with an address of welcome. 

Upon the platform with Mr. George M. Rice were seatedij 
the following persons: Hon. Stephen Salisbury, President) 

"i 



The Rice Family, 297 

Lyman A. Ely of the Worcester Society of Antiquity, 
Judge William T. Forbes, Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, Edward 
D. Rice, of Boston, General Edmund Rice, of Boston, 
Thomas C. Rice, N. W. Brooks, of New York, Rev. John 
C. Crane, of West Millbury, George Maynard, Charles I. 
Rice and about thirty school children. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 
By George M. Rice. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, descendants of Edmund Rice: — 

It is with extreme satisfaction that I welcome so goodly 
a number of the Rice kindred on this most memorable 
occasion, long to be remembered, and its incidents to 
be recalled by those present, and especially by those 
of our kin whom circumstances of various kinds have 
prevented from being present in person, but who will 
treasure up all of our doings that may be chronicled, eagerly 
sharing with ourselves the liveliest interest in facts pertain- 
ing to the history of the Rice family, or that of Edmund 
Rice, our common ancestor. 

The exercises of this morning bring into broader light 
and commemorate the virtues of Major Jonas Rice, grandson 
of Edmund Rice, to whom may be fully credited the honor 
of founding the final settlement of Worcester, which, since 
his time, has grown into the bustling and busy city of 
which we, who are natives, or affiliates, are so justly 
proud. 

Of him it may be truly said that he feared nothing but 
his " conscience and his God/' for he lived here with his 



298 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

family all alone in the depths of the primeval forest, sur- 
rounded by savage beasts and still more savage men, for 
nearly two years, until joined by his brother, Gershom 
Rice, to be followed by others of his brothers and sisters, 
until we find eight, including himself, — all children of 
Thomas Rice, and mentioned in " Lincoln's History of 
Worcester " as being proprietors of land. 

Two others, who were cousins, bearing the name of Rice, 
are also mentioned, making ten, out of forty names given 
as the original proprietors, who were either of the Rice 
blood, or had married into the Rice family. 

Let us pause a while, and think how much we, the in- 
habitants of Worcester, owe to those who were associated 
together and known as its first proprietors, whose courage, 
virtues and habits of sturdy industry began and made 
possible the building of this goodly municipality. I am 
afraid that if we of the present generation were obliged to 
undergo the privations and hardships which were then 
common to our ancestors, we should cut but a sorry figure 
in comparison; but fortunately we live in different times 
and are not called upon to make such sacrifices. 

Who shall say that the spirit of thrift and enterprise 
inherent in our fathers has not been handed down through 
the generations and transmitted to those who have become 
our citizens, and thus made the Worcester of to-day? Let 
us, then, as relatives and kindred of the Rices so conspicu- 
ous in its beginning, hope that its course may ever be 
upward and onward, as long as the state and nation shall 
endure. 

As a direct descendant of Edmund Rice of the eighth 
generation, and in behalf of the Society of Antiquity, and 
the several committees who have formulated the exercises 
of the day, I welcome and cordially greet you, each and 
all, hoping and trusting that a similar occasion will call 
us together and at a time not far distant, to again enjoy 
a gathering together of the Rice family. 




GEORGE M. RICE. 



The Rice Family. 299 

The exercises then proceeded according to the follow- 
ing programme :— 



1. MUSIC. Singing by the School Children 

Under direction of Mr. Charles I. Rice. 

2. ADDRESS OF WELCOME, By George M. Rice 

3. MUSIC. Singing by the School Children 

4. ADDRESS, By Thomas C. Rice 

5. MUSIC. Singing by the School Children 

6. ADDRESS, By Judge William T. Forbes 

7. POEM, By George Maynard 

8. ADDRESS, By Rev. John C. Crane 

9. VOLUNTARY REMARKS AND REMINISCENCES. 

10. CLOSING THE EXERCISES WITH SINGING OF 
AMERICA. 

ADDRESS. 

By Thomas C. Rice. 

I purpose at this time to give to the Rices assembled 
a somewhat desultory account of the family from the time 
most remote in which the family name occurs, down to 
the generation of to-day — a small, but under the circum- 



300 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

stances, generous proportion of whom have here convened 
to cultivate the remembrance of their ancestry and to 
foster that sense of race amity so promising, judged by 
the alacrity with which you have responded from far and 
near to the call of kinship in this locality. 

In speaking of one whose name I bear, which I must 
do almost immediately or I shall never reach a finis, let 
me first remark that historical facts, or names without 
significance, are in few cases entertaining and never in- 
structive, and by that rule no man of any name deserves 
remembrance by posterity, except he has made his mark 
either in public consideration or in the hearts of his fellows. 

So, therefore, although there have been many Rices, I 
cannot afford to name, nor you to listen to the stories 
of such as were born to temporarily occupy a more un- 
essential vacancy in the body politic to which they were 
assigned by nature. And, again, it is unsafe even to name 
distinguished progenitors lest the public, ever watchful for 
an inordinate display of egotism, shall question where the 
reflected glory is designed to apply. Reflex credit or 
honor will ever fail to illumine the obscure recesses of 
inanity. And with this preliminary, I will proceed to 
narrate to you the story of the men of more or less mark 
among the Rices, as I learned it in childhood from reading 
and from listening to my elders — the direct descendants 
of the first white men to drive stakes for a habitation in 
the plantation of Quinsigamond, where now you are. 

First, I must anticipate this last named event by carry- 
ing you back five hundred and eighteen years, to the battle 
of Bosworth field. I am expected to give you my knowl- 
edge so far as it may go, of the genealogy of the tribe of 
Rices — who all sprang from one stock — and beyond that 
whatever of consequence may have marked the career of 
any member of the race. But were I to do that in anything 
like its entirety, it would debar minds better qualified 
from more pleasurably occupying your attention. 



The Rice Family. 301 

Two incidents in the family history I may cite as at 
least out of the ordinary. One is a case of high treason 
in the most aggravated form, and the other, that of Worces- 
ter's pioneers, which was in a sense heroic. The first to 
cite is that of a certain other Thomas Rice, Col. Thomas 
Rice, whose death occurred five hundred and eighteen years 
ago at the battle above named. Forsaking the flag of the 
house of Lancaster, by which his fortunes had been nour- 
ished, at a time when this first patron, the Earl of Richmond, 
was somewhat under the weather, he espoused the cause 
of the Duke of Gloster, vacillating at a most critical junc- 
ture, and under the promise of a dukedom, he brought 
his regiment into line with the forces of King Richard, 
where he fought manfully, as most men do whose trade 
is war, and died by a spear wound just as he was about 
to relinquish to his commander the much called for "Horse," 
or in other words to swap his horse for a kingdom, which, 
fortunately for us his descendants, who could never 
have endured the burden of royalty, he never came 
in possession of. And just here you must accord to me 
a tithe of poetic license. Historians make pretence of 
doing without it, but they use it nevertheless, and most 
inordinately, otherwise no one would read the products of 
their pens. 

Macaulay has said, "All history is made up of fact, 
fiction and theory." To me it seems the subject of true 
history is made up of casualties, personal deeds and events, 
and between each two of these component parts there is 
of necessity a lapse, which must be filled by connecting 
links, and will be so filled by the historian, or the author 
at once loses his grip upon the reader's interest and at- 
tention. I could hardly demonstrate this portion of the 
genealogical line except by a process of analogical reason- 
ing, which you might charge as sophistry. But I will 
presume upon it by first giving Shakespere as authority 
for saying that the Duke of Gloster, Richard III., at the 



302 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

critical moment when his claim to the English crown hung 
upon the issue of a battle with Henry of Richmond, called 
upon Col. Thomas Rice, then in Wales, to aid him with 
his body of soldiers in suppressing the said Richmond. 

We must presume that the said Thomas Rice had proven 
himself a bold and successful commander, otherwise he 
would hardly have been selected for the important task 
in preference to other commanders of troops nearer at hand. 
"But why," you will ask, " insist upon styling this son of 
Mars as Col. Thomas Rice, while Shakespere names him 
Rice ap' Thomas?" I answer, because according to pres- 
ent forms of nomenclature I am right. Ap' is simply an 
abbreviation of the word appellative. That Rice whose 
designation, or baptismal name is Thomas, would in ac- 
cordance with present usage be Thomas Rice. 

Now let me remark that for the last three hundred years 
the name Thomas has occurred in every generation of Rice 
and often in many families, not only in America, but in 
England, Ireland and Wales and in Holland, notably during 
the Puritan expatriation in that last named country. Now 
how came it that the name Thomas as a prefix, a Christian 
name, has been used so persistently through the intervening 
years? Simply that the son of an unlettered Irish peasant 
has risen by force of will, and glory of achievement, to 
command the admiration of an English king, and to be 
so preferred by him at a most critical moment. With the 
Rices it was the halo about the head of this Thomas which 
inspired them to emulate through their offspring the hero 
of many battles, just as to-day with us, Washington, Jefferson 
and Hamilton find vogue as prefixes to infant cognomens, 
or as here a Mr. Homer of Worcester named his son Virgil 
Milton Homer. Family choice, instigated by pride and 
hope, incited the practice, and what was born in emu- 
lation, merged into habit, and many who never knew the 
reason why, are merely following suit. 

As near as can be learned, this Col. Thomas Rice — or 



The Rice Family. 303 

Rice ap' Thomas — at the age of thirty took military service 
under Edward IV., and subsequently we find him in Wales 
at the head of a regiment of desperadoes enlisted under 
Edward's banner, but ever ready to seize upon any oppor- 
tunity that promised betterment of personal conditions. 
He was a buccaneer in the truest sense. His Scandinavian 
pirate progenitors had invaded England with success, and 
honor with him was gauged only by achievement. No 
sooner had the usurper Richard apparently swept his path 
clear to the throne by the gentle removal of Edward and 
his heirs, and every other impediment, than this Rice ap' 
Thomas, who was alert to lend his aid at any fortunate 
master's bidding, readily responded to the call of the new 
self-made king. 

Having disposed of our — I mean all the Rices earliest 
in the line of progeniture — I must step down in time to 
the rude dismissal of the no longer useful head of Charles I. 
and again I find among the roundhead traitors — if to be 
a revolutionist is to be a traitor — the name of Thomas 
Rice many times occurring in almost every generation of 
Rices down to the middle of the last century or indeed 
down to date. 

There were among the Rices at least worthy exemplars 
of the pioneers of the new world. I may perhaps here 
give some account of the generation second preceding 
myself. In order to properly understand them you must 
in imagination, at least, enter into their lives, scrutinize 
their environments, observe their habits and their modes 
of neighborly intercourse. My grandfather, deacon Peter 
Rice, was born in Ward — now Auburn — on Pakachoag 
hill, where his father owned a large, in extent I mean, 
landed property — the same that Gershom bought of the 
Indians. But the expectant of occupancy was an older 
son and, therefore, the younger must be content with 
forty pounds sterling with which to buy land and locate 
with his new wife and one child — another Thomas — who 



304 Worcester ^Society of Antiquity . 

bequeathed the appellation to me — the last I know of to 
bear the rude Irish fighting progenitor's name. The laws 
of primogeniture were here inoperative, but the custom 
was for some years prevalent. 

Deacon Peter Rice bought the Capt. Webb farm in 
Holden town, upon which seven children were born to 
him. Being of a religious turn of mind and habit, a strict 
Puritan in every sense, he was soon made a deacon and, 
in that capacity, officiated for sixty years. I will for a 
moment dilate upon the old man's habits. On Saturday 
night everything in the way of labor must be done away 
with except feeding and milking the cows. Not a spark 
could redden the pot-hooks of the kitchen crane from sun- 
set on Saturday until four o'clock Monday morning. 

One Christian Register, one Weekly Spy and the great 
Bible on a side table or light stand, must serve as mental 
pabulum. Since I enumerate the three pieces of literature, 
I warn you not to touch that Worcester Spy until after 
sunset, it would not be permissible. On Sunday you 
would listen to two long prayers, one at daybreak and one 
at nightfall, and besides this there was an invocation first 
and a verbal thank offering last at every one of the three 
meals, and if the visiting grandchildren dared wink or 
smile during the day, a deep-toned voice from the medita- 
tive face of the grandsire could be heard: "Boys, this is 
the Lord's day; don't desecrate it." 

Everybody is of course cognizant of the fact that talking 
of one's family is in a sense talking about one's self, and 
while we naturally omit, or at least slide over their mis- 
deeds, we withhold the credit actually due them for fear 
of seeming anxious to divert their well earned luster to 
our own unimportant selves. 

Until we are utterly divested of personal vanity, it would 
seem quite out of the question to persist for long in that 
happy medium between willingness "to render unto Caesar 
the things that are Caesar's," and that baser art of filching 



The Rice Family. 305 

unearned luster, and the mean appropriation of bogus 
reflex honor. 

But I must, now, if ever, commence the local history 
of the Rices, for others are waiting to address you. 

They were, I mean all the Puritan immigrant Rices, 
located in the town of Sudbury, and Sudbury's available 
land was well nigh absorbed when one Jonas Rice took 
gun, ax and scrip, charged with a week's sustenance, and 
crossed the chief feeder of what he designated as Long 
pond, at its northernmost end, and commenced a visual 
survey. Surmounting the first great hill, he strolled down 
to what is now Lincoln square, from which, looking south, 
he discovered a vast irregular swamp, two miles in extent — 
too wet for tree growth — too wet for cultivation, and yet 
too dry to make it available for canoeing from hillside to 
hillside — winding on to the west and south by firm ground, 
to what is now Union hill. 

From high up in the branches of a chestnut tree, he 
espied to the south a great tract of high undulating land, 
and near at hand a dozen Indian wigwams, with whose 
occupants he sought conference by signs, and ascertained 
that it was feasible to purchase two miles square of that 
high land, provided the occupants of the great hill south 
of College hill, the Pakachoag tribe, might reside on and 
forever hunt the land — for a sum in sterling which he was 
able to command. On this spot, one-half mile south of 
the Crompton estate, he felled trees and fashioned a cabin 
in which he established himself and remained alone, culti- 
vating an acre of land, for the space of two years, at which 
time Gershom Rice came and subsequently established 
himself on Pakachoag hill, a mile to westward. 

To this first named site Jonas brought his family, but 
the somewhat rocky place at which he first located he 
was compelled to abandon and shift to northward, by 
reason of the plentitude of rattlesnakes and the consequent 
danger to his family. You all know the subsequent his- 



306 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

tory of what now became the eight-mile-square plantation 
of Quinsigamond. But I must refrain from occupying your 
time in its rehearsal. 

In conclusion, suffice it to say, that coterie of Sudbury 
Rices, after first sending representatives to Brookfield, 
Barre, Pittsfield and intermediate places, next spread the 
subsequent generations to the mouth of the Mississippi — 
to the Pacific — to the shores of Nova Scotia — and the 
northernmost bounds of upper Canada. 

Her sons have filled every office of profit or honor, from 
governor of states, congressmen, shipmasters, merchants, 
manufacturers, college professors, inventors, and every place 
of honor or trust an appreciative public could bestow, save 
one, and that one as high and lustrous with honor as that 
of the Czar of Russia, Edward of England, or William of 
Germany. That one grand eminence now occupied by 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

Thankful for your patient listening, I wish you, my 
kinsmen, a world of success, as I sorrowfully bid you a 
last affectionate goodby! 



ADDRESS. 
By Judge William T. Forbes. 

Mrs. Ann Hutchinson landed in Boston in the year 1634. 
She gathered meetings of women and taught them her 
abstruse and mystical doctrines. Soon all the clergy and 
all but five of the church members of Boston were converted 
to her peculiar religious views. So Boston, when but five 
years old, showed herself hospitable to strange theological 
notions, and as it approaches its three hundredth birthday 
it still promptly and warmly welcomes every transcenden- 
tal delusion. 

The progress of heresy caused great excitement in the 
colony. The churches and clergy, outside of the circle 



The Rice Family. 307 

charmed and convinced by the personal influence and 
persuasive eloquence of this wonderful woman, rallied and 
condemned eighty of her doctrines in the year 1637. Mrs. 
Hutchinson was banished, and the excitement and alarm 
were so great that her adherents were disarmed. 

On the 20th day of November, 1637, fearing a violent 
outbreak of fanaticism or resistence to the powers that be, 
the General Court ordered Robert Rice and fifty-eight other 
Boston followers of Mrs. Hutchinson to deliver up their 
guns, pistols, swords, powder, shot and match. 

So far as I can learn, this Robert was the first person 
named Rice who landed in Massachusetts. Fifteen years 
later his real estate was sold by order of the Court, to 
provide means for teaching his orphan children useful trades. 

The emigrant ancestor of the Worcester Rices came to 
this country from Barkhampstead, England, in the year 
1638, or 1639. We have this reason for supposing that 
he and Robert were not near relatives. Family names 
were very persistent in the English colonies. The name 
Robert was an honorable one, and a name that some of 
his descendants would have been likely to bear. 

The index to the Rice book, which gives the names of 
more than one thousand persons named Rice, who were 
descendants of Edmund Rice, does not contain a single 
Robert; forty-one Christian names begin with the letter 
T, including twenty-seven Thomases and nine Timothys. 
Robert was frowned upon and suppressed as a dangerous 
fanatic. Our ancestor, Edmund, within two years after 
his arrival, had become one of the rulers of the colony, 
and was always highly honored and esteemed. 

If there is a man or woman surnamed Rice, who has 
disgraced the name which "old Goodman Rice" made 
respected in the colony of the' Massachusetts Bay, we may 
reasonably infer that he is a descendant of the heretic 
Robert, and not of the kindred of the family we honor 
to-day. 



308 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Edmund Rice was living in Barkhampstead, Hertford- 
shire, England, an early home of the Mercian kings, when 
his fourth child, Lydia, was born, May 9, 1627. The births 
of four other children are recorded in that parish registry, 
the youngest in 1637. 

The town of Sudbury had been secured by Watertown 
men, just before his arrival in Boston, but it had not been 
allotted to individual owners, when he joined them with 
his wife, Tamazine, and seven children. 

July 4, 1639, he was appointed by the colonial govern- 
ment, one of seven persons to lay out the land to the in- 
habitants, according to their estates and persons. He per- 
formed this delicate task with such skill and fidelity, that 
he was chosen deputy for Sudbury the following year, 
and in the years 1652, 1653 and 1654. 

In the year 1641 he had been appointed a magistrate 
to order small causes. These small causes included many 
offenses not now known in our criminal courts. In the 
year 1639 the General Court ordered that "no garment 
shall bee made with short sleeves whereby the nakedness 
of the arms may bee discovered in the wearing thereof, 
and such as already have garments made with short sleeves 
shall not hereafter weare the same unless they cover their 
arms to the wrist with linnen or otherwise." 

Immoderate great sleeves, immoderate great breeches, 
broad shoulder bands, double ruffs and cuffs and other 
disorders in apparel were also strongly denounced. 

The General Court solemnly enacted a law that "no 
person shall sell any cakes or buns either in the markets 
or victualling houses or elsewhere upon pain" of a fine of 
10 shillings. "Provided that this order shall not extend 
to such cakes as shall be made for any burial or marriage 
or such like special occasion." 

Goodman Rice, sitting as magistrate, was required to 
regulate the use of tobacco under this law of 1634: "It 
is ordered that no person shall take tobacco publicly under 



The Rice Family. 309 

the penalty of 2 shillings and 6 pence; nor privately in 
his own house, or in the house of another, before strangers, 
and that two or more shall not take it together anywhere, 
under the aforesaid penalty for every offense." 

From 1632 to 1637 the Court struggled to suppress or 
regulate the use of the weed, but in the latter year it was 
voted that "all former laws against tobacco are repealed 
and tobacco is set at liberty." 

Tobacco and its devotees did not long remain a at 
liberty." The General Court, finding that * ' since the repeal- 
ing of the former laws against tobacco, the same is more 
abused than before," made more stringent laws than ever 
against its use in the following year. 

Fines and imprisonment were provided for those guilty 
of contempt of the magistrates, and the same penalties 
were imposed upon judges and legislators who used re- 
proachful or unbecoming speeches or behavior towards their 
fellow officials. 

The five Rice brothers who owned land in Worcester 
soon after the founding of this town, and who pushed out 
so vigorously into the wilderness, were but following in 
the footsteps of their emigrant ancestor. Some men of 
wealth and more of education and refinement were found 
among the early settlers of this colony. The great ma- 
jority, however, belonged to the middle or lower classes, 
which in England had looked upon the full ownership of 
land as the peculiar privilege of the nobility and landed 
gentry, and a freehold estate was the most desirable worldly 
possession they could gain for themselves and their children. 
They were land hungry, and reached out with almost 
covetous longing for the boundless estates stretching 
away to the west and occupied only by a few roving 
Indians. 

Surveyors and chainmen pushed out into the wilderness, 

marking the bounds of new townships, and locating tracts 

of lands granted to those who had performed unpaid ser- 
22 



310 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

vices for the colony, or had contributed funds for the 
public good. 

Our emigrant ancestor, Edmund Rice, was employed by 
the government on so many different occasions that I 
cannot take the time necessary to enumerate them all. 

His name appears more than thirty times in the indexes 
to the old colonial records, and always in connection with 
important trusts, performed, so far as the records show, 
to the satisfaction of the persons interested, as well as 
with the approval of the government of the colony. 

He was commissioned to marry such persons as had 
been duly published according to law. Candidates for 
matrimony in any place where there was no weekly lecture, 
were required to nail their intentions to a post, erected 
for that purpose, in a public place, fourteen days before 
the ceremony of marriage could be performed, otherwise 
notice was read in the meeting-house. 

His early home was on the east side of the river in that 
part of Sudbury now called Wayland. For many years 
his descendants have gathered on the old homestead, which 
for more than two hundred years has remained in the 
family, and has usually been occupied by an Edmund 
Rice. 

Unlike some of you, I have not had a drink from the 
famous spring, as fresh and young to-day as when it 
quenched the thirst of Goodman Rice, nor have I rested in 
the pleasant grove nearby, overlooking the sluggish Sud- 
bury with its once valuable meadows. Here he spent the 
greater part of his quarter century residence in the new 
world, and from here he made numerous exploring and 
surveying expeditions into the wilderness, even as far west 
as the shores of Lake Quinsigamond. To show the nature 
of the public services rendered by him to the colony, I will 
give two or three illustrations. 

Elijah Corlett, a graduate of Oxford University, taught 
a grammar school in Cambridge forty years. Cotton Mather 



The Rice Family. 311 

describes him as "the memorable old schoolmaster in 
Cambridge, from whose education our college and country 
have received so many of its worthy men, that he is worthy 
to have his name celebrated in our church history." He 
also taught some Indian boys from Eliot's praying towns, 
generally with indifferent success. Netus, a Grafton or 
Hassanamisco Indian, was unable to pay his son's tuition 
and board bill of four pounds, ten shillings, amounting with 
interest to seven pounds, ten shillings, and so with the 
consent of his tribe paid the schoolmaster in land. In 
the year 1661, under orders from the government, Edmund 
Rice met the Indians three miles north of Nipnap (now 
Grafton), hill, and agreed with them that Mr. Corlett should 
have his pay in three hundred and twenty acres of land 
in what has since been called the Farms district in Grafton, 
between the village of North Grafton and the south line 
of Westboro. 

So far as we can learn from the state archives, this was 
the first official visit of Goodman Rice to this vicinity. 
From ten to fifty acres of land were frequently granted 
by the colony as equivalent to a pound. 

Gov. Theophilus Eaton of Connecticut loaned the Massa- 
chusetts Bay colony twenty-five pounds and received a 
grant of five hundred acres of land in Westboro, since 
known as the Fay farm; twenty acres for a pound. 

Thomas Danforth was granted two hundred and fifty 
acres of land in Framingham, to be laid out by old Good- 
man Rice and Goodman Howe, for surveying the laws at 
the press and making an index thereto. He also furnished 
Maj. Gen. Dennison and Maj. William Hawthorn with ten 
pounds money, and was granted so much land as "Old 
Goodman Rice and Goodman How shall judge the said 
10 pounds to be worth, and they are empowered to bound 
the same to. him." For some mysterious reason, that I 
have been unable to fathom, wild land appears to have 
been cheap that year. 



312 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

They judged that Danforth's ten pounds were worth an 
area of more than 14,000 acres, constituting the greater 
part of Framingham. 

They must have made a liberal allowance in some cases 
for the "sag of the chain/ ' when surveying. Samuel How 
and Samuel Gookin purchased two hundred acres from the 
Indians. Some years after, upon complaint of the red 
men, the court appointed a committee of investigation. 
This committee reported that Gookin and How had sold 
off 1700 acres from the tract of two hundred acres conveyed 
to them by the Indians, for one hundred and fifty-six 
pounds, and claimed to have 1000 acres left. 

While surveying land grants for others, he did not for- 
get himself, and his numerous descendants. His name in 
1656, heads the petition of thirteen inhabitants of Sudbury 
for that large tract of land included in Marlboro and Hud- 
son, and the greater part of Westboro, Northboro and 
Southboro. 

His sons, Henry and Edward, joined in the petition. 
Edmund Rice, who had been a selectman and deacon in 
Sudbury, naturally became the foremost citizen in the new 
town of Marlboro. He died in Marlboro in the year 1663, 
at the age of sixty-nine, and twelve years before the town 
was captured and burned by King Philip. He was twice 
married, and had eleven children, including Thomas, the 
father of Jonas Rice and the four brothers so intimately 
associated with the founding of Worcester. 

Although the Rice family does not now form so large 
a proportion of the population of Worcester as in the first 
century of its history, many descendants of Edmund Rice, 
under that and other surnames, still remain with us, and 
thousands have gone forth to lay the foundations of other 
states and implant the best ideas of New England in this 
and other lands. 

They have been leaders in church and state more than 
two hundred and fifty years. They rallied to the defense 



The Rice Family. 313 

of their country against the hostile savages, and their 
French allies. They did valiant service for liberty in the 
war of the American Revolution, and helped save the 
Union in a later struggle. 

In the recent war with Spain, Massachusetts men were 
led by a general who not only bore the name, but inherited 
the courage, patriotism and noble character of our emigrant 
ancestor, Edmund Rice. May his descendants always be 
found in the van of human progress, bearing bravely and 
efficiently their full share of the public burdens and illus- 
trating in their daily lives all private virtues. 



POEM. 
By George Maynard. 

Time wings its rapid flight; the circling years, 
Filled with their clouds and sunshine, smiles and tears, 
Have brought us safely on life's varied way, 
To gather here on this auspicious day. 

Autumnal glories mark the waning year; 
Springtime and Summer are no longer here; 
And, lo ! a vision of bright seasons fled 
Before us rises, as if from the dead ! 

Days of the vanished past once more we view, — 
While Fancy's pencil paints the scene anew. 
For one brief hour her magic touch revives 
The faded picture of our fathers' lives. 

Long years have passed since, from old England's shore, 
Atlantic gales our brave ancestors bore 
O'er ocean's raging billows, white with foam, 
To this bleak land, henceforth to be their home. 

They left a goodly land, to memory dear, 
To find a better in the New World here; 
Better, because more freedom there should be 
In this, the chosen home of liberty. 



314 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Hither they came to build; let History tell 
The glorious tale, and say they labored well ! 
The trackless wilderness before them lay, 
Where savage beasts and savage men held sway; 

But dauntless spirits in their bosoms glowed; 
And steadfastly they trod the thorny road ! 
The home, the church, the school, our fathers reared, 
And humbly walked before the God they feared. 

They set an example for all coming time, 
By many a virtue that we deem sublime; 
And if, perchance, some human frailties few 
In the long record of their lives we view, 

We need not blush for them, nor hope to find 
Perfection in this world in human kind, — 
But rather mark the picture's brighter side 
With reverent vision, and with filial pride ! 

Two hundred years have well nigh rolled away, 
Since to this place their children came to stay, 
Planting a new and prosperous town beyond 
The rolling waves of fair Quinsigamond. 

Ah ! what a change those centuries have brought 
To this fair valley where our fathers wrought ! 
Where then the trackless forest rose in gloom, 
And lurking foes invoked the settlers' doom, 

To-day, in peace our lovely city lies, — 
Its hundred church spires pointing to the skies; 
On every hill some seat of learning stands; 
While round them busy industry expands. 

'Midst fertile farms that stretch beyond our sight, — 
Making the glorious landscape still more bright, — 
Steam and electric railways speed their freights 
To other cities and to distant states. 

And where that feeble band of settlers cleared 
Away the forest, and their dwellings reared, 
More than a hundred thousand souls to-day 
In peace abide, with none to say them nay. 

Stand on some height that overlooks this vale, 
When autumn's harvests wave before the gale, 
And the fair city, stretching far and wide, 
Lies in the streaming sunlight glorified, 



The Rice Family. 315 

And tell me, ye who gaze with glad delight, 
If nobler picture ever met your sight ! 
For Art and Nature here have well combined 
To charm the raptured vision — soothe the mind. 

Could but our sires rise from their long repose, 
And see the vision that these hills disclose, — 
That panorama that so charms our eyes, — 
Would they not gaze thereon with strange surprise? 

The times have changed, — the manners and the men; 
The sons behold the world with different ken 
From that the fathers had; to-day we stand 
On heights they knew not, and the Promised Land 

They saw alone by faith, 'tis ours to view 

In all its glory, robed in brightest hue ! 

We view new scenes, we think new thoughts to-day; 

At shrines they knew not, possibly we pray. 

Thus it has always been in every land, 
Where freeborn souls have had space to expand; 
Thus it will ever be, till Time's last knell 
Shall call our race to bid the world farewell. 

Herein is hope; the world that moves apace, 
Is growing fitter for man's dwelling place. 
Let but the children never once forget 
That to their sires they owe a lasting debt. 

May they each honored name remember well,— 
And to their sons the noble story tell; 
And each and all, to Time's remotest bound, 
Be, like our sires, in virtue's pathway found! 



The name of RICE may well be held 
In high esteem by all men now, 

For it has been for ages borne 
By loyal men who would not bow 

The knee to Baal, but have stood 
Firmly for justice and for right, — 

And where the world demanded men, 
Been ever foremost in the fight ! 



316 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

If gone from earth they are not dead; 

The influence of noble lives, 
Expanding with the passing years, 

Their brief existence here survives. 

We may not here recount them all, 

Since that far day when EDMUND came 

From his ancestral home, to be 
The founder of a line of fame. 

His blood to-day runs in the veins 
Of many a thousand brave and true; 

And royal lineage could not be 

More glorious, though its blood were blue. 

To-day we Ve viewed the historic spot, 
Where Edmund's grandson dwelt of old, — 

JONAS, who, in those early days, 
Was Worcester's pioneer so bold. 

On Sagatabscot's height he dwelt; 

On Pakachoag of fair renown 
His brother GERSHOM built his home; 

These were the " Fathers of the Town." 

At length, to keep them company, 
Two brothers and a sister came; 

ELISHA, JAMES, the brothers were; 
GRACE was the sister's charming name. 

Where they first settled, — how they built, — 
And how they fared, — let History tell; 

Your Poet's time is limited, 

And so he bids the tale farewell. 

But mark one thing, — forget it not, — 
In Duty's path our fathers trod; 

They went where'er its call was heard, 
With fearless hearts that trusted God. 

And whether high, or whether low, 
The stations they were called to fill, 

They did their best, and left behind 
A record that is stainless still ! 

They saw, through their long night of toil, 
Of patient vigils and of tears, 

The presage of a fairer dawn, — 
The promise of the future years ! 



The Rice Family. 317 

In faith and hope they planted here 
The seed whose harvest smiles to-day; 

And may its fruit adorn the soil, 
While unborn centuries roll away! 

And let us feel that evermore, 

Whate'er betide of good or ill, 
The Hand that led their pilgrim feet 

Will safely guide their children still ! 



ADDRESS. 
By Rev. John C. Crane. 
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: — 

I appreciate the honor of being asked to pay my feeble 
tribute to-day to that worthy old Puritan, Edmund Rice 
of Sudbury. Abler pens than mine have written and abler 
men have spoken of his virtues, but if perchance I may 
add something my labors will not be in vain. 

Three centuries ago in England there were schemes and 
plans to control the minds and consciences of men. Men 
sought then as now to worship God after the dictates of 
their own consciences. Others denied this right to them 
and history gives us the result. The student of the record 
of that time knows of the struggles, trials and wanderings 
of men and women to obtain what they wished. 

There was unrest in the England of that time. The 
sword of persecution seemingly barred the way forever to 
the dissenter to reach the heavenly throne in his own way. 

To Holland was the watchword of the pilgrim. Others 
later, under assumed names, left their native soil. In 
obedience to the spirit of God, given to carry out his pur- 
pose, men ran the risk of imprisonment and the sundering 
of earthly ties. The preacher driven from his holdings 
sought private houses in strange places, in and among the 



318 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

hills of old England, to preach the pure old gospel, and 
in spite of all obstacles succeeded in a measure in carrying 
out the purpose within him. The point of the sword 
stayed Oliver Cromwell as he attempted to sail to the 
land Columbus had found. 

William Blackstone, the pioneer of Shawmut, cast long- 
ing eyes over the great waste of waters that hid a new 
world. The Puritan had a lingering hope that he might 
yet gain within the church what he sought, but life in a 
new land changed all things and showed how futile that 
hope. 

At the coming of Edmund Rice, the Nipmuck country 
was an unknown one to the white man. Narragansett 
bordered it southeast, the Pequot land hemmed it in on 
the south, west lay the Mohawk dominion, ever encroach- 
ing, while well to the north abided the Pigwackets and 
Coos. The coast Indians were not long in coming to the 
front and making the acquaintance of their white neighbors, 
but the Nipmucks were for a long time comparatively 
unknown. The Nipmuck region abounded with hills and 
valleys. Hundreds of lakes and ponds dotted its surface, 
the sources of many small rivers, which carried tribute to 
old ocean's store. Old Wachusett looked down upon the 
whole land, spying out its wondrous beauty. 

When the white men came the savages, under Philip, 
came to plunder. 

Thither came the Narragansetts and others, until at one 
time, at or near Worcester, there was a body of one thou- 
sand men ready and waiting to pillage and murder. Worces- 
ter, the heart of the Commonwealth, was also very near 
the heart of the Nipmuck country. The plantation of 
Quinsigamond, with its magnificent lake of the same name, 
offered an inviting gathering place to the nomads of that 
early time. Southwest lay Bogachoag, on whose summit 
the Indian camp-fires burned day and night. Northwest, i 
old 'Bumskit towered over all, fourteen hundred feet above 



The Rice Family . 319 

the coming and going of the tide in Massachusetts bay. 
Quinsigamond was literally a gathering place of waters. 
To this center came the tribute of Ramshorn, Kettle, 
Lynde, Tatnuck and other streams, for distribution. The 
evidence points to Worcester then as a great Indian center. 
But the Worcester of to-day, with its 125,000 souls, is a 
grand center for the promulgation of useful knowledge, 
and its possibilities as yet are past finding out. 

A few days ago the headlines of a Boston daily contained 
the following, "The Rice birds are here." It is quite 
evident that the writer was ignorant of the fact that these 
birds have been here much of the past summer, only under 
another name. So, too, are gathered here to-day, many 
descendants of Edmund Rice of Barkhampstead, though 
some of us come under other cognomens. It is well to 
know of our family history, something of those who have 
preceded us on the great battlefield of life. We may not 
make connections, perhaps, with the greatest names in 
history, but it would be strange if out of the record of 
the past there comes not to us some history of an ances- 
tor's daring deed for God and humanity, some tradition 
or tale of which we may well be proud. 

But I must say that after looking over our family re- 
cord and this audience, that if Darwin's theory of evolution 
be true, the Rice family has made wonderful progress. 
They have evolved a race of noble men and women, who 
are and have been the equals of any of the early American 
families. Other speakers here have told, and no doubt 
will tell you more about Edmund Rice than I shall. But 
he seems at least to have been a good and God-fearing 
man, and could he at this time revisit earthly scenes, I 
feel that he would be proud of those who have come after 
him. Your family has furnished a governor to Massachu- 
setts in Alexander H. Rice, another to Minnesota in the 
person of Henry M. Rice. George M. Rice of Worcester was 
among the earliest connected with the iron and steel busi- 



320 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

ness of Worcester county, while William E. Rice has been 
no small factor in the great wire industry that has had 
so much to do in making Worcester what she is to-day. 
Most of us remember the genial congressman, William W. 
Rice, who for so many years ably represented this district 
at Washington, and a later law-maker is present with us 
in the person of George M. Rice, chairman of the committee 
of arrangements for this occasion. 

But we cannot tell of all the Rices who have done some- 
thing worthy of note. I would at this time like to speak 
of one of the name who has done so much to aid the his- 
torian and genealogist, of past, present and future time. 
I refer to Franklin P. Rice of Worcester, through or by 
whose efforts have been published the records of Worcester, 
as well as of other places. With far-seeing eye, he has 
realized the value of this work to future generations, and 
well and faithfully has he performed his part. Of the 
early Rices, beginning with Edmund, it is noticed they 
run well to deacons, and one Elisha was a Baptist preacher 
and a gunsmith, he no doubt having faith in the old adage, 
"Trust in God and keep your powder dry." 

If time permitted, many anecdotes of the early settlers 
might be given. In those days liquor was freely used in 
most every household, and the following is related of one 
member of the family at that time living near Worcester. 
He was a good man, highly respected in the place where 
he lived, and held many town offices, but his failing was 
to drink a little too much at times. A neighbor's house 
was but a few feet from his own, and one night during 
a pouring rain at about the hour of twelve the neighbor 
heard a terrible thumping at his door. He responded as 
soon as he was able and there stood neighbor Rice some- 
what the worse for wear. The latter with rather thick 
utterance inquired if he could tell him where Mr. Rice 
lived. 

The neighbor replied, "Why, you are Mr. Rice himself." 



The Rice Family. 321 

Straightening himself up as well as he was able, Mr. 
Rice ejaculated, "I don't care nothing about that, I know 
who I am, but I want to know where I live." 

My grandfather, John Crane, married Ruth Humphrey, 
daughter of Capt. Ebenezer and granddaughter of Ebene- 
zer and Sarah (Rice) Humphrey. The following will show 
the connection through to Edmund Rice and others back 
into England for quite a period of time. I am under 
obligations to Henry A. Phillips, Esq., of Boston for help 
in so doing. 

The genealogical connection through the Rice family 
from my grandchildren takes in twelve generations, as 
follows : — 

Thomas Beswick, from Kent, 1635, died at Sudbury; 
Capt. William Brown, first deacon at Sudbury from 1641, 
married Mary Beswick; Benjamin Rice, son of Edmund, 
married Mary Brown; Ebenezer Rice, son of Benjamin, 
married Bethiah Williams, daughter of Stephen and Sarah 
(Wise) Williams. 

The Williams genealogy goes still farther back to great 
Yarmouth, England, 1608, to Robert Williams, who died 
at Roxbury in 1693, and from Robert back to another, 
Stephen Williams of Great Yarmouth. 

The Williams line runs back through the Wise, Tompkins 
and Collins families into that of Thomas Rose of Exmouth, 
England. 

Arthur Humphrey was at Woodstock, Ct., in 1686. 
Ebenezer, son of Arthur Humphrey, married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Ebenezer and Bethiah (Williams) Rice, and they 
had a son, Capt. Ebenezer, the revolutionary veteran. 

History is replete with the records of the Rice family, 
and in the light gleaming back over the past record of 
this family, who will say the hand of God was not in the 
coming of Edmund Rice? 

The past is secure. The future all before, with page 
white and clean. Let each and all of his descendants 



322 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

strive to inscribe thereon that of which no man need be 
ashamed; that which shall tend to uplift humanity and 
redound to the honor and glory of God. 



Under the head of voluntary remarks and reminiscences, 
Mr. Rice introduced Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, and as the 
venerable woman advanced to the front of the platform, 
she was greeted with a storm of applause. To see Mrs. 
Livermore as she faced her audience, straight and erect, no 
one would imagine she was bearing the weight of eighty- 
three years, and when she began to speak in a strong, 
clear, well modulated voice, emphasizing her words with 
appropriate and graceful gestures, she displayed the life, 
force and energy of a young woman. She was followed 
with the closest attention, and was frequently interrupted 
by applause. 

In beginning she spoke of Edmund Rice and the men 
who were associated with him in the pioneer days of New 
England. She said she had listened with the greatest 
pleasure to the papers read and the addresses given, on 
account of the large amount of valuable information they 
contained regarding the lives and characters of the earlier 
members of the Rice family. 

Mrs. Livermore made an eloquent plea for justice toward 
all, and asked her auditors to interest themselves in the 
solution of some of the great problems of the day. She 
believed interest should be manifested in the laboring man, 
and to convince the capitalist that the world is not governed 
solely by greed. The negro should be uplifted and edu- 
cated. It is a noble work to transform the children of 
immigrants into good American citizens. She thanked God 
for the noble men and women who were now engaged in 
this work, and hoped their numbers would continually 
increase. 




A 



\ 




* CLUs€Jl44u?£, 



Loaned by the Woman's Journal. 



The Rice Family, 323 

"If we could only look ahead one hundred years," said 
the speaker, "what an inspiration and encouragement it 
would be to us. I do not believe we are going down. 
There are men as sturdy and fearless as Jonas Rice and his 
fellow pioneers, and who are better equipped than they to 
meet the problems which confront them. We can thank 
God for the outlook, for we have much to be thankful 
for." 

She spoke of the wonders of the world, which for cen- 
turies have baffled the skill of scientists, and painted a 
pretty word picture of an angel telling an unborn infant 
of the wonderful things he would see and experience in 
this world, and of the incredulity the infant would show 
at such apparently impossible changes which the human 
race experiences from the beginning to the end of life. 
The experiences of the past caused her to believe in all 
possibilities of the future. She would follow on in her 
credulity without a halting step. If the wonderful advance- 
ment of the past three hundred years are duplicated or 
triplicated in the next three hundred years, this world will 
truly become the domain of Christ. 

She said that the early Rices builded better than they 
knew, and asked if men to-day may not be building in 
like manner, for nobody realizes how his work will count 
any more than Jonas Rice thought of the gathering that 
was in this hall or of all that the family had accomplished 
during the years that have come and gone since its founders 
settled this town. 

Referring to the negro question she expressed the belief 
that the worst of it is over; that the negro, a brother, 
would be given his rights, and that nothing would be 
placed in the way of his advancement. The evils of di- 
vorce she touched upon, and saw relief from them only 
in the way that the sturdy Rice family of other days had 
avoided them — by being home loving, God-fearing, indus- 
trious. She said that she sometimes got glimpses of the 



324 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

kingdom of Christ on earth as it would surely be when 
progress had brought all things into the proper state. 

Mrs. Livermore is a descendant of the early Rices and 
her presence was a feature of the occasion, especially as 
her name is a household word from her long life of work 
in the cause of woman's advancement. Her birthday 
will occur Dec. 19, the present year. 

Mr. George M. Rice then called attention to some of 
the family relics brought to. the reunion, and gave a brief 
history of them. He then introduced Mrs. A. H. Hinman, 
daughter of Thomas Rice, who read the following original 
poem: 

"THE RICE BOULDER." 

To those who claim our city as 
Their place of birth it seems one of 
The fairest spots on God's green earth — 
From Worcester's beating heart reach out, 
In devious ways, electric lines 
That bind to her, for mutual good, 
Fair towns and villages. Through woods 
And pasture lands, o'er lofty hills 
And valleys deep, with subtle force. 
Unseen, she makes her presence felt. 
And as she threads her way along, 
With warm electric life she links 
To us each modest home nestled 
In Nature's lap. O Worcester fair ! 
You long have proved your noble worth 
And to the sons of men you stand 
With large, expanding heart, eager 
To give to each a useful place — 
How numberless, for public good, 
Your attributes, and how replete 
With active life your inner self 
That radiates beyond the bounds 
Of this fair continent. We know 
The sea does not your course impede, 
For on the ocean wave ride ships 
Bearing to foreign lands products 



The Rice Family, 325 

Of your rich fruitfulness. The length 

Of our own land has felt your worth — 

Your homes have yielded brilliant minds 

To shape and guard our nation's weal. 

We live within your heart and long 

Have been the glad recipients 

Of your most gracious gifts, and know 

To-day you have immortalized 

Our old ancestral tree, and we 

Have read the words you wrote upon 

A " Boulder's " face, that time nor tide 

Cannot with speed efface. We know 

That we must seal this bond of your 

Affection true with kindly word 

And warm hand clasp that we may bind 

In closer bonds our kinship tie — 

The Boulder stands that " he who runs 

May read," and may each traveller on 

This road of life forever read 

Between the lines inscribed upon 

The Boulder's sturdy face these words: 

" Prune well your tree of all false growths, 

Keep stanch and true the parent stems, 

And train the tender branches from 

Their birth and on through life to wave 

In perfect unison, and with 

A dignity of purpose grand " — 

An angel hand has traced upon 

The Boulder's face these words : 

" There are 
No dead, for they, the unseen, wave 
As living branches on life's tree." 



Judge Estey of Framingham presented the framed signa- 
ture of Edmund Rice, and told how the Esteys were related 
to the family. He also told of a Sarah Rice who married 
Peter King, this Sarah being a newly discovered name in 
sthe list of Edmund Rice's children. 

Mrs. Joseph Wood told of her connection with the family 
on her own and her husband's side. Her father was David 
Rice. 

The exercises at the hall came to a close with an informal 

reception to Gen. Edmund Rice, William E. Rice and 
23 



326 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

Mrs. Livermore, who shook hands and spoke a few pleasant 
words with everyone present. 

COMMITTEES. 

Honorary and Advisory Committee. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. Rice Descendants. 

President Lyman A. Ely, William E. Rice, Worcester, 

Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Gen.Edmund Rice, U.S. A., Boston. 

Hon. George F. Hoar, Gen. A. B. R. Sprague, Worcester, 

Hon. Joseph H. Walker, Gen. Rockwood Hoar, Worcester, 

Hon. E. B. Crane, Edward E. Rice, Boston, 

Hon. A. S. Roe, Mrs. A. R. Stetson, Boston, 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq. N. W. Brooks, New York, 

Burton W. Potter, Esq. Elijah L. Rice, Norwich. 

General Committee. 
George M. Rice, Chairman. 
Thomas C. Rice, George H. Rice, 

Franklin P. Rice, George Maynard, Secretary. 

Reception Committee. 
Mrs. William T. Forbes, Chairman. 
Mrs. Nellie F. Rogers, Mrs. A. H. Hinman, 

Mrs. E. P. Curtis, Mrs. Laura B. Martine, 

Miss Florence I. Day, Miss Florence M. Whitney. 

Entertainment and Music. 
Charles I. Rice, Chairman. 
Mrs. George E. Kirby, Miss M. Louise Rice, 

Mrs. Alphonse Prairie, Mr. Lewis Rice. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mander A. Maynard, Mrs. A. H. Hinman, 
Abram K. Gould and Geo. E. Arnold were in attendance 
at Union Station as a special committee to receive the 
guests from abroad; while the following named young 
ladies assisted as ushers at the afternoon exercises as auxil- 
iary to the reception committee: Miss Emma F. Waite, 
Alice E. Waite, Elnora Curtis and Ethel Davis. 




GENERAL EDMUND RICE, 

U. S. A. (Retired.) 



The Rice Family. 327 

Out of the four hundred persons present the following 
names were secured by the committee: — 

Allston, Mass. — Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Rice, Mr. and 
Mrs. Hubert Rice, Marion Dana Rice, Major Charles E. 
Rice, Mrs. Gertrude Rice Thayer. 

Amherst, Mass.— Willis L. Towne, Mrs. Willis G. Towne. 

Athol, Mass. — Mrs. Charlotte Rice Whittaker. 

South Athol, Mass. — L. W. Rice. 

Barre, Mass. — Daniel H. Rice, Thomas Brigham Rice, 
Miss Harriet Eliza Rice, Miss Lucy Rice. 

Berlin, Mass. — Mrs. Mary E. Rice Bartlett, Bessie R. 
Bartlett. 

Brookfield, Mass.— Mrs. Martha M. Hyde, Miss Alice 
Blanchard, Miss Adalyn E. Rice. 

North Brookfield, Mass. — Elizabeth Heywood Rice. 

Boston, Mass. — Ellen Douglas L. Hibbard, Melvin E. 
Rice, Edward David Rice. 

East Boston, Mass. — Charles F. Rice. 

Brighton, Mass. — Dr. Frederick W. Rice and wife. 

Burlington, Mass. — Francis B. Rice. 

Chelsea, Mass. — Miss Maud L. Brown. 

Cherry Valley, Mass. — Mrs. Katherine F. Fuller, Miss 
Carrie L. Fuller. 

Dorchester, Mass. — Williams B. Brooks, Jr. 

Evanston, III. — Calvin F. Rice, Miss May Louise Rice, 
William Rice, Miss Louise Rice. 

Framingham, Mass. — C. C. Estey, Mrs. Selina N. Rice, 
Alice M. Snow. 

So. Framingham, Mass. — Henry C. Bowers. 

Gardner, Mass. — Mrs. Lillaoth C. H. Greene, Mrs. Eva 
I. Saunders, Mrs. 0. T. Rice, Mr. and Mrs. Marcus Green- 
wood. 

So. Gardner, Mass. — Mrs. Mary L. Bent. 

North Grafton, Mass.— Ashley W. Rice, Lyman M. Rice. 

Greenwich Village, Mass. — Mr. and Mrs. Lyman Rice. 

Hopkinton, Mass. — Mrs. Marion Rice Temple. 



328 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Indianapolis, Ind. — Martin N. Rice. 

Jamaica Plain, Mass.— Charles W. Fiske. 

Lee, Mass. — Abner Rice. 

Leicester, Mass. — Daniel E. Rice. 

Lenox Bridge, Conn. — Mrs. Alice I. Rice Lewis. 

Marlboro, Mass. — John Edward Rice, Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph V. Jackman, Mrs. Inez Rice Wood. 

Melrose, Mass.— Mrs. Geo. E. Gilchrist. 

Millbury, Mass.— Mrs. Benj. L. Bray. 

New Bedford, Mass. — Miss Emeline G. Rice, Miss Elina 
S. Rice. 

Newton, Mass. — Wilbur C. Rice. 

West Newton, Mass. — Eustace B. Rice. 

Newton Centre, Mass. — Mrs. George W. Cobb. 

Newton Highlands, Mass. — Mr. and Mrs. I. D. White. 

New York City— Mrs. Charlotte Rice Sackett, Miss Edith 
Rice Sackett, Mrs. Augustine Sackett. 

Northboro, Mass. — Samuel I. Rice (aged 82), Levi Rice 
Prentiss. 

Northbridge, Mass. — Benjamin L. Maynard. 

Norwich, Conn. — Elijah Lorenzo Rice, M. Louise Rice. 

Oakdale, Mass. — Mrs. Annie E. Rice Sykes, Mrs. Emma 
Rice Lawrence, Hattie Rice Hastings. 

Pawtucket, R. I. — Mrs. Charles E. Pervear. 

Princeton, Mass. — Herbert Alphonso Pratt, Brant Albert 
Pratt. 

Quincy, Mass. — Mr. and Mrs. William Ball Rice, Fred 
Ball Rice, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lee Rice. 

Rindge, N. H. — Victor H. Rice, Miss Emma I. Rice, 
Miss Jessie Rice. 

Rockland, Mass. — Col. Chas. L. Rice. 

Somerville, Mass. — Franics Beaman Rice. 

Shrewsbury, Mass. — Mrs. Ellen A. Rice, Irene E. Prairie. 

Southboro, Mass. — Mrs. Charles L. Johnson. 

Springfield, Vt. — Alfred L. Rice. 

West Sterling, Mass. — Mrs. Solon B. Peters. 



The Rice Family. 329 

Three Rivers, Mass. — Mrs. Harriet Rice Powell. 

Utica, N. Y.— Elizabeth G. Fiske. 

Wakefield, Mass. — Miss Lucilla Hosmer. 

Ware, Mass.— Mrs. Lina M. Collins. 

Warren, Mass. — Geo. E. Rice. 

Westboro, Mass. — Mrs. Temple, Miss Alma Rice, 

Miss Sarah E. Bartlett, Lewis Rice, Elbridge Rice, Elbridge 
G. Rice, Miss Jennie M. Rice, Mrs. Louise Rice Kelley. 

Worcester, Mass. — Miss Florence E. Rice, Mrs. Sarah D. 
Tucker, Mrs. Edric J. Rice, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel H. Day, 
Miss Florence I. Day, Ezra Beaman Rice, Mrs. R. Merrick 
Rice, Mrs. Harriet Chaffin Howe, Mrs. Edward Whitney, 
Lucy W. Rice, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin T. Rice, Mrs. Mary 
E. Hubbard, Mrs. Lucretia A. Rice, George Edmund Rice, 
Mrs. Melissa Rice Whitney, Miss Florence M. Whitney, 
George H. Rice, John A. Rice, Henry Norman Rice, Mrs. 
Minnie L. Rice Prior, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin F. Rice, Mr. 
and Mrs. George H. Rice, Mrs. Geo. E. Rice, Mrs. Edwin 
P. Curtis, Mr. and Mrs. Rienzi Rice, L. Bertrand Rice, 
Mr. and Mrs. Geo. R. Russell, Mrs. Susan E. Kirby, Miss 
M. Louise Rice, Maria Fiske Bemis, Mrs. Charles W. Gray, 
David Brainard Rice, Mr, and Mrs. Fred'k W. Rice, Mrs. 
Sarah E. Rice, George Calvin Rice, Mrs. Selina A. Perrin, 
Frank W. Lord, Prof, and Mrs. J. Edgar Dickson, J. Milton 
Rice, Mrs. Sarah H. Rice, Miss Christine G. Rice, Miss 
Mary E. Rice, Mrs. Nellie G. Landry, Alfred Chaffin, Mrs. 
Clarence A. Kennen, Mrs. L. G. White, Mrs. Helen White 
Peterson, Miss Ella J. Rider, Mrs. Ann Eliza Whitcomb, 
Edward S. Fiske, Florence Sherman Wheeler, Nina Mae 
Wheeler, Mrs. H. D. Fisher, Eva J. Prentiss, Mrs. William 
It. Hackett, Joseph Rice Torrey, Mrs. Eliza Rice Torrey, 
Mrs. Harriet Seavey, Elnora W. Curtis, Mrs. Hannah S. 
Atwood, Lillian Shuman Atwood, Grace Hallowell Atwood, 
Mrs. Harriette M. Forbes, Chas. Edwin Chaffin, Mrs. E. 
B. Johnson, Mrs. Susan Rice Begley, Mrs. Sarah A. Rice, 
Edward E. Rice, 



330 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Port Huron, Mich. — Miss Sophronia Rice, Lewis Rice. 

Marine City, Mich. — Mrs. Lester. 

Scottville, Mich. — Elias Hicks Rice. 

Galesbury, III. — Fletcher C. Rice. 

Tacoma, Wash. — Charles Reeves. 

Portland, Me. — John 0. Rice. 

Fulton, N. Y— Arvin Rice. 

Marion, N. Y. — Lyman Malvern Rice. 

Hannibal, N. Y .— E. W. Rice. 

Sodus, N. Y. — Timothy Rice, Lyman Rice. 

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

Through the kindness of Mrs. Selina A. Perrin, a lineal 
descendant of Gershom Rice, we are permitted to present 
in print a copy of a few old documents that cannot fail 
to interest not only descendants of the Rice family, but 
also the general reader, inasmuch as they throw some light 
upon the daily life, customs and character of the people 
who planted Worcester; and they also enable us to correct 
some of the inaccuracies made by our early historians. 

Much credit is due Mrs. Perrin for her wisdom and fore- 
sight in preserving these valuable papers; and the many 
expressions of gratitude that have been and will be ex- 
tended her for the act, are most truly merited. 

It appears that at least eight out of the fourteen children 
of Thomas and Mary ( ) Rice became personally in- 
terested in the settlement of Worcester; seven and perhaps 
eight of them having been residents of the town. Neither 
of them however took part in the second attempt to settle 
here as some writers have stated, for in 1686, Jonas was 
but thirteen years of age and James but seventeen. Eph- 
raim lived in Sudbury, where his children were born, 1690 
to 1713, and Elisha was (at 1686) only seven years old, 
and Gershom aged nineteen years. This Gershom Rice 
married Elizabeth Balcom, daughter of Henry and Elizabeth 



The Rice Family. 331 

(Haynes) Balcom. She was born August 16, 1672. Her 
father was a blacksmith and resided in Charlestown, Mass. 
After their marriage they removed to Groton, Conn., where 
they were living in 1713, as the letter written by Mrs. 
Balcom to her daughter, Mrs. Gershom Rice, at Groton, 
shows. 

It also appears that Jonas Rice was the first of the sons 
of Thomas to purchase land in Worcester; December 4, 
1711, he purchased of John Allerton, son of Thomas Aller- 
ton, sixty acres of land situated in Worcester; Thomas 
Allerton having been among the proprietors in the second 
attempt to settle the town. 

By the deed which is given on the following pages the 
date of the purchase of Gershom Rice is noted as the twenty- 
sixth day of May, 1712, when he, through William Paine 
of Boston (a blacksmith), became the owner of the estate 
where he first settled in Worcester and where he resided 
until April 16, 1736, when he sold to Samuel Brown of 
Watertown the sixty acres formerly Paine's with houses 
thereon " where we now dwell." The purchase price was 
£1300, and included other lands to the amount of one 
hundred and thirty acres.* About the time of this sale 
he may have removed to the Pakachoag hill farm, which 
was for many years the family homestead. 

As to giving the exact time when these early settlers 
came with their families to Worcester, it is not an easy 
task from the records at hand, with the exception of the 
case of Nathaniel Moore, who married Grace Rice (sister 
of Jonas), and had: Mary, b. Dec. 20, 1702; Sary, b. 
July 2, 1704; Henry, b. Jany. 10, 1705-6; Judeth, b. 
Feby. 12, 1707-8; Grace, b. July 7, 1709 or 1710; Elizabeth, 
b. June 23, 1711; Elener, b. Feby. 16, 1713; Nathaniel, 
b. Jany. 31, 1714-15. 

This last named Nathaniel Moore died in Worcester, 



See Records of Deeds, Vol. 8, page 75. 



332 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

July 19, 1811, aged ninety-six years, and was three months 
old when his father came to Worcester from Sudbury, so 
that May, 1715, found this Moore family in Worcester. 
A lot of thirty acres was laid out to this Mr. Moore, Mch. 
21, 1714. 

As before stated, Jonas Rice bought land in Worcester 
in 1711 and his brother Gershom in 1712; and on Oct. 
21, 1713, they with Col. Adam Winthrop and others peti- 
tioned the Great and General Court for leave to enter 
upon a new settlement within the township of Worcester, 
and that a committee be appointed to direct in ordering 
the prudentials of the said plantation until they reach a 
full settlement. The petition was granted and, under date 
of May 26, 1714, this committee reported through Wm. 
Taylor that they had given four months' time to receiving 
notices of claims of settlers interested there. Had visited 
the place and allowed the just claims of all who appeared 
there, and admitted twenty-eight persons more to take 
up lots. 

A list was also presented showing names of those who 
were the present proprietors and in this list appear the 
names of Jonas, Gershom and James, Ephraim, senior, 
Ephraim, junior, Elisha and Josiah Rice, also Peter King, 
who it is said married Sarah Rice. 

Jonas, Gershom and James Rice had the first three lots 
surveyed out under direction of this committee, and no 
doubt were occupied by them and their families very soon, 
as early, it is to be presumed, as 1714.* Gershom had his 
second division of seventy-five acres laid out to him, June 
20, 1718. Elisha Rice's lot of thirty acres was laid out 
to him, Feby. 3, 1714. 

Dec. 20, 1714, Gershom Rice had a house in Worcester, 
standing near Oak hill, which was his first home here, 
and to which no doubt he came from Groton, Conn. Jany. 



Records of the Proprietors of Worcester. 



The Rice Family. 333 

22, 1714, Josiah, son of Ephraim Rice of Sudbury, had 
a thirty-acre lot laid out to him on " Mount Tobscut." 

Jany. 28, 1714, Ephraim Rice, Jr., had a thirty-acre 
lot laid out to him, lying at Rice's bridge over Mill brook. 
Nov. 5, 1714, Ephraim Rice had granted him thirty acres 
for a house lot, lying on the northwest side of the great 
Oak hill, southwest from Jonas Rice's house. 



Power op Attorney Given by Jonas Rice to 
Gershom Rice. 

Know all men by these presents I Jonas Rice of Sud- 
bury in the County of Middlesex in the province of the 
Massachusetts bay in New England have made ordained 
Constituted and appointed and by these presents do ordain 
and appoint my Loving brother Gershom Rice of Groton 
in the County of New london in her Majesties Colony of 
Connectecutt yeoman in new England aforesaid: my true 
and Lawfull attorney: for me and In my name and stead 
to act & doe for me in any matter or thing: Concerning 
any of my lands swamps or meadow lying in the township 
of Groton afores d : to preserve and defend the same as 
fully and absolutely as I myself Could doe if I was per- 
sonally present : And also to digg and sel any mine 

which I have Reserved in any lands or swamps which 
have sold or may be found in any part of my s d land or 
meadows or swamps which still Remain to me unsold and 
to Receive for me and for my proper use any sum or sums 
of money as he my said attorney shall agree with any 
person or persons for: for any part of said mine: and 
also to ask demand Require and sue for & Recover any 
Debtes arising for any of the aforesd mine = giving and 
hereby granting to my said attorney my full and whole 
power strenth and authority in and about the premises to 
say do and act to all Intents and Constructions in the 



334 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

law as I myself might or could do if personally present: 
Ratifying for firm and stable : what my said attorney shall 
do In and about the premises: In witness whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand and seal this fifth — Day of Sept- 
ember In the tenth year of her Majesties Reign Annoque 
Domini 1711 
signed sealed and delivered In presence of us 

Nehemiah Smith Ju nr 

Lydiah Smith 

Jonas Rice (seal) 

M r Jonas Rice of Sudbury the subscriber personally 
appeared and acknowledged the above written Instrument 
to be his free act and deed before me September: 5 th 1711 

Nehemiah Smith Justice 



Deed William Paine & Elizabeth his Wife to 
Gershom Rice. 

This Indenture made the Twenty Sixth Day of May in 
the Eleventh year of the Reign of our Soveraign Lady 
Queen Anne over Great Britain & Id Defender of the faith 
Etc Annoq. Dom. 1712 Between Gershom Rice of Groton 
in the County of New London and Colony of Connecticutt 
in New England Yoman of the one part and William Payne 
of Boston in New Engd afore d Blacksmith and Elizabeth 
his Wife of the other part Witnesseth that the said Wil- 
liam Payne & Elizabeth his s d wife for & in consideration 
of the Sum of Fifty Pounds of good Silver Current Money 
of New England to him in hand at & before the Enseal- 
ing and Delivery of these presents well & truely paid by 
the Said Gershom Rice the Receit whereof to full Content 
& Satisfaction he doth hereby acknowlidge & thereof & 
of every part & parcel thereof doth acquit exonerate & 



The Bice Family. 335 

discharge the S d Gershom Rice his heirs Executors Admi ts 
And Assigns & every of them for ever by these presents. 
Have given granted, bargined & sold Aliend enfeofte Con- 
veyd and Confermed and by these presence for themselves 
& their Heirs Do fully freely and absolutely give grant 
bargain sell aliene enfeoft Convey and Conferm unto the 
Said Gershom Rice his Heirs Asigns forever All that Messu- 
age or Tenement with all the Land whereon the same 
Doth Stand and is thereunto belonging and appertaining 
scituate standing & being in Worcester in the County of 
Middlesex in New England containing fifty Acres more 
or less (being part of a Sixty-acre Lott formerly granted 
to S d payne by Cap* Daniel Hincksman) bing butted & 
bounded Southerly upon Land of George Ripley Easterly 
upon Land of James Butler northerly upon Land of James 
Holmes Westerly upon Common Land or however other- 
wise bounded or reputed to be bounded together with all 
Housing outhouses Barnes Edifices Buildings & fences 
Standing and being thereon Yards Orchards Gardens Mea- 
dows, Pasture Upland Woods Underwoods Commons 
Common of Pasture Rigts Divisions profits priviledges Here- 
ditaments Emoluments and Appertenances Whatsoever to 
the Same belonging or in any wise appertaining (viz* to 
the whole sixty Acre Lott) also one House Lott Scituate 
at Worcester afores d containing by Estimation Thirty 
Acres more or less butted & bounded Southerly upon Land 
of James Butler Easterly northerly & Westerly upon Com- 
mon Land together with all Rights Commons priviledges 
Common of pasture Hereditaments & Appertanences what- 
soever to the S d House Lott belonging or in any wise apper- 
taining which S d thirty Acre Lott was formerly granted 
by Capt Daniel Henchman to iEneas Salter and by & 
between S d Salter & the S d payne Exchanged by parol for 
Duttons Lott which s d Payne had purchased with all Deeds 
Writings and Evidences relating thereunto And the Re- 
version & Reversions Remainder & Remainders thereof and 



336 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

all the Estate Right Title Interest Inheretance use pos- 
session property Claim and demand whatsoever of him the 
said William Payne & Elizabeth his Said wife of in and 
to the premises and every part & parcele thereof. To 
Have and To Hold the Messuage or Tenement Land & 
premises with the appertances Unto the s d Gershom Rice 
his Heirs and Assigns to his and their ownsole and proper 
use benefit and behoof forever And the said William Payne 
for himself and his heirs the s d Messuage or Tenement 
parcels or Lotts of Land and premises with the appur ces 
& every part & parcel thereof unto the s d Gershom Rice 
& his heirs to the only soul and proper use benefit and 
behoof of the s d Gershom Rice his heirs and Assigns forever 
against him the s d William payne and his heirs and against 
the Lawful Claims & demands of all and everyother Person 
& persons whomsoever shall and will Warrent uphold and 
forever defend by these presence And s d William payne 
for himself his heirs Executo 1 * 8 And Adm s Doth by these 
presents Covenent promise grant & agree to & with the 
s d Gershom Rice his heirs and Assigns by these presence 
in manner & form following That is to Say That he the 
S d William Payne at y e time of the Encealing & Delivery 
of these presence is true soul & Lawful Owner of all the 
above granted & bargained premises and stands Lawfully 
seised thereof in his own proper Right as of a good pure 
prfict Absolute & Indefeasible Estate of Inheritance in fee 
simple Having in himself full power good Right and Law- 
ful Authority to grant bargin sell and assure the same 
unto the s d Gershom Rice his heirs and Assigns in Manner 

& form as afore sd , and that clear & clearly Aquitted 

exonerated & discharged of and from all manner of former 
& other gifts grants bargains sales mortgages and of and 
from all other Titles troubles charges Incumbrances and 
Demands whatsoever. 

In Witness Whereof the partyes above named to these 



The Rice Family. 337 

presence have hereunto Interchangably sett their hands 

& Seals the day & year first above Written 
Signed sealed & delivered William paine 

in the presense of us Signed 

Jonas Rice Elizabeth + Paine 

Edward Weaver 
Rec d the day & year above written of Gershom Rice 

the Sum of Fifty Pounds in full for the above mentioned 

granted & bargained premeses 

Boston May 27 1712 $ William paine. 

Suffolk SS 

William Payne & Elizabeth his wife personally appearing 
before me y e subscriber and of her Majesties Justices of 
y e peace in the County afores d & acknowledged the above 
written presense to be their Act & Deed Charlestown 
Octob r 19 th 1713. Paul Dudley 

Reced and accordingly Entered in the Records of 
Deeds &c for Midd x . 

Lib: 16° page, 383: 384: by Sam 11 : Phipps Regr. 

Letter from Mrs. Balcom to her Daughter, 

April 1, 1713. 

Elizabeth rice 
Dear and loving children after kind love presented to 
you all hoping that these same lines will find you better 
than you were when you wrote I am sorry to hear you 
ill I pray god to restore you all to helth again If it bee 
his holy will and pleasure and i hope that of all our mercee 
and aflictions Witch the Lord is sending amongst us that 
he will bee pleased to give a Sanctified use of it that it 
may be for gods glory and our good. I have had a very 
ill time my selfe many sorts of pains that I faint of blood 
and now that faintness at my stomach remaineth at times 
Still I hear of a new thing I comend which I intend to 
try if please god which is walnut buds boyl them and 



338 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

drink and here i have sent something for Elizabeth and 
mathyas also the child here is garlick boyl in milk and 
he should eat and drink all and I wold have you get some 
wormwood and tansy and spearemint and steep them in 
warm watter and porch lay them upon his Stomach and 
belly and pin them fast at night and I pray to god to bless 
it that it may doe him good and for Elizabeth I have sent 
saffron and wild margoram flowers and she may pound 
them and mixe them with a little sugar and (Soe doe it) 
and thare is other things you may use as you see ocaison 
and I hoap god s blesing will bee upon it and if she is able 
to come down when you come I should bee glad to see 
one more of the children beefore I dye my mother is yet 
alive thanks bee to god for it Your brothers and sister 
desire to bee remembered to you and yours the other 
friends are all well so fare as I know yet beg your prayers 
for us which wee are not very Well Desires to remember 
you and yours at the thrown of grace for soul and body 
and a comfortable way for you all and soe the lord grant 
may bee you and us in his own keeping that wee may 
have a joyful meeting at the resiraktoin of the jest I 
have sent you seeds and herbs and flowers and garlic for 
the child and so rest your mother which loves you well 
and it is hard to be parted I should be glad to you bee 
hear and soe I rest 

Elizabeth balcom. 
April 2 d 1713 

Gershom rice 
Deare and Loving granson after my kind love to thee 
and all my granchildren I desire the fear of the lord may 
bee in you all and that you will mind your poor never 
cliing souls for eternity is long and thare is but to places 
eather weall or woe in the world to come I pray god give 
You all grace to serve the lord aright and that god will 
be pleased to keep you from singing against him my deare 
child I am glad that thee is well give god thanks that thee 



The Rice Family. 339 

art well and that thee doest remember mee children 
mind prare and remind and labor to get an interest in 
Christ for that will stand you in stead when all will fail 
I commend your writing and Sifring I shall be very glad 
to see thee and any others of you my heart's desire and 
prayers to god is you all may bee found in Christ having 
been imputed rightous and that your lives may bee done 
away in him and so for your lives and health and a com- 
fortable way may bee for you all my bouwles yearn to 
you all and to thee in particular and wee are not very 
Well there is littell bab a son and your gt onkell and Ant 
desire to bee remembered to you all and soe having not 
eles to troubl thee with and I rest thy granmother 

Elizabeth balcom which 
loveth thee well 

Thy granmother haines is yet alive and thy granmother 
rice also and other friends also. 

Address on letter: — 

Aprill 2 d 1713. 

This For Her Loving Daughter 

ELiz b Rice Living At 

Groton 



A Call Extended to the Rev. Thomas White. 

Worcester Augst th 24: 1724 
At a meeting of the Church of Christ in Worcester for 
the making Chois of a pastor after Solem & earnest ad- 
dress to the Lord of the harvest for direction in so weighty 
a mater the Church proceeded to the Choise of the Re vnd 
M r Thomas White by a unanemoss vote for their Minister 

In y e name of y e Church 

Nathan'l Moore 
Daniel Heywood 



340 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 



Mss. 



A Summons to Court. 

To M r Gershom Rice of Worcester in the 
County of Middlesex Yoman Greeting 

You are hereby required in his Majestys = name to 
make your appearance before the Justices of our Lord 
the King at the next inferior Court of Comon pleas to be 
holden at Concord within and for the County of Middlesex 
on the Last Tuesday of August Current to give evidence 
of what you know Relating to an action or plea of Deet 
then and there to be heard and Tryed Betwixt Joseph 
Muzey of Sudbury in the County aforesd housewrite Exe- 
cutor to the last will and Testament of M r Nathaniel Rice 
formerly of sudbury Deceased, plantiff and James Rice of 
Worcester in the county aforesd Yeoman Defendant: 
hereto fail not, as you will answer your Defaalt under the 
pains and penalty in the Law in that behalf mad and 
provided Dated at Worcester the twelfth day of August 
in the third year of his majestyes Reign 

A Dome 1729 

Zephaniah Rice Town Clerk 
for Worcester 



Deed from Jonas to Gershom Rice. 

To all Christian People To Whome These Presents shall 
Come Greeting: Know y e that I Jonas Rice of Worcester 
in y e County of Middsix within his majesties Province of 
ye massachusets Bay in New England yoman for & in 
consideration of a valuable som of money to me in hand 
before y e Encealing & Dilvery of these Presnts by Ger- 
shom Rice of ye aforsd Town & County yoman ye Recpt 
whear of I Do by these Presnts acknowledge & my self 
therewith to be fully Satesfied Contented & payd & thereof 
& of Every part & parcel therof Do fully freely clearly 
& absolutely acquitt Exonarat & Discharge him ye Sd 
Gershom Rice his heirs & assins for Ever Hath given granted 



The Rice Family. 341 

Bargained sold Enfeofed & by these Presnts Doth fully 
freely clearly & absolutly give grant Bargin sell allien 
Convey & Confierm unto him ye Sd Gershom Rice & to 
his heirs & assines for Ever A Certin tract or parcel of 
Land Sitonat Lying & being in Worcester aforsd Contain- 
ing by Esteemation Six Acres & one hundred & Twenty 
Rod By e same More be it Less & is bounded southrly by 
Land of Daniel Hinchman Westrly by Common Land 
Northrly by Land of Moses Lenard Eastrly by Common 
Land & Lyeth on both Sides of a brook Called Couls Brook 
on ye Westrly side of French River To have and To hold 
to him & his heirs for Ever & ye sd Jonas Rise Doth by 
these Presnts Covenent Promis & Ingage to & with ye 
sd Gershom Rice his heirs Executors administrators & 
assines as followeth vizt y e Sd Gershom Rice heirs Exe- 
cutors adminestros Assines or Either of them Shall & may 
by force & virtue of these Presnts from time to time & 
at all times for Ever hereafter peacably & Quietly have 
hold use occupy Posese & Injoye all and singular y e above 
granted & bargined Premeses & Every part thereof to his 
& there own proper and peculer use Benefitt & behof for 
ever without any Law Lett Suit molestation contridition 
or Denial. Chaling claime of him y e sd Jonas Rice his 
heirs Executoor administrator or any of them their or Either 
of these cause meens act Consent Right tittle Interest 
privity or procuerment or of any other parson or parsons 
whatsoever Lawfully claiming Do warrent & forever Defend 
y e same unto him ye said Gershom Rice his heirs and 
assines forever & further I now that ye s d Jonas Rice his 
heirs Executors and administrators or Either of them shall 
& Will at & upon ye Reasonable Request & at ye proper 
Cast & Charge of him y e s d Gershom Rice his heirs or as- 
sines Redily Do perform acknowledge Levey & Exeart 
Every such further Lawfull and Reasonable act or Acts 
thing or things Dinid or Diviced in ye Law or shall be 

thought Needfull & Reasonable for ye More parfect assur- 
24 



342 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

ence Surity Suremaking & Conveying & Conveying of all 
& Every ye hearby granted & Bargined Premises In Witness 
whearof y e s d Jonas Rice heth hearunto set his hand & 
Seal this Day of in the y e year of our Lord 

one Thousand Seven hundred & Twenty four & Tenth 
Year of ye Reign of our soverign Lord George by ye grace 
of God of great Brittain france & Ireland King Defender 
of ye Faith &c 
Signed Sealed and Delivered 

In y e Presents of us JONAS RICE (seal) 

Daniel Heywood 
Moses Lenard 

Worcester Ss Worcester February 1, 1731-2 
Jonas Rice personally appearing freely acknowledged this 
Instrument to be his Act and Deed 

Before John Chandler Jr Jus pace 
Worcester February 1, 1731-2 Rec and Recorded with 
ye Records of Deeds for y e County of Worcester 

Liber A fol° 350 John Chandler Jr Reg 



Deed from Edward King to Gershom Rice. 

To All People To Whome These Presents Shall Come 
Greeting Know Y e that I Edward King of North Yarmouth 
in ye County of York within his majesties Province of 
y e Masatchusets Bay in New England Yeoman for & in 
Consideration of y e sum of two hundred pounds Current 
Money to me in hand payd before y e Ensealing and De- 
livery of these Presents by Gershom Rice of the Town of 
Worcester in y e County of Middsex & Province aforesd 
yeoman y e Recept whearof I Do by these Presents acknowl- 
edge and my Self to be there with fully Satisfied Contented 
& payd & thereof & of Every part thereof Do Exonarate 
acquitt & Discharge him y e Sd Gershom Rice his heirs 
Executors & Adminestratr 8 , by these Presents Hath given 



The Rice Family. 343 

granted Bargained Sold Alliened Enfeofed made over and 
Confiermed and by these Presents Doth give grant Bar- 
gain sell Convey & Confierm unto him y e Sd Gershom Rice 
his heirs & Assines forever: three Several parcels of Land 
& Medow Lying Situate and being in Worcester afore Sd 
Containing in y e whole one hundred & twenty five acres 
& a half be y e same more or be it less and is bounded as 
follows Vitt begining at a stake and heep of Stones Stand- 
ing a little Westerly of y e house of Daniel Rice from thence 
runing westerly over a hill to a Stake and heep of Stones 
then turning & runing northerly to a White Oak tree 
markt and from thence turning & runing Westerly by Land 
of Elijah Cook to a small maple tree marked thence turning 
northerly & runing to a gray oake tree marked and then 
turning ye angle & runing westerly to a Stake & Stones, 
then turning southerly & runing to a Stake & heep of 
Stones & from thence runing westerly over y e hill to a 
stake & heep of Stones, and from thence turning and runing 
Southerly to a Stake & heep of Stones, and from Sd Stake 
turning y e angle & runing Easterly by y e Land of John 
Dunkin to a Stake & heep of Stones, then turning y e angle 
& runing Southerly to a white pine tree marked Standing 
in a small swamp, then turning Easterly & runing to a 
Stake & heep of Stones being the corner mark between 
Sd Edward King & Daniel Rice, and from Sd heep of Stones 
Northerly by Land of Daniel Rice to ye Stake & Stones 
first above mentioned. 

And also one Lott of medow Containing three acres 
together with ye Elowence as Layd out Lying on both sides 
of the river Called french river & Lyes a litel Easterly of 
ye above Sd Land And also ye one half part of five acres 
of Land and Streem near the house of Daniel Rice as it 
was formerly resarved in common or partnership between 
y e sd Edward King & Daniel Rice for Conveinency of 
building of a mill or mills. Which several parcels of Land 
medow & stream being y e whole of what s d Edward King 



344 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

formerly bought of James Rice John Dunkin Jur & Daniel 
Rice. To Have and To hold Said granted & Bargined 
Premises with ye appertainences Priviledges & Comodities 
thereunto belonging or in wise appertaining, to him ye 
Sd Gershom Rice his heirs & assignes for Ever And I ye 
sd Edward King Do by these Presents Covenant Promis & 
grant to and with ye Gershom Rice taht at & before ye 
Ensealing and Delivery of these Presents I am ye true 
sole & Lawfull owner of y e above granted & Bargined 
Premises: and have in & of myself good Right full Power 
and Lawfull authority Sd Premises thus to sell convey and 
confierm in manner as above said and that the sd Gershom 
Rice his heirs & Assigns Shall & May by force of these 
Presents from time to time & at all times for Ever hear- 
after peacably & Quietly have hold use occupy Poses & 
Injoy all & singuler y e hereby granted & Bargined Premises 
together with all y e Buildings fences Rights prevelidges & 
appurtininces thereon or there unto belonging to his and 
their only proper & peculuer use benifit & behoofe for 
Ever without any Lawful Let Suit Contradiction or Denial 
Challinge Claime or Demands of him ye sd Edward King 
his heirs Executor administrs Furthermore I y e sd Edward 
King for me my heirs Execut & Administrs Do Covenant 
Promise and Ingage to and with ye sd Gershom Rice his 
heirs and assignes y e above Demesid Premises against ye 
Lawfull claims or Demands of any Parson or Parsons 
whatso ever for ever hearafter to warrent secure & Defend 
In Witness whearof I have hearunto set my hand and 
seal this thirteenth Day of October in ye year of our Lord 
one Thousand seven hundred & Twenty nine & in ye third 
year of ye of the riegn of our sovreign Lord George y e second 
by ye grace of God of grate Brittain france & Irland King 
Defender of the Faith &c 
Signed Sealed & Delivered 
In Presents of us 

James Rice 

Jonas Rice Edward King 



The Rice Family. 345 

(Endorsement.) 

Worcester SS. Worcester february the 17 th 1731-2 then 
Edward King the subscriber to the deed hereto anexed 
parsonly appered and freely acnowlegd the said Deed to 
be his volintry act and deed before me William Jenison 
Justice of peace 



Letter from Edward King to his Uncle. 

North Yarmouth October y e 24, 1730. 

Uncell Rice Sir After my kind Love and respects to you 
and your family hoping you are all well and in good health 
as I am at this time allthough it hath pleased god to visset 
me with a Long and sore fitt of Sickness yet I am recovered 
to a considrrabell meshuer of strength again for which I 
desire forever to be thankfull for: and bless my maker 
that I am not in my grave: as many of my dear friends 
and relations who did belong to the town of Worcester 
have ben laid of Late : which Calls for my deep humyliation 
and morning: that the hand of god hath ben so heavy 
upon maney of your fammelys: and espciaely upon the 
family of my on c11 James Rice: whome it hath pleased 
god to remove out of the world with Sevrell of his children : 
and hath Left a poor distresed widdo: and fatherless 
Children for and with them: and all my morning friend 
who weep for thare departed Relatives I can hertyly morne 
all though I am not present with you to be pertaker of 
your grefT: but yet Let not your marning be beyend mes- 
huer: but remember that we all in the hand of god and 
he desposeth of us as Semeth him good therefore Let us 
Submit our selves to his Will in all thing and glorify his 
name. 

Sir I have ben desind to Cume up to Worcester time 
after time but I have met with desapintments that I can 
not cume at present: but I desine to be up as sone as 



346 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

posebly I can: I reseved a Leater frome Sam e11 Graves 
jun r which tells me he wants his money I owe him: and 
I cannot get it for him at present: but if you cane do it 
for me I shall be glad : or make any turne or order so that 
he may have his money and take up my bond: you will 
very much oblige me: for I have met with: Loss and 
dissapointments so that I Cant git money to answer my 
eands: Cap u Jenison sends me word that he wants his 
money which I thought you wold have taken care abot 
and sold my mayer to pay him that money: Sir if you 
can pay to Richard Flagg what I owe him it will be as 
good as money to me if you take up my bond of him: Sir 
Pray do the best you cane for me and Let me hear from 
you as sone as you can: I think hard I have not heard 
from you before this time: for I neaver have reseved ane 
Leter from Worcester since I Left it. Sir I would informe 
you Likwise that the Commitey would not alow the Six 
pounds that you ware to pay upon the Lot I bought of 
you to be paid: but I am oblyged to pay it my self which 
I hope you will Consider when I Come up to Worcester. 
Give my servis to all my friends relations and acquaintance 
in the town of Worcester Espsily to the family of De cn 
Nathaniel Moor Give my love to my bretherne as you 
have opertunity: tell them I am well and desine to be up 
in a short time when I can I hope I shall find you all in 
helth and in prosperity: So I Remaine 

Yours to Serve until Deth 

EDWARD KING 
To Mr Gershom Rice 
Living in Worcester 



An Agreement for the Ease of Trade and Commerce. 

This Indenture made the Ninth Day of September Anno 
Domini One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty and in 
the fourteenth Year of the Reign of Our Sovireign Lord 



The Rice Family. 347 

George the Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, King Defender of the Faith &c. By 
and Between Gershom Rice Jun r of Worcester in the County 
of Worcester in the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in 
New England Yeoman, on the one Part, and Robert 
Auchmuty, of Roxbury Esq: Samuel Adams, and William 
Stoddard of Boston Esqr s : Peter Chardon, of Boston, 
Merchant Samuel Watts, of Chelsea Esq all in the count 
of Suffolk, George Leonard of Norton in the County of 
Bristol, Esq: Robert Hale of Beverly, Esq: John Choate 
of Ipswich: Esq: and Thomas Cheever of Lynn, Gentle- 
men, All in the county of Essex, Derectors of the Manufac- 
tory Company in Boston in the County of Suffolk aforesaid, 
of the other Part. Witnesseth, That whereas the said 
Directors and their Partners have agreed for the Ease of 
Trade and Commerce among themselves, to make One 
Hundred and Fifty Thousand Pounds in Bills of Credit, 
called manufactory Bills, and equal to Lawful Money at 
six shillings and eight Pence pr Ounce, whereof the said 
Gershom Rice Jun r hath undertaken for the sum of Two 
Hundred Pounds and received the same of the said Directors, 
and given them security to repay it at twenty equal annual 
Payments, with three per cent, interest. 

Now Therefore for the greater benefit and security of 
either Party in this undertaking, it is mutually covenanted 
by and between them, in Manner and Form following, Viz. 

Inprimis, The said Gershom Rice Ju r in consideration 
thereof. And of the Covenants and Agreements on the 
Part of the said Derectors hereafter mentioned, for him- 
self, his Heirs, Executors and Administrators, doth hereby 
Covenant with the said Robert Auchmuty, Samuel Adams, 
William Stoddard, Peter Chardon, Samuel Watts, George 
Leonard, Robert Hale, John Choate, and Thomas Cheever, 
the Derectors aforesaid and each of them severally, their 
and each of their Heirs, Executors, and Administrators. 

1. That he the said Gershom Rice Jun r his Heirs, Execu- 



348 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

tors, and administrates, will at the expiration of every 
year from this Date, annually, during the space of Twenty 
Years, pay to the said Robert Auchmuty, Samuel Adams, 
William Stoddard, Peter Chardon, Samuel Watts, George 
Leonard, Robert Hale, John Choate, and Thomas Cheever, 
their Executors and Administrates for the use of the Said 
Company. Five in the Hundred of the Principal Sum 
aforesaid by him received. And three per Cent. Interest 
for the Princapal enjoyed in such Manufactory Bills, or 
in merchantable Hemp, Flax, Cordage, Bar-Iron Cast-Iron, 
Linnen, Copper, Tann'd Leather, Flax-Seed, Bees-Wax, 
Bayberry-Wax, Sail Cloth, Canvas, Nails, Tallow, Lumber, 
Viz. shingls, Staves, Hoops, White Pine Boards, White 
oak Plank White oak Boards and ship Timber: Barrel 
Beef, Barrel Pork, Oil, Whale-Bone, and Cord-wood of the 
Produce and manufactures of this Province or Logwood, 
at such Prices as the Directors shall judge they pass for 
in Lawful Money at six shillings and eight Pence pr Ounce, 
with one per cent. Advance thereon at the respective Times 
of Payment. 

2. That the said Gershom Rice Jun T his Heirs, Executors 
and Administers, will from Time to Time at thirty Days 
notice pay to the said Robert Auchmuty, Samuel Adams, 
William Stoddard, Peter Chardon, Samuel Watts, George 
Leonard, Robert Hale, John Choate and Thomas Cheever, 
in the aforesaid Bills or manufacturs his rateable Part of 
all such sums of money as shall be lost or become chargable 
on the said Company by the failure of any of the Partners, 
or by any other accident whatsoever, to indemnify the 
Signers of those Bills and save the said Company harmless. 

3. That he the said Gershom Rice his Heirs, Executors 
and Administrators, at all times till the principal sum 
aforesaid by him received and Interest thereof aforesaid is 
paid in and while he or they have any share or Interest in 
the manufactory company aforesaid will readily receive 
and take all such manufactury Bills as shall be tendered 



The Rice Family, 349 

him or them by any Person or Persons in all Payments, 
Trade and Business, as so much lawful money at six shillings 
and eight Pence pr Ounce. 

4. That he the said Gershom Rice Jun r his Heirs, Ex- 
cutors and Administrators, will from Time to Time at thirty 
Days notice pay and satisfy to the said Robert Auchmuty 
Samuel Adams, William Stoddard, Peter Chardon, Samuel 
Watts, George Leonard, Robert Hale, John Choate, Thomas 
Cheever, their excutors and administrates, his rateable Part 
of all such sums of money, Losses and Damages as they 
or the Company shall sustain or suffer by means of any 
Orders, Rules, Instructions, Laws, or other acts of Govern- 
ment whatsoever, towards the securing and indemnifying 
of the said Robert Auchmuty, Samuel Adams, William Stod- 
dard, Peter Chardon, Samuel Watts, Geo Leonard, Robert Hale, 
John Choate, and Thomas Cheever and the said Company. 

5. That he the said Gershom Rice Jun r his Heirs, 
Executors, and Administraters, will at all Times when 
thereto requested, give such further or better security for 
the performance of his yearly Payments in manner afore- 
said, as they shall judge necessary. 

6. That he the said Gershom Rice Jun r his Heirs, Execu- 
tors and Administrates, will (in Case any of the said Directors 
shall be displaced or taken away by Death) perform all 
said aforesaid Covenants to the remaining Directors: will 
renew his Securities and Covenants now given with 
the remaining Directors and Successors chosen in the 
room of such as are displaced or taken away as aforesaid. 
Whenever they shall think proper: and at all times upon 
thirty Days notice will pay and perform his rateable Part 
required to indemnify such displaced Director, and general- 
ly the Heirs, Executors and Administrates of all such 
Directors as shall be displaced as aforesaid or taken away 
by Death, for every thing done by them in the faithful Dis- 
charge of their trust as Directors, or as Signers of the Bills. 

And On the Other Part, the said Robert Auchmuty, Samiiel 



350 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Adams, William Stoddard, Peter Chardon, Samuel Watts, 
George Leonard, Robert Hale, John Choate, and Thomas 
Cheever, Directors as aforesaid, for themselves their Heirs, 
Executors, and Administrators, do hereby covenant with 
the said Gershom Rice Jun r his Executors Administrators 
and Assigns. 

1. That they will yearly lay before the Company in 
their Annual Meeting a full and just Account of all the 
Company's Affairs under their management for the year 
past, fairly entered in the company's Books. 

2. That the said Directors shall sell as soon as they 
can (for the company's Bills) all such manufactures as 
shall be brought in by the annual Payments of the Partners 
for Principal and Interest, and let out (after the necessary 
charges of the company are deducted, as soon as they can) 
on Lawful Interest with good Security, the Produce of 
such sale, and also such Bills as shall be brought in in 
such Payments, and always husband and improve the 
Company's Stock in their Hands to the best Advantage 
of the Company. 

3. That they will pay to the said Gershom Rice Jun r 
his Executors, Administraters or Assigns, on Demand, his 
and their rateable Part of every Dividend of the Company's 
Profits to be agreed upon at any General Meeting of the 
Partners by the major Part of the Partners present con- 
curring with the major Part of the Directors, and after 
the Expiration of Twenty Years to pay to the said Gershom 
Rice Jun r his heirs Executors administrators according to 
his or their respective Interests all such Dividends as shall be 
agreed upon by the major Part of the Partners, outstanding 
Bills, and contingent Charges always to be first satisfied. 

4. The said Robert Auchmuty, Samuel Adams, William 
Stoddard, Peter Chardon, Samuel Watts, George Leonard, 
Robert Hale, John Choate, and Thomas Cheever. Do severally 
covenant with the said Gershom Rice Jun r his Executors 
Administrators and Assigns, Viz. each of them for himself, 



The Rice Family. 351 

his Heirs, Executors and Administrators, that in case he 
be displaced or taken away by Death, then he, his Heirs, 
Executors or Administrators, shall and will instantly de- 
liver up to the remaining Directors for the use of the Com- 
pany, all the Bills, Goods, and Things Whatsoever as are 
in his or their Hands belonging to the Company, and will 
never more intermeddle with any things or affairs per- 
taining to the Office and Duty of a Director. 

In Witness of all which, the Parties aforenamed here- 
unto interchangeably put their Hands and Seals at Boston 
aforesaid, the Day and Year first above written. 



Signed Sealed and Delivered 


Wm Stoddard <> 


in Presence of 


George Leonard <> 


Sam: Holbrook 


Robert Hale <> 


Sam. Auchmuty 


John Choate <> 




Thomas Cheever <> 



Agreement between Gershom Rice and Gershom 
Rice, Jr. 

Know all men by these Presents that I Gershom Rice 
Junr of Worcester in ye County of Worcester in his Majes- 
ties Province of ye Matchusetts Bay in New England 
Gentleman am holden & pirsonly Bound and obliged unto 
my honrd Father Gershom Rice Gentleman of Worcester 
aforesaid in ye full and Just Sum of one Thousand pounds 
Curent money of Said Province to be payd unto him ye 
Said Gershom Rice his heirs Executors Administrators or 
Assigns to wich payment will & Truly to be made & Don 
I binding Self my heirs Executors and Administrators 
personly by these Presents Sealed with my Seal this fif- 
teenth Day of February in ye year afour Said one Thousand 
Seven hundred & forty seven eight and in the twenty first 
year of ye Reign of our Souvreign Lord George ye Second 



352 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

by ye grace of God of Greate Britain France and Irland 
King Defender of ye Faith &c 

The Condition of ye above written obligation is such 
that if ye above bounded Gershom Rice Jur his heirs Execu- 
tors or Administrators or either of them Shall & Do well 
and Faithfully during ye natural Lives of his aged Father 
and mother Perform to them the following particulars 
namely to procure & Deliver to them or one of them yearly 
and every year one hundred and twenty pound of good 
Beef Two hundred & forty pound of good pork four barrels 
of good Sider nine bushels of Indian Corn Three bushels 
of Rye Two bushels of wheet Two bushels of malt one 
bushel of Saltt Thirty five pounds of Butter Seven bushels 
of Apples four Qurters of mutton Twelve pounds of Sugure 
four ounces of peper two ounces of allspice fourty pound 
of Cheese and also suitable & Desent Clothing of all sorts 
and all other neceasserys of life not afore mentioned and 
nusing in sickness and necessary phisians and also Con- 
vinent house Room and a horse to ride to ye place of public 
worship and also to aford them a Decent Christian Burial 
at Death it is the true Intent and meaning hereof that 
if his honed mother should Decease before his Father that 
then one third part of the Incom to abate. That then 
ye above written obligation to be voide and of none efect 
else to Stand & Remain in full force Strength & Virtue 

Signed Sealed & Delivered 

In Presence of us GERSHOM RICE { Jr } 

james Mcpherson ~~ 

jonas rice 



Confession of Faith of Gershom Rice. 

I Adore Sovereign Grace That's made me a Rationall 
Creture: that's favoured me with The Bible, wherein I 



The Rice Family. 353 

am directed or assisted to Glorifie God love & Enjoye him 
for Ever hereafter. 

I praise Infinite mercy that I was Born of Godly Parents; 
whose Care was to Bring me up in the fear of God; but 
I like a Wicked & Sinfull one; Have Greatly Stray'd from 
him; & am Come much Short of my duty. 

According to what light & knowledge, I have of Gods 
word & Spirit, I do freely & I hope sincerely Declare my 
Faith In the unity of Divine Escence; Father, Son, & 
Spirit I Believe God has made all things for his pleasure; 
& the advancement of his Glory; & that at first God made 
all things very Good; wisely Suted to attaine the End 
of their Creation. I Really believe God made me In my 
first parents holy & Righteous: But by their fall from 
God; I am fallen with them; & am become Guilty of 
their first transgression. I believe God in his word; & 
that he mercifully provided a Saviour; for Such lost perish- 
ing Creatures as I am 

I believe God has appointed holy ordenancs; as proper 
means of attaining Justification & Sanctification. I hope 
I have Endeavoured to live in the concionable performance 
of Sum of them; as I hope through Grace Receiv'd profit 
to my Soule hereby. 

I admire Infinite Grace; That By his word or Spirit: 
& by Godly Counsell & Instruction: I am persuaded to 
a Constant living in the fear of God 

I have for some time had; I hope Reall desires; of 
offering my Selfe to the people of God In order to my 
attending on the Holy Comunion with them at his Table. 
But the Evill one & my wicked heart have been too Success- 
full to Procure my Delayes; But now I hope their is in 
me a Godly resolution to Delay no longer. I have great e 
Incitation & Incouragement from God in his word to Come. 
Therefore now I humbly offer my Selfe to the Communion 
of Gods people; pleading your acceptance, & Earnest 
prayers to Almyhtey for acceptance, that he would 



354 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

Graciously meet with me In this ordinance of the Lords 
Supper, that by due attendance hereon & all other ordinence 
of Divine Institution, I may be made meete: for the 
Saints In light. 

GERSHOM RICE 



Deed from Rev. Thomas Prince to Gershom 
Rice and Others. 

Know All Men by these Presents, That I Thomas Prince 
of Boston in the County of Suffolk in the Province of 
the Massachusetts Bay in New England, clerk, 

For and in Consideration of the Sum of six Pounds 
Lawfull money of s d Province, To me in Hand before 
the Delivery hereof well and truly paid by Gershom Rice, 
Comfort Rice and John Boyden, all of Worcester in the 
County of Worcester in s d Province, Yeomen, in equal Parts 
or Thirds, the Receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge. 
HAVE given granted bargained and sold, and by these 
Presents DO give grant bargain sell alien enfeoff convey 
and confirm unto the said Gershom Rice, Comfort Rice 
and John Boyden in equal severalties — and their Heirs 
and Assigns forever respectively & severally — all that my 
Lot of Cedar Swamp in Leicester in s d County of Worcester 
which lies in the Cedar Swamp called the South Cedar- 
Swamp in the easterly part of s d Leicester; which is reputed 
to be N° 2, and to be Laid out for two acres & a Quarter, 
to the seventeenth Share formerly belonging to my late 
Father Samuel Prince Esq, and in the division of his estate, 
set off to my late Brother Nathan Prince, and in the divi- 
sion of my s d Brother's estate set of to his Niece Elizabeth 
Ellis, who with her Husband William Ellis lately sold 



The Rice Family. 355 

the same to me Thomas Prince, as by Records may ap- 
pear— s d Lot being bounded as Recorded in the Records 
of the Proprietors of the Easterly Part of s d Leicester, 
Reference being had thereto 

TO HAVE AND TO HOLD, the said Granted and Bar- 
gained Premises with all the Commodities Privileges and 
Appurtenances to the same belonging or anyWays apper- 
taining to them — the said Gershom Rice, Comfort Rice and 
John Boyden, in severalties — and to their Heirs and Assigns 
to their only proper Use and Benefit for ever. And I 
the said Thomas Prince For myself, my Heirs Executors 
and Administrators do hereby Covenant Grant and Agree 
to and with the said Gershom Rice, Comfort Rice & John 
Boyden, and their Heirs and Assigns, that until the Delivery 
hereof I am the lawful Owner of the said Premises and 
am lawfully seized and possessed thereof in my own Right 
in Fee Simple, and have full Power and lawful Authority 
to grant and convey the same in Manner aforesaid: That 
the said Premises are free and clear of all and every In- 
cumbrance whatsoever 

And that I the s d Prince, my Heirs Executors and Admin- 
istrators shall and will Warrant the same to Them the 
said Gershom Rice, Comfort Rice & John Boyden, and 
their Heirs and Assigns against the lawful Claims and 
Demands of any Person or Persons whomsoever. 

In witness whereof I the s d Thomas Prince hereto set 
my Hand & Seal this eighteenth Day of November, Anno 
Domini One thousand seven Hundred & fifty seven. 

Signed, Sealed & delivered 
in Presence of us THOMAS PRINCE, (seal) 

JACOB WENDELL 
MARY GREEN 

Suffolk: ss Boston November 18 th : 1757 

The Reverend M r Thomas Prince acknowledged the above 



356 Worcester /Society of Antiquity. 

instrument by him executed to be his free Act and Deed 
before me 

JACOB WENDELL Just: Pea: 

Thomas Prince was grandson of Elder John Prince of Hull, Mass. 
Graduate of Harvard College, 1707. Visited England in 1709, and 
preached at Combs in Suffolk. But returned to Boston 1717, and was 
ordained pastor of the Old South Church as colleague with his college 
classmate Dr. Sewall, Oct. 1, 1718. 

Dr. Chauncy said "no man in New England had more learning, 
except Cotton Mather. ' ' Mr. Prince married Deborah, daughter of 
Thomas and Grace (Cook) Denny. She came to America 1717, and 
lived with her brother Daniel in Leicester, Mass., until her marriage 
Oct. 20, 1719. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



iHtorrFsfor JSoriFfg of jSntfqnftg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1903. 



Volume XIX. 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

1903. 
U. S. A. CXXVIL 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Seventh Meeting 357 

A New England House One Hundred Years Ago . . . 358 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Meeting 395 

Solomon Parsons, A Memorial Sketch 395 

Proceedings Three Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Adjourned 

Meeting . 405 

Report of the Treasurer . . . . . . . . , . . . . 407 

Report of the Librarian . 408 

Gifts to the Library ... ........ 411 

General Index 414 



PROCEEDINGS 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-SEVENTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, NOV. 3, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Allis, Arnold, Brannon, C. A. Chase, Crane, Davidson, 
Darling, Eaton, Forbes, Gould, Harrington, M. A. May- 
nard, G. Maynard, T. C. Rice, Staples, Stiles, Williamson, 
Wheeler, Mrs. Brannon, Mrs. Darling, Mrs. Forbes, Mrs. 
Fowler, Miss May, Miss Moore, Miss McFarland, Mrs. M. 
A. Maynard, Mrs. T. C. Rice, Miss M. A. Smith, Miss M. 
A. Waite, Mrs. Williamson, Miss Chase, Mrs. Hackett, 
Mrs. Stiles and several strangers. 

The Librarian reported the following additions for the 
past month: one hundred and twenty bound volumes, 
eighty-five pamphlets, seventeen papers and nine articles 
for the museum. 

Attention was called to the following donation from 
the Drew-Allis Company, consisting of sixty-seven city 
and town directories; from Herbert Wesby, twenty-five 
bound volumes and thirty-three pamphlets; from the 
American Antiquarian Society, twenty-two volumes, forty 
pamphlets, fifteen papers; also a copy of the "Land 
Records, a System of Indexing," by the author, Daniel 
Kent, Esq., Register of Deeds for the County of Worcester. 

On nomination of the Standing Committee, Benjamin 
S. Newton was elected a life member of the Society; and 
Charles Irving Rice, Thomas C. Rice, H. F. Downs and 
Mrs. H. F. Downs were elected to active membership. 
25 



358 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Mr. Henry M. Wheeler was then introduced and read 
the following paper, entitled: — 



A NEW ENGLAND HOUSE ONE HUNDRED 
YEARS AGO. 

The house which has been selected as the basis for this 
paper is represented by the photograph before you. That 
was chosen because of my intimate knowledge of its char- 
acteristics. I do not recall another house in the town 
just like it. There were others and costlier having a 
resemblance, but differing both in outside appearance 
and internal arrangement and finish. The Salisbury 
Mansion is one of them, but the similarity disappears on 
close inspection. In place of the single central chimney 
and narrow hall of the former, there are the several chim- 
neys, with the centre and side halls of the latter. There 
is an old house, formerly a tavern, on the main road to 
Auburn, situated on a banking several feet above the 
present traveled way, at one time owned by Eli Thayer, 
at another by Prentice Brothers, which is of a similar 
type. In Wilmington in this State, is a house, the re- 
semblance to which is so marked, that, on seeing it for 
the first time, I said to my wife, who was with me, " There 
is our old house." It is beautifully situated at the junc- 
tion of two roads, fronting a broad meadow and shaded 
by large trees. It was formerly owned and occupied by 
Wm. F. Harndon, the originator of the express business 
in this State. It is in an excellent state of preservation 
and will survive many more generations, if cared for as 
it now is. There is another similar house on the road 
from Ayer to Groton; still another between Concord and 
Bedford; and one in the latter town, the old Parson Stearns 
Mansion. This is a well preserved and good specimen of 
old Colonial architecture. It has recently passed from 




BUILT BY REV. JOSEPH WHEELER. 

1785—1885. 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 359 

the possession of the family, after an ownership of a cen- 
tury. 

Rev. Samuel Stearns ministered acceptably to his flock 
in Bedford from the time of his installation, April 27, 
1796, till his death, December 26, 1834. He was gradu- 
ated from Harvard College in 1794. He studied theology 
with Rev. Jonathan French of Andover, and at the age of 
twenty-seven he married Abigail, the daughter of Mr. 
French, May 7, 1797. He was the son of Rev. Josiah and 
his second wife, Sarah (Ruggles), of Epping, N. H. His 
descent was from Isaac, the first immigrant, through five 
generations. In the Shawshine Cemetery at Andover is a 
gravestone bearing this inscription: " Peter, a Revolutionary 
Soldier, freed slave of Rev. Josiah Stearns of Epping, 
N. H., faithful hired servant of Rev. Samuel Stearns. 
Born, 1750, died 1807." "A Good Christian." 

Of the thirteen children of Samuel, eight daughters 
and five sons, the most noted was Rev. William Augustus, 
President of Amherst College from Nov. 22, 1854, till 
his death, June 8, 1876. He was born March 17, 1805; 
married first, Jan. 10, 1832, Rebecca Alden Fraser; he 
married second, Aug. 27, 1857, Olive Coit Gilbert. He 
was graduated from Harvard College in the class of 1853, 
of which Rev'd's Seth Sweetser and William H. Sanford 
of this city were members. Dr. Sweetser remarked of 
him that he left college as pure as when he entered it, 
which cannot be said of every graduate. I think the 
remark would be as applicable to Dr. Sweetser. Whoever 
looked into the face of President Stearns when alive, or 
upon his picture since his death, cannot avoid the im- 
pression that he was a clean, pure, good man. Though 
of less marked intellectual ability than President Julius 
Hawley Seelye, his immediate successor from 1876 to 
1890, the ablest of Amherst's Presidents, he administered 
the college with ability and credit. His son, Fraser Au- 
gustus, a young man of rare worth, adjutant of the 21st 



360 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Reg., Mass. Vols., gave up his life a sacrifice to his country 
in the Great Rebellion, at the taking of Newberne, N. C, 
March 14, 1862, at the age of twenty-two. 

Another son of Samuel was Rev. Ebenezer Sperry, a 
distinguished educator, at the head of the Normal School 
formerly located at West Newton, now at Framingham, 
from 1849 to 1855; afterwards at the Female Academy, 
Albany, N. Y.; and lastly Chancellor of the State Uni- 
versity at Nashville, Tenn.; and Principal of the State 
Normal School in the same place. 

Mr. Stearns's predecessor at Bedford was Rev. Joseph 
Penniman, from 1771 to 1793, an eccentric man, who 
was dismissed from his pastorate in 1793 for his wine- 
bibbing habits and other unministerial propensities. Many 
of his expressions were droll and, when addressed to the 
Divine Being, bordered on irreverence. In a time of 
great drought his people requested him to pray for rain. 
He prayed: " Vouchsafe that the bottles of Heaven may 
be uncorked and their refreshing waters poured upon the 
parched fields/ 7 Such an abundance of rain soon there- 
after followed and of so long continuance, that his people 
besought his prayers for its cessation, lest their crops 
should be ruined. Whereupon he again prayed: "We 
did ask, Lord! that thou wouldest uncork the bottles 
of Heaven, but we sought not that thou shouldest throw 
away the stopples." 

At the funeral of Capt. John Wilson, who was killed 
at the Concord fight, April 19, 1775, he prayed: "We 
pray thee, Lord, to send the British Soldiers where 
they will do some good, for Thou knowest that we have 
no use for them about here." 

In one of his visits to the town school, he offered prayer, 
as was the custom, in which he said, "We pray thee, 
Lord, that these children may be well trained at home, 
for if they are not, they will act like Sarpints when they 
are abroad." 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 301 

His daughter Molly died August 21, 1778, and he placed 
the following lines on her gravestone: — 

"Ah! dear Polly, must your tender parents mourn 
Their heavy loss, and bathe with tears your urn, 
Since now no more to us you must return?" 

On the death of his daughter Hannah, Dec. 22, 1790, 
he wrote the following epitaph or apostrophe: — 

"Ah! now no notice do you give 

Where you are and how you live! 

What! are you then bound by solemn fate 

To keep the secret of your state? 

Th' alarming voice you will hear, 

When Christ, the Judge, shall appear, 

Hannah! from the dark lonely vault, 

Certainly soon and suddenly shall come 

When Jesus shall claim the treasure from the tomb." 

To resume our story — 

Many of you remember this house of which we are 
writing, situated on Main street, north of and adjoining 
the Exchange Hotel, but none can recall the time when 
the two noble horse chestnut trees before it stood in its 
front yard enclosed in a white fence. A gate on the street 
side opened on a walk bordered by grass plots and flower 
beds, leading to the front door, and before it was a single 
large stone step, at each end of which were iron scrapers, 
common features of every house. The growth of the 
town so encroached on this yard, year by year, that at 
last the front of the house and the line of the street co- 
incided. Before entering on a description of the house, 
let us take a look at its surroundings. 

April 28th, 1781, Rev. Joseph Wheeler of Harvard, 
who had been appointed Register of Probate for Worcester 
County, purchased of Nathaniel and Hannah Heywood 
of Shrewsbury, for £200 gold or silver, a tract of land 
situate in Worcester near the Court House, containing 
240 rods, or an acre and a half. This land, a part of the 
Ministerial lands, came down from John Chandler, through 



362 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

William Jennison, March 15, 1734-5, to Daniel Heywood; 
from him, Nov. 11, 1760, to his son Abel; and in 1769 
to Nathaniel his son, by inheritance. The lot was 161 
feet on the road; it ran back 600 feet and narrowed to 
69 feet at the east end. Across the rear a brook ran, 
which was divided into two channels by a long and narrow 
island, on which grew fruit and shade trees, among which 
was a large iron-pear tree, a fruit almost entirely unknown 
to this generation. The eastern was the larger of the 
two channels, which conveyed the greater part of the 
waters of Mill, or Bimelek, brook, subsequently dignified 
by the name of Blackstone river, in their tortuous course 
through the town, after being liberated from the pond 
a short distance above, where they had been detained 
to furnish power for the Court Mills, in which Ruggles, 
Nourse and Mason manufactured all kinds of agricultural 
implements in after years. The other channel was a 
ditch dug by Timothy Bigelow to convey the water from 
his mill, a short distance above. In obtaining the right 
he agreed to construct it nine feet wide, to stone up both 
sides in a neat manner, to keep it clean and in repair and 
to build a stone bridge across it. March 17, 1790, Thomas 
Lynde grants to Abraham Lincoln right to the ditch or 
canal which extends from said Lincoln's trip-hammer 
through his land. Other abuttors granted similar rights. 
To the north of this lot were those of Joseph Lynde 
and Thomas Lynde, subsequently Judge Edward Bangs's, 
of about the same depth as that of Mr. Wheeler's. The 
lot bordering on the south was owned by Nathan Patch, 
which he bought of Daniel Heywood May 10, 1783, on 
which he erected the present Exchange Hotel. The street 
in front of this estate was an ordinary country road, narrow 
and bounded by stone walls and post and rail fences. I 
remember when that portion of the road between Thomas 
and Central streets was nearly impassable at certain seasons 
of the year by reason of the depth of mud. From near 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 363 

School street to Exchange street there was quite a rise 
in the grade, which has been cut down at the latter point 
and filled in many feet at Thomas street. It was shaded 
by large and handsome trees, forming an arch over some 
portions. The trees were mostly elm and sycamore or 
button ball, so called; some of the latter grew to an enor- 
mous size; one in particular was a few feet south of the 
horse chestnuts already spoken of; another was in front 
of the Calvinist Meeting House. A very large elm stood 
in the sidewalk in front of the little square office building, 
the law office of Judge Bangs, afterwards used by Isaiah 
Thomas, Jr., adjoining the Lynde house. This small 
building was occupied by a negro, Gilbert Walker, "Pro- 
fessor of the Tonsorial Art," afterwards. 

Main and Lincoln were beautiful streets, lined with 
massive spreading trees, throwing their graceful limbs and 
welcome shade over road and house and traveler alike. 
Of all those majestic giants two alone remain, sole repre- 
sentatives of their kind, and they have escaped destruction 
only because they stand in private grounds. You recog- 
nize them in front of the house of Mr. F. H. Dewey, on 
the site of the ancient Dr. Dix place. Of four others 
standing at the beginning of this year, one in front of 
the Porter house on Main street and three before the Geer 
place on Lincoln street, their places now know them no 
more. There were also three others on Lincoln street of 
great size, two near the Hancock Arms in the sidewalk, 
and the other on the Polly Whitney place opposite. Con- 
trast the street of to-day, shaded with telegraph poles 
and wires, fenced in with high walls of brick and stone 
and iron, from whose sides, and from paved street and 
sidewalks, the reflected rays of the noonday sun create 
a stifling heat, with that which has been described, and 
we have an apt illustration of the saying, "God made 
the country, but man made the town." Why this des- 
truction? A few trees have died of old age, more from 



364 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

ill usage. The almighty dollar is of more value than 
venerable trees, or historic houses, or sacred burial-grounds, 
or consecrated commons, or the stupendous works of 
nature. 

"Carl," in his tour through Main street in 1855, says 
on page %&, "I regret deeply that any of these 'ancient 
landmarks' should be obliged to give place to the passion 
for money making, which seems to rule society with a 
terrific earnestness. But such is the fact; and I appre- 
hend that the time is not far distant when there will not 
be a tree standing on Main street, from one end to the 
other." . . . "It is, in my view, a desecration of 
our Main street which ought never to have been permitted." 

I frequently see, in West Newton, a majestic elm, around 
which a house was built with evident trouble and expense, 
in order that the growth of more than a hundred and 
twenty-five years might be saved. A few years since a 
street railway was projected in the town of Holliston. 
Twin elms, one of which had a girth of nearly twenty- 
five feet, stood in the way, and it was decided to cut them 
down. A citizen of the place, indignant at the vandal- 
ism about to be committed, called the attention of the 
authorities at the State House to the outrage, and a seal 
of the State placed on the trees preserved them from 
destruction. 

The trees were not the only large thing on the street. 
My mother told me of a snow drift across the road from 
Court Hill so high that it was tunneled to allow a load 
of hay to pass through. As the size of the load was not 
given it is impossible to state the dimensions of the tunnel. 
It must have been in the same winter when water did 
not drip from the eaves for nearly a month and roads 
had to be broken out every day. 

Originally the hill on the west side of the road had a 
gradual slope down to the broad meadow which covered 
all that territory between Main and Summer streets. The 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago, 365 

road was built into the side of the hill and its width and 
grade have been altered many times, till its present con- 
dition has been reached. On the opposite side of the 
road from the estate under consideration there was a bank 
less abrupt than now; its lower side was supported a 
part of the way by a rough and low stone wall; on its 
upper surface was a road giving access to the Court House. 
At the north end of the hill the road branched into two, 
one of which, called the " central road," was removed in 
1832. Neither meeting house nor stone court house were 
in existence. Isaiah Thomas's house occupied the site of 
the latter. This house was moved back about 1843, and 
is still standing. At a point about where State street 
begins, the upper road was elevated above the main road 
not more than one-half of what it is at present. Two 
ways, running diagonally down the bank in opposite di- 
rections, allowed passage from the upper road to the lower. 
Between those two ways were the public scales, located 
on the upper road. I have been told that the scales at 
first were like a great steelyard and the load was lifted 
from the ground when weighed. When the stone pillars 
for the new Court House were drawn up the hill the weight 
of them caused the wheels on one side to sink into the 
ground, by reason of the crushing in of one wall of the 
cavity under the platform of the scales. Recently some 
immense pillars were being transported to a church in 
New York city. Their great weight caused the wheels 
of the truck on which they rested to sink into the ground 
and become immovable. 

The quiet of a certain Sabbath morning was broken 
in upon by a runaway team going over the upper road 
from the north. The horse was attached to a carryall, 
which was enclosed on all sides except the front by cur- 
tains. It was the winter season and the road was covered 
with frozen ruts. The horse dashed down the nearest 
diagonal way and at the foot of it the king-bolt either 



366 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

came out or was broken, which let the front part of the 
carriage fall to the ground. Such was the impetus of the 
vehicle that the sudden stoppage caused it to turn a partial 
somerset and land on its top with the hind wheels spinning 
round in the air. The horse, freed from the carriage, 
continued his race. For a few moments all was quiet, 
and the two or three persons who witnessed the accident 
supposed that the affair was only a runaway. Soon, 
however, there was a slight movement of the carriage 
robes and a man staggered from the midst of the wreck; 
his wife, unconscious, was removed to the hotel. It was 
remarked afterward by someone that the accident was a 
judgment from Heaven for traveling on the Sabbath. 

Opposite Mr. Wheeler's lot was the town pump at the 
lower side of the embankment; a slight depression in the 
soil to-day shows the spot where it stood. Behind the 
pump, hanging on the wall, was subsequently placed one 
of the several ladders deposited in different parts of the 
town for use in case of fire. This elevated embankment 
was, and still is, called " Court Hill," and corresponded to 
" Nobility Hill" at the southern end of the street, which 
began at the present Barton court and extended to Austin 
street; this latter hill was considerably higher than Court 
Hill and was removed in 1869. 

The hotel adjoining Mr. Wheeler's house on the south, 
which was early known as the United States Arms, after- 
wards as Sikes Coffee House or Sikes Stage House, later 
as Thomas's Coffee House and Thomas's Temperance Ex- 
change, was the leading public tavern, where the court 
judges, lawyers and jurors were entertained and where 
distinguished travelers stopped. It was honored by the 
presence of General Washington in 1789 and of General 
Lafayette in 1825. It was also the terminus for the vari- 
ous stage lines running in and out of the place, Colonel 
Reuben Sikes and Capt. Levi Pease, proprietors of taverns, 
the former of this one under consideration, the latter of 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 367 

one in Boston and afterwards of the Pease Tavern in Shrews- 
bury, being extensive owners of these routes. It was one 
of the features of that day when, several stages well loaded 
with passengers and baggage, drawn by four and six hand- 
some horses, champing the bit, pawing the ground and 
impatient to go, or, coming in at night, the passengers 
well dusted down and the horses flecked with foam, still 
alert and mettlesome, departed and arrived. The driver 
on his elevated seat with the reins of the six restive horses 
gathered in his left hand, so deftly arranged that each 
animal felt its slightest movement — it was wonderful how 
it could be done — with his right foot on the brake, and his 
right hand grasping the long, flexible whip handle thickly 
encased with shining ferules of steel, from whose end hung 
the far-reaching lithe lash, loosely wound around the stock, 
awaiting the last order or a tardy passenger, was the most 
important personage of all collected there. Now the com- 
mand is given, the reins are tightened, the brake is released, 
the low word for the horses' ears alone is spoken, the coiled 
lash is unwound with one or two quick movements of the 
hand and with a skill which only an expert "whip" possesses, 
shoots out like a flash over the leaders, with a crack 
which reverberates up and down the street. The horses 
spring forward with a bound, the loosened tugs become 
taut, the wheels spin around, and coach, passengers and 
team are lost in a cloud of dust. Such is an imperfect 
picture of Genery Twichell, the Prince of stage drivers 
of forty years ago. What an exhileration in stage coach- 
ing under such circumstances! How tame the act of a 
conductor punching a piece of cardboard or pulling a bell 
rope! 

Stories about stage drivers are innumerable and general- 
ly are placed in the same category with fish yarns. This 
one, however, from a minister's lips, as an illustration of 
a point in his sermon, must be true. He was riding down 
the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains on the seat 



368 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

with the driver of a stage. At a certain dangerous turn 
in the road the driver brought down on the flank of the 
off leader of the team a sharp blow with his long whip 
lash, which caused the horse to jump nearly out of his 
harness. When the minister recovered his senses and 
asked, with shaking voice, what he did that for, the driver 
replied, "That colt is apt to shy at that place and I gave 
him something else to think of." 

On the northerly portion of Mr. Wheeler's lot he built 
a house with material brought from Harvard. In one 
part of this he opened a country store and placed his son 
Daniel Greenleaf in charge. Afterwards his grandsons con- 
tinued the business. There also was the Probate office, 
which is spoken of in one deed as opposite the " Haymarket," 
where loads of hay and wood were exposed for sale. In 
that house I was ushered into the world; there my father 
died when I was ten years old. In an upper room Emery 
Perry had a singing school and later Miss Sarah Ward, 
who subsequently became the wife of Wm. M. Bickford, 
taught a private school. Samuel Jennison lived there; 
afterwards Alex. H. Wilder made it his home till he 
removed to School street and later to State street. This 
country store closed with my father's death. His son, 
the writer, like many another boy, possessed an inquiring 
turn of mind, which led him into trouble occasionally. 
One day he saw a bucket of what he supposed to be mo- 
lasses on the floor near the door, awaiting a customer. 
It was the work of only a moment to dip his forefinger 
into the liquid and transfer it to his mouth. It was several 
minutes before the bitter, chocking tar was removed. A 
more serious mischief occurred after this. He had seen 
his father draw molasses from the hogsheads ranged in 
a row on one side of the back store. As the gate was 
opened and the bright round stream flowed out and fell 
into the gallon measure, there was a peculiar fascination 
about it; he thought it would be a pretty amusement. 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago, 369 

He raised the gate, as he had seen his father do, and, either 
through inability to close it or fright, the stream continued 
to flow and the floor was covered before the discovery of 
his roguery was made. Whenever I have recalled this 
act it has been with a feeling of grief that I caused a kind 
and indulgent father loss and trouble. My father suffered 
occasionally from the forgetfulness — to use no severer 
term — of delinquent customers. In reply to a reminder 
sent to one whose account had not been settled for a long 
time, the debtor drove to the store the next day and said, 
" Mr. Wheeler, I received a very polite invitation yesterday 
and shall be happy to dine with you to-day." 

There was a glass case on the counter of the store, con- 
taining various haberdashery wares for sale. In a dish 
of colored glass beads an egg in the shape of a minute- 
glass reposed. To the oft-repeated inquiry, "What is 
it?" my father soberly replied, "It is a rooster's egg." 

The incident about the tar just related calls to mind a 
story of two travelers in the West many years ago, which 
was told by my uncle, who was one of them. They reached 
a log cabin at night and sought entertainment, which was 
furnished. At the table, which was soon spread, the 
woman of the house asked my uncle whether he would 
take long or short sweetening in his coffee. At a loss to 
know what either term signified he ventured on the first 
named. His hostess stuck her forefinger into a dish of 
molasses and withdrawing it well covered with the sticky 
substance plunged it into the cup of coffee and stirred 
it round until the sweetening was removed. She then 
wiped her finger on her tongue. Turning to the other 
traveler she repeated her question to him. The only 
choice left was the short. She took up a cake of sugar, 
bit off a piece and dropped it from her mouth into his 
cup. As you draw up to the breakfast table tomorrow 
morning and the fragrant aroma from your steaming 



370 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Mocha or Java rises to your nostrils choose whether it 
shall be long or short! 

When this house was torn down in 1885 an absurd story- 
was started that a large black snake was found in the 
garret. The only possible foundation for it was this, that 
a stuffed crocodile about four feet in length had wandered 
up there, having escaped from my uncle Charles's museum, 
of which more hereafter. 

About 1785 Mr. Wheeler erected a larger and better 
house on the southerly half of the lot. This was the third 
house he had built and occupied. The first one has been 
standing in Harvard since 1761 and is likely to endure as 
long as any house there. He died in 1793 and his son 
Theophilus succeeded to his estate, and also to his office ; 
the two held the position of Register of Probate over sixty 
consecutive years. Rev. Mr. Wheeler lived during the excit- 
ing times preceding and during the Revolution ; he was an 
ardent patriot and aided materially in the stirring events 
of that time. While living in Harvard he represented the 
town at the General Court; was a member of the first 
and third Provincial Congresses; one of the Committee of 
Correspondence; and was at Washington's headquarters 
in Cambridge in some advisory capacity. There is a 
tradition in the family that he assisted in the laying out 
of the fortifications at Bunker Hill and that he was present 
during the battle; true or not, there is a cannon ball in 
the family which it is said was fired from the ship Somerset 
at a group of men, of which he was one, in the early morn- 
ing of that day. 

Mr. Wheeler was descended from John of Cranfield, 
near Bedford, England, whose grandson Obadiah came 
to this country about 1635 and settled in Concord. He 
was graduated from Harvard College in the class of 1753, 
and entered the ministry in 1761, in which year he married 
Mary, the daughter of Dr. Daniel and Silence (Nichols) 
(Marsh) Greenleaf of Bolton. Dr. Daniel was descended 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 371 

from Edmund of Brixham, near Torbay, England, and 
came to this country in 1635 and settled in Newbury. 
The Greenleafs were descendants of the Huguenots. 

Of his son Theophilus, my grandfather, my recollection 
is limited, but what is lacking in my personal knowledge 
has been furnished by others who knew him well. He 
was neat and particular in his dress and personal appear- 
ance, gracious and courteous to acquaintances and strangers 
alike, fair in his dealings with all, the soul of honor and 
honesty, condescending in his manner, affable and approach- 
able, pleasing in his address, and his conversation was 
enlivened with humor. He was trusted by his fellow 
citizens, as the various offices which he held testify. 

We occasionally hear the expression, " A gentleman of 
the Old School/' and have a somewhat vague idea of its 
meaning, for that person, in the concrete form, is seldom 
seen in this busy driving day of ours, when the model 
man is too often represented as a hustler. I call to your 
remembrance one, whom many of you knew, as a type 
of the former, Mr. Clarendon Harris, for many years the 
genial secretary of the State Mutual Life Assurance Com- 
pany and the accommodating treasurer of the Five Cents 
Savings Bank. The courtesy and politeness which he 
showed to the humblest individual could not be excelled. 
The probity of his dealings was never questioned. His 
readiness to perform a favor, often at the expense of time 
and discomfort to himself, was one of his chief character- 
istics. He was the tender, polite lover to his wife as long 
as she lived. Mrs. Harris occasionally came to his office 
to make a short call and a brief rest. As soon as she opened 
the door he hastened to take her a chair, bring her a fan 
and a glass of water, inquiring if she were wearied, and 
seated himself by her side, all so loverlike, polite and 
courteous that one would naturally suppose he was just 
beginning life's journey instead of drawing towards its 
close. An intimate association with him for a long time 



372 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

enables me to say that I never knew of an unkind act, 
or ever heard an angry expression from his lips, or a low, 
vulgar or vile word proceed from his mouth. He detested 
the practical joker. Such a person approached him one day 
and shook hands vigorously; a concealed pin caused con- 
siderable pain, and ever after Mr. Harris held that man in 
the utmost contempt. Mr. Harris's early life was in Dor- 
chester, where his father, Dr. Thaddeus Mason Harris, was 
pastor of the Meeting House Hill Church. He learned the 
trade of watch-maker of Bond, a famous artisan of that day. 
He had a fund of information and stories about old Boston, 
which were often communicated. Two or three tales are 
too good to be lost. In the days before our fathers dis- 
covered the wrongs of chattel slavery, there was a very 
bright slave in Boston, by the name of Cuffy, who was 
continually playing pranks on his master and his fellows. 
For some misdemeanor his master sent a note by him to 
the public whipping officer, ordering him to be whipped. 
Cuffy's wits were not so dull but that he felt sure what 
would be the result of that errand, and he accordingly 
set them to work. Seeing in the distance one of his cronies 
coming towards him he sat down on one of the stone steps 
which projected upon the sidewalk, where he was seized 
with a mortal sickness, which caused him to rock back 
and forth violently. Pompey hastened up and, "Cuff, 
what's de matter." " Awful pain, heah, Pomp, deah, 
awful! I shall die." Rolling up his eyes, throwing his 
head back, rubbing his stomach and stamping his feet, 
he groaned, "Drefful pain, what shall I do? Auful!" 
Pompey, deeply commiserating his suffering fellow, said, 
"Enyting I can do, Cuff?" "Suah, Pomp, Oh! Awful 
pain! Massa sent, Oh! dis note. I shall die. Nevah 
git dere. Cain't you — 0! deah! tak it for me? Awful 
pain!" Pompey, too glad to do a favor, took the note 
and marched off. As soon as he was out of sight Cuffy 
disappeared with as much alacrity as a lame beggar does 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 373 

when he sees a runaway horse bearing clown on him. 
Sometimes the joke was on Cuffy himself. At another 
time he met Sambo carrying a gallon jug. "Hi! Samb, 
what yer got?" "Oh, nuttin, only suthin fer Marse 
Byles," — the distinguished Parson Matthew Byles. "Well, 
Samb, giv us a drink?" "Cain't, Cuff, 's fur Marse Byles." 
"Oh! now, just one taste." "Tell yer, cain't." A little 
more teasing and Sambo passed over the jug to Cuffy, 
who, pulling out the cork, raising the vessel to his mouth 
and throwing his head back, took a long and generous 
draught. Quicker than it went up down came the jug, 
while from his mouth and nostrils streams of black fluid 
spurted out, as he vehemently sputtered, "Pen and ink! 
Pen and ink!" Some time after this his master's patience 
was exhausted and he determined to send Cuffy South. 
He engaged Capt. Smith of one of the trading vessels to 
take him and requested him to detain a negro who would 
bring him a basket of fruit. Selecting a variety of choice 
apples and pears he directed Cuffy to take them, with 
his compliments, to Capt. Smith of the schooner Dandy 
Jim,, lying at Long Wharf. Cuffy started and soon met 
Moses and said to him, "Mose, Marse gib me tre, four 
jobs to do, won't you tak dis basket to Capt. Smith." 
Cuffy kept in hiding a few days and then returned to his 
master, who, astonished, exclaimed, "I thought you had 
gone South." "Yes sah, trablin on de water doan agree 
wid dis niggah, and I got anoder fellah to go in my 
place." 

Several years since I met Capt. Edward Lamb, an ex- 
tensive builder in the town, on Court Hill, who remarked 
on the architectural features of the house opposite, and 
said that he never passed the doorway without stopping 
to admire it. Let us look at the house from the same 
standpoint for a moment before approaching nearer, to 
examine more minutely its details. It is nearly square, 
the front being about forty-five feet and the depth not 
26 



374 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

much less; it is two stories in height and about as high 
studded as houses of to-day. There are two windows on 
each side of the door, both below and above, and one over 
the entrance. A large chimney rises above the centre of 
the roof, which is what is termed a hip roof, the hips run- 
ning from the four corners to meet the chimney. £s we 
enter the front yard we see 'that the clapboards or clay- 
boards, as they were originally termed, are narrow and 
the ends, instead of being butted together, are chamfered 
and lap over each other. They are fastened with hand- 
wrought nails; indeed all hardware used in the construc- 
tion and finishing of the house, including hinges and latches 
and fastenings, is hand-wrought. It is hand-painted, too. 
The materials used, both lead and oil, have been of so 
good a quality that the paint has a perceptible thickness 
and is hard like stone. The eaves are finished with brackets 
and dentals, as are also the window. caps, of about a foot 
in width. The corners are covered with beveled blocks, 
short and long ones alternately. The front door is double 
leaved, with circular top and paneled, set in a recessed 
casing, which is likewise paneled. On the front of the 
casing are fluted pilasters with their bases, and capitals 
supporting the architrave, on which rests the entablature;' 
and above all a pediment finished to correspond with that 
of the eaves. Smaller pilasters fluted, within the others, 
support an arch and its key. On the right hand leaf of 
the door is a large brass knocker highly polished. As our 
purpose is to see the inside of the house as well as its out- 
side, we raise the arm of the knocker. As it falls with a 
loud clang the announcement is made not only to the 
household, but to the neighborhood as well, that Squire 
Wheeler is having callers. This appliance must have been 
invented by some village gossip. In response to the knock 
we are ushered into a small entry. Doors on either hand 
lead into front rooms. The flight of stairs begins at the 
left hand side; four or five steps end in a broad landing, 
where a turn to the right is made and the same number 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 375 

of steps leads to another and similar landing, from which, 
by a final turn in the same direction, the steps terminate 
at the upper landing, which occupies the front part of 
the entry. The newel and other posts at the corners 
of the landings are elaborately turned, fluted and twisted, 
as are,, in the same manner, the balusters. The rail is 
of mahogany or pine, stained. The walls of the lower 
entry are wainscoted and a paneled dado follows the flight 
of stairs. The walls above the dado are covered with 
paper representing rural scenes. Some of the wall papers 
of those days were elaborate in design and occasionally 
artistic in workmanship. There is a house in Rockville 
in this State, the walls of one room having paper of such 
a character. It is seventy-five years old. On it are large 
shade trees; in fruit trees are men and boys throwing 
down fruit to maidens; gypsey wagons with men leading 
the horses; buildings; streams of water, — all well pro- 
portioned and harmonious. There is a house in North 
Andover having a room covered with paper one hundred 
years old. Also another house in Deerfield with paper as 
old; still another, the Phelps house, in West Sutton. 

As we enter the front door the first object which meets 
our eyes is a pair of brightly painted pails of an odd shape, 
suspended from hooks overhead, with the owner's name 
in gilt letters thereon. In answer to an inquiry we are 
told that they are fire buckets and that the owner of the 
house is a member of the Worcester Fire Society, which 
was organized January 21, 1793, with twenty-three mem- 
bers, for the more effectual assistance of each other and 
of their townsmen in times of danger from fire, when there 
was no fire engine in the town. Each member of the 
society is required to provide himself with two leathern 
buckets of a special pattern, to be kept well painted, on 
which the owner's name and number are to be plainly 
lettered. The buckets are to contain a large and stout 
hempen bag, a long and strong rope, and an instrument 



376 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

combining in itself a hammer, a bed wrench and a nail 
and tack puller. The buckets are to be kept in a place 
easily accessible. Therefore they are almost invariably 
to be seen suspended in the entry near the front door. 
This apparatus is examined at stated periods and if not 
found in good condition a fine is imposed. There were 
social and festive duties connected with the society, which 
still keeps up its organization. Whether or not this so- 
ciety was modeled after one formed by General George 
Washington it is impossible to say. August 13, 1774, 
General Washington organized the Friendship Fire Company 
in Alexandria, Virginia. The first membership comprised 
those citizens who, out of mutual friendship, agreed to 
carry to every fire leathern buckets and one great bag 
of Osnaburg or wide linen. While in Philadelphia in 
1775 he became so much impressed with the advantage 
of fire engines that he bought one for £80, 10 shillings, 
and presented it to the company which he organized. 
During the last year of his life, as he was riding on horse- 
back, accompanied by a servant, on one of the streets 
of Alexandria a fire broke out. Noticing that the engine 
was poorly manned, he called to the bystanders for help, 
dismounted from his horse, seized the brakes and worked 
with the others till the fire was subdued. 

Let us watch the proceedings at a fire. The stillness 
of the night hours is suddenly broken in upon by the cry 
of Fire! Fire! which is quickly taken up and repeated 
from mouth to mouth; lights begin to glimmer in the 
neighboring windows; from house after house men rush 
forth with their buckets, finishing their dressing as they 
run. A tiny flame can be seen crawling up on the roof 
of Joseph Lynde's house near by. Some drop their buckets 
and hasten for the ladder hanging from the Court House 
on the opposite side of the street. Many hands raise it 
to the roof of the house; two lines of men between the 
pump across the way and the foot of the ladder have been 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 377 

formed; some have mounted to the roof. Buckets are 
rapidly filled and quickly passed along the line on to the 
roof, where the contents are dashed on the flames and 
the buckets thrown to the ground; where they are caught 
up and passed back to the pump by the other line of men, 
to be filled again. In this rough usage the value of a 
leathern bucket over a wooden pail is demonstrated. Wil- 
ling hands and arms make quick work, and before we can 
tell it a constant supply of water is pouring on the burning 
spot. Occasionally a slip is made and someone receives 
the bucket of water, or a portion of it, on his person. 
Meanwhile many have entered the house to save as much 
as possible of its contents. In one room some are putting 
the small and valuable articles in bags, — fortunately there 
was not much bric-a-brac in those days, — in another, 
others are letting down from the window of the second 
story some heavy article with ropes; some are tying up 
beds and bedding; men are attacking the bedsteads with 
wrenches, — not to be knocked apart in a minute as modern 
ones can be, — two bolts must be unscrewed from each 
post and a long rope drawn out from three sides of the 
sacking, if not more rapidly done with a knife. Many 
hands work expeditiously and down it comes. Stop an 
instant and turn your looks on that earnest worker! he 
has a big heart, but his head is a little confused; he has 
pitched a looking-glass out of the window, and is now 
carefully carrying down stairs shovel and tongs in one 
hand and a feather pillow in the other. Let us praise 
him for his good intentions. No wonder that someone 
loses presence of mind at such a time. I am reminded of 
the story of a man in Providence who became completely 
flustered on hearing of a sudden disaster. An excursion 
steamboat, called the Oliver Ellsworth, plied up and down 
the waters of the bay. One forenoon a report was cir- 
culated that she had blown up. On hearing it this man, 
bareheaded, with hair streaming in the wind, rushed into 



378 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

the street shouting, "The Elivor Olswerth's biled her 
buster." Rapid work has been going on outside the house 
and soon the welcome sound is heard, "Fire's all out." 
Not much damage is done by the flames, the ladder is 
lowered from the roof and returned to its place. Some 
of the buckets and their equipment are picked up, the 
rest being left till morning; the neighbors go to their 
homes and await the coming of another day to return and 
render such further aid as they can to the disordered house- 
hold. 

Returning from this digression we enter the north front 
room, past a paneled door about an inch thick hung on 
solid strap hinges, one-half of each hinge being a piece 
of iron an inch wide and seven inches long, the other half 
in the shape of the letter L, attached to door and jamb 
with wrought nails, not an easy ar.icle to remove, either 
in need of repair or in case of fire ; the door is held in place 
by a latch, a narrow straight piece of iron, with brass 
handle and thumb piece. The size of the room, sixteen 
feet square and nine feet high, impresses us. There are 
two windows in front and one on the side deeply recessed, 
underneath which are cushioned seats; paneled shutters 
cover the windows at night; during the day they fold 
back into receptacles at the sides. Two sides of the room 
are wainscoted to the ceiling; a heavy cornice of wood 
runs round the top of the sides. A large open fireplace, 
bordered with Dutch tiles, is on the south side and near 
one corner. A small closet, half way up the side by the 
chimney, and a very shallow full-length one let into the 
opposite, or outer wall, are receptacles for choice pieces 
of table ware. Over the fireplace is a large panel, two 
feet by five, on which is a painting of Main street. Very 
stiff trees line the sides of the street. At the extreme 
left stands a house with a front yard, fenced in, and a 
barn; not far from it is quite a faithful copy of the house 
we are in; at the other end, without any proportion or 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 379 

perspective, is a cluster of dwellings surrounding the Old 
South Meeting House. This panel now rests in a similar 
position over a fireplace in a modern house. In the Bul- 
lard house at West Sutton are two panels similar to this, 
one in the parlor, the other in the chamber over it, rep- 
resenting the Battle of Bunker Hill and Boston Harbor. 
That distinguished preacher, Henry Ward Beecher, met 
and won his wife under the shadow of these scenes. 
A door in the east side of the parlor opens into the dining- 
room, which is plainly finished and has a fireplace set 
around with tiles. 

On the south side of the entry a door opens into a room 
nearly the counterpart of the one just described. Con- 
nected with it is the largest closet in the house, in an open- 
ing under the front stairs, and that is meagre compared 
with modern ones. It may be truthfully said that the 
house is almost entirely destitute of closet room. Were they 
all combined in one it would not contain the wardrobe 
of one of our wives or daughters. This closet is divided 
into two by a broad shelf, an upper and a lower, and is 
about three feet deep. Goodies of various kinds are here 
kept from too curious eyes and prying hands. A hasty 
glance within and we are turning away when one of our 
number, more inquisitive than the rest, sees what seems 
to be a door at the back side of the lower part and suggests 
a look within. A candle is produced and a cavity is re- 
vealed, containing much accumulated dust and many 
cobwebs. Brushing the latter aside, regardless of dust, 
on hands and knees, our curious member enters; he meets 
a turn to the right, one to the left, a slight rise and, as 
his eyes become adjusted to the dim light, he finds him- 
self in a small brick cavity, tapering upwards to a point 
in which he can stand upright. In a corner overhead a 
glimmer of light appears; changing his position he looks 
up to the sky. No other opening except that by which he 
entered is discovered. From the apex of the cavity a 



380 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

hook or two depends. What a place for the concealing 
of a fugitive slave — one of the numerous stations of the 
underground railroad — or the hiding of valuable property! 
There is no tradition of any dire deed committed and 
concealed here; nothing more tragic than that the place 
might have been used for the smoking of hams! The 
front chambers are of the same size as the rooms below, 
each having a fireplace and a very small closet at the side 
of the chimney. A glance into the garret shows only a 
store room and the heavy white oak rafters, against which 
heads will be bumped unless due care is used, running up 
to and mortised into the huge timbers framed around the 
chimney. In the cellar there confronts us the enormous 
size of the foundation of the chimney, twelve to fifteen 
feet square, of solid granite; in one part of it is an arched 
closet wherein are numerous bottles containing at one 
time something stronger than water. Another cavity is 
for the storage of fruit. At the back side of the cellar is 
a long and narrow log, hollowed out, resembling a rough 
dug-out or Indian canoe. Its origin and use are left to 
conjecture, which may be something like the following. 
All that region of the State in which Harvard is situated 
formerly was the home of the Nashua tribe of Indians; 
through the valley flowed the Nashua and Still Rivers, 
creating the rich bottom lands which are so well adapted 
for grazing and cultivation. On these fertile plains the 
Indians raised their maize, and in these waters they fished. 
This canoe may have floated more than one dusky maiden 
on these streams generations before there was any thought 
of diverting their waters to quench the thirst of the teem- 
ing population in a far away city. 

The house is set low on its foundation, consequently 
the cellar is dark, light being admitted through two or 
three small openings, on account of the cold of winter. 
Were the outside covering of the house to be stripped off 
there would be seen the heavy timbers forming the frame- 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 381 

work, all of solid white oak; the sills are a foot square; the 
corner posts, plates and crossbeams are nearly as large; 
the studding and floor joists are of the same material. 
We read of old-time house and barn raisings, and suppose 
that the fifty or seventy-five persons present were mostly 
attracted by the novelty of the affair. Not so. One 
side of the building was framed and put together on the 
ground; when ready the raising of the great weight called 
into requisition the strength of the whole company. Noth- 
ing short of an earthquake shock or fire could move or 
harm a structure thus framed. The balloon frames of 
to-day are easily and quickly reared and as easily and 
quickly shaken and demolished. In many of the ancient 
houses the corner posts and the beams overhead projected 
into the room, but in this house the studding and floor 
joists are furred out flush with the post and beams. In 
the chambers those timbers are exposed. 

The furnishing is as ancient as the house itself. Begin- 
ning with the kitchen, the most important room in many 
respects, a wide throated fireplace opens into the broad 
chimney, on one side of which swings a long, blackened 
crane; from it depend pot hooks of various sizes and 
lengths, some being adjustable; on them hang kettles 
of different kinds. Massive andirons hold up the large 
billets of wood. Shovel and tongs stand on either side, 
resting against hooks. On the broad, stone hearth, before 
the bed of hot coals, stands the bright tin-kitchen, with 
the long iron spit running through it lengthwise, termin- 
ating in a handle on the outside, on which the roasts to 
be cooked are hung. Skillets and kettles are ranged 
around; among them is a circular baking pan, with an 
iron cover, having raised edges. Batter, prepared with 
fresh milk, thick cream and newly laid eggs, is poured 
into the well buttered pan, the cover is put in place and 
heaped with hot coals and ashes and set in the midst of 
the fire. In a short time the pan is withdrawn, the cover 



382 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

carefully removed, and lo! a thick, puffy, thoroughly 
baked, richly browned cake to tempt an epicure! A gen- 
erous wedge, eaten with golden butter, thick maple syrup, 
moistened with fragrant coffee — properly sweetened — is 
what our ancestors breakfasted on. In a corner of the 
room an iron door opens into the brick oven, whence so 
many creature comforts proceed. The oven is circular in 
shape, five feet in diameter, arched over, eighteen inches 
high in the centre, with a flue into the chimney from 
one corner. Early Saturday morning before it is light 
armfuls of wood are brought in from the woodshed and 
piled into the oven; a fire is started, other armfuls are 
soon needed. In an hour or more the oven is sufficiently 
heated, the fire is drawn out, the ashes are removed and 
the pies, cake, bread, meats, etc., which had been pre- 
pared in the meantime, are slid in on a long-handled iron 
shovel and the door is closed. The baking is closely watched 
and in due time there are drawn forth mince and apple 
pies, with rich, flaky crust, slightly browned, custard and 
pumpkin pies, swelling under their golden brown coats, 
great loaves of spongy white bread, the crust just colored, 
and pans of fragrant cake. What an aroma of appetizing 
smells fills the house! How the children reveled in baking 
day mornings, watching with eager eyes, helping, tasting, 
getting in the way, clapping their hands as mama's or 
grandma's or aunty's brown elephant and humped-back 
camel and frisky dog were spread out on the tin to cool! 
Some elderly persons to-day are so extremely fastidious 
as to think that a mince pie baked in a brick oven is far 
more tempting than one cooked in a Crawford or McGee 
range! People will be so silly! When all that batch is 
removed pots of beans and pans of brown bread are put 
in to remain overnight, ready for the Sabbath breakfast 
and dinner. Open shelves on the sides of the room, on 
which are arranged rows of shining pewter platters and 
plates, with pitchers, bowls and mugs, are above the dresser, 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 383 

which serves as table and closet. When the day's work 
is done the high-backed, roomy and comfortable settle is 
drawn from the side of the room and placed before the 
fire, a welcome resting-place after the toils of the day. 

The picture ought to be completed by making mention 
of the tall spinning-wheel in one corner, whose usually 
busy whirr has been quiet on this baking day; the cano- 
pied wooden cradle near at hand, to be jogged by the 
foot at the least indication of wakefulness from the sleeper 
within; and the large round table beside which sits the 
patient worker toeing up a stocking by the feeble light 
of a single tallow dip, — she is representative of the coup- 
let, " Man's work's from sun to sun; but woman's work 
is never done." 

In the dining-room there is the cheerful open fire, the 
mahogany table on turned and fluted round legs, with 
the leaves turned down, setting against the side of the 
room when not in use, and the handsome inlaid sideboard, 
six or seven feet in length, on legs about one foot high, 
with closets below and drawers over them, ornamented 
with brass knobs, handles and escutcheons. On the broad 
upper shelf are displayed the larger pieces of silver ware, 
and there also are set out the cut glass decanters and wine 
glasses. The drawers hold the small silver ware, cutlery 
and napery, and in the closets the choice pieces of china 
are placed. 

In the parlor are a piano or spinet or harpsichord, a 
long, wide, very restful sofa, three or four small tables 
and several claw-footed, high-backed chairs, the seats of 
which are covered with fine needlework, the product of 
members of the household. 

The chief piece of furniture in the chamber is the high 
post bed. How can it be described intelligently? Words 
almost fail us. The posts, turned, with twisted fluting 
and finely carved, reach nearly to the ceiling. Their tops 
are connected by narrow strips of wood, over which is 



384 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

spread the tester or canopy of cotton or silk ornamented 
with birds and flowers in bright colors; among the birds I 
recall pheasants and birds of paradise. Deep fringed 
scallops hang from the sides, and the posts are draped 
in ample folds. Three feet or less from the bottom of the 
posts, heavy side and end pieces of wood are mortised 
into the posts and held in place by long iron screw-bolts, 
the heads of which are countersunk into the wood and 
covered with ornamented circular discs of brass. Holes 
are bored horizontally through the side pieces, six inches 
apart, and through them a strong rope is stretched taut, 
running back and forth across the intervening space. On 
this the bedding is laid. A better foundation is made 
with a piece of strong canvas, a foot smaller than the 
space to be filled; one end is firmly secured to one of the 
cross-pieces, usually that at the head; narrow strips of 
canvas are secured to the sides; through holes in the edges 
of these a rope is passed and tightened. A valance, of 
material like the tester, or a less expensive kind, is hung 
around the bed from the cross-pieces. The purpose of 
this is to provide a hiding place for house thieves, and to 
keep from view necessary articles. It was the uniform 
practice of our foremothers to raise the valance and look 
under the bed for robbers before retiring. It is related 
of one good woman, who had discovered a thief under 
her bed, that, before disrobing and retiring, she sat down 
as was her custom, and read aloud from the Psalms, "The 
eyes of the Lord are in every place." "God is our refuge 
and strength, a very present help in trouble." "He shall 
give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee." "The 
Lord is my salvation: of whom shall I be afraid." "In 
God have I put my trust: I will not be afraid what man 
can do unto me." Closing the Bible, she calmly knelt 
and asked protection from the hand of violence and com- 
mitted herself to the care of him who has declared, "he 
that keepeth thee will neither slumber nor sleep." She 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 385 

awoke the next morning unharmed, to find herself pro- 
tected and her property undisturbed. 

Having made the necessary preparation for retiring you 
stand before the bed and are confronted with the question, 
how you are to get in. Above the elevated foundation 
rises two feet of feathers, blankets, sheets and counter- 
pane, rounded up in the middle, a matter of five feet you 
are to surmount. Unable to see either a high chair, stool 
or stepladder you give a desperate bound and land on 
airy nothingness, and as you sink down, down, a thought 
of one of those infernal beds in the Inquisition, which 
lowers the victim to a cruel death, crosses your mind, 
but almost immediately your motion is stayed and your 
body is enveloped in a soft, yielding substance; before 
you are aware of it your eyes close and you are enjoying 
the sleep of the just. Half awaking the next morning, 
how restful, how quiet! you can not be disturbed! your 
drowsy eyes catch dim pictures of gay birds sporting 
amongst bright foliage, and dreamily you think of Araby 
the blest and your thoughts wander to Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, Ceylon, South America, and their luxuriant forests, 
teeming with birds of every hue, buzzing insects, gorgeous 
butterflies and glistening reptiles. Suddenly your wan- 
dering senses are awakened by the sound of a bell; you 
make a spring, and, forgetful of your situation, you find 
yourself sprawling on the floor. While dressing you acci- 
dentally brush aside a corner of the valance and see what 
seems to be a box. A slight touch causes it to move. 
You pull it out a little and behold! a trundle bed! What 
heretofore has been a mystery is solved; how a family 
of twelve, fifteen and twenty children could be raised in 
a small house. We will not stop to calculate how many 
to a bed and a room, but the fact remains that it was 
done. My great-grandfather provided for eleven children 
in his moderate sized house in Harvard. His second wife 
had sixteen brothers and sisters born in Annapolis, Nova 



386 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

Scotia, and Boston. Her daughter by a former husband 
was the mother of twelve children. My grandmother 
Wheeler was one of seventeen children living in Worcester. 
What happy recollections are connected with the trundle 
bed! After supper and a brief romp or a short story, 
white robed, at mother's knee, with folded hands, we 
repeat, "Now I lay me down to sleep;" tucked in bed, 
one hand in mother's warm embrace, as she kneels by the 
side of the cot, we listen to her loving voice while she 
thanks the dear Heavenly Father for his gift, and com- 
mits us to the care of the loving Saviour; followed by 
the good night's kiss, we are soon locked in the arms of 
sweet sleep. Waking the next morning what a privilege 
to clamber into the large bed and cuddle down for a brief 
frolic with papa and mama. 

Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, wife of the Governor, tells, in 
her quaint way, of her little brood, and therein voices 
the affection of many mothers for their flock. 

"I had eight birds hatcht in one nest, 
Four cocks there were and hens the rest, 
I nursed them up with pain and care, 
Nor cost nor labor did I spare, 
Till, at the last, they felt their wing, 
Mounted the trees and learned to sing." 

Was it John Adams, who, every night during his long 
life, repeated that prayer learned at his mother's knee 
when he was a child? The spirit of gentleness which it 
breathed was not lost on a young girl, the daughter of 
a clergyman, who devoted many years to lecturing and 
writing about the injurious effects of the use of tobacco. 
Her mother requested her to go to the stable and ask for 
a gentle horse to take her to ride. She went and said, 
' ' Mr. Brown, mother wishes to ride and she wants a horse 
which doesn't smoke and doesn't chew and says, 'Now 
I lay me' when he goes to bed." 

Other articles of furniture in the house are the highboy, 
of several drawers, large and small, perched on long, spind- 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 387 

ling legs; the lowboy, of two drawers, equally elevated; 
the low bureau; the secretary, with its drawers and sloping 
top, which, when opened, formed the writing desk, with 
its various pigeon-holes and secret drawer,— all these 
adorned with brass handles of quaint patterns, and knobs. 
Also the tall mahogany clock, with its three brass globes 
at the top, the whole reaching nearly to the ceiling; the 
pendulum of wood terminating in a bob, a convex disc of 
brass, roughly filled with lead; the weights, tin cylinders 
containing sand; its brass or enameled face, with maker's 
name thereon, a Willard or a Stowell, around which its 
tireless hands revolve; its two painted ships under full 
canvas, sailing over a painted ocean without ever reaching 
their destined port; its two red cheeked, laughing-eyed 
moons rising and setting with great regularity each month; 
its index finger marking the day of the month and its 
hammered brass works uninjured, still capable of record- 
ing time for generations to come. Much of the furniture 
herein described is doing service to-day. 

A generous hospitality was maintained in this house. 
Social gatherings and evening parties were frequent. Mr. 
Harris, of whom I have already spoken, has told me of 
the delightful Saturday night suppers regularly eaten there 
in company with a few friends and neighbors. There was 
a simplicity and cordiality about them which lacked the 
feverish excitement of the present day. In the diary, 
recently discovered, of my uncle Charles, a member of the 
household in the early twenties, are recorded the names 
of those who met at the house. From that it appears 
that Doctor Fiske and wife, Judge Bangs and wife, Claren- 
don Harris and wife, Edward D. Bangs, Samuel and William 
Jennison, Rev'd's Mr. and Mrs. Goodrich and Hull and 
wife, the Misses Thomas, Miss Anne Lynde, Miss Mary 
Grosvenor, Miss Mary Andrews, the Misses Ann and Eliza- 
beth Ellery, Mrs. Andrew Duncan and Miss Sarah D. 
Fiske were weekly and semi-weekly visitors. Less fre- 



388 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

quent callers were Major Healey and daughter, Doctor 
Thaddeus M. Harris, Austin Denny and his daughter 
Mary, General Nathan Heard, Major Rejoice Newton, 
Stephen Salisbury, Deacon Jeremiah Robinson, Elisha and 
Marshall Flagg, Simeon Burt, George T. Rice, George Ban- 
croft, George A. Trumbull, Abijah Bigelow, General Thomas 
Chamberlain, Captain Asa Hamilton and wife, Miss Leaven- 
worth, Colonel Reuben Sikes and his daughters, Doctor 
John Green, Doctor Benjamin Hey wood and many others. 
Having received an invitation to an evening party of 
young people, we are ushered into the north parlor. The 
room is well lighted from candles placed in silver candle- 
sticks. A bright fire is burning on the hearth. A dozen 
or more persons are seated about the room on the claw- 
footed chairs, engaged in merry conversation, enlivened 
by frequent bursts of laughter at some sally of wit, or 
engaged in or listening to the strains of music. My aunt 
Harriet and my uncle Charles were good musicians, both 
vocal and instrumental, one on the piano, the other with 
the flute. Her piano, imported by my grandfather nearly 
one hundred years ago, now in my possession, is one of 
Muzzio dementi's, a celebrated composer and manufact- 
urer of instruments, who, when a mere child, was discovered 
by an Englishman, playing an organ in Italy, and taken 
to England and educated by him. The instrument is in 
perfect condition and is in use frequently. Its tones are 
sweet like those of a good music box. Soon games are 
introduced and the company separates into groups. In 
the midst of the games we hear someone say, " William, 
it is time to snuff the candle." We at once expect the 
introduction of a new game, " Snuff the candle"; but the 
person addressed takes from the table a curious instru- 
ment, somewhat resembling a pair of scissors, with which 
he deftly snips off the end of the wick of one of the candles, 
which ceases to smoke; it also gives a brighter light. 
Attempting to do the same to another candle, he unwit- 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 389 

tingly extinguishes the flame. This causes a merry laugh 
and he is pleasantly twitted for his lack of skill. We learn 
that it is necessary to remove the end of the wick fre- 
quently, and a pair of snuffers, to match the candlesticks, 
is a necessity. We are told that a primitive method to 
effect the same end is to moisten with the lips the tip 
ends of the thumb and forefinger and use them as snuffers. 

These parties were sometimes held in the garden. One, 
who has since passed away, gives the impressions she 
received when a young girl: "The garden was furnished 
with a closed grapery or arbor, containing a large closet 
liberally stocked with all the edibles and delicacies that 
a company of merry young people would enjoy on a moon- 
light evening. They entertained each other with music 
and similar enjoyments, that made the occasions lifelong 
memories of vanished joys. In the rear of these mansions 
were extensive gardens of equal size; across the lower 
part flowed a purling stream and rare fruits and choice 
flowers, fountains and the more common embellishments 
were results of the industry, taste and skill of the younger 
branches of the families. " My recollection brings to 
mind the great abundance of fine fruits and the grapery, 
one vine of which had a stem eight or ten inches in diameter 
at its base, but not the fountains. However, in an inden- 
ture between Mary Lynde, widow of Joseph Lynde, and 
Abraham Lincoln, made Oct. 1, 1791, she receives, among 
other privileges, the use of water for her fountain from 
his mill pond. 

We soon discover that something more attractive than 
games and witty sayings and music has brought these 
young people together. More than one acquaintance made 
here ripened into a lasting friendship and a happy union. 
The following account of the courtship of two of the parties 
was given me by a daughter of one of them. The hand 
of my aunt Mary was sought by Edward D. Bangs and 
William Jennison. On one occasion Mr. Bangs gave her 
27 



390 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

a small paper-covered almanac, — a gift so cheap, judged 
by to-day's standards, that many a child would hardly 
notice it, — in which he wrote, "To the all accomplished, 
admirable and adorable Miss Mary L. Wheeler." Subse- 
quently Mr. Jennison made her a like gift, containing her 
name alone. Under some subtle intuition or rare pene- 
tration not vouchsafed to our coarser natures, she yielded 
to Mr. Jennison's persuasions. Mr. Bangs's grief was not 
inconsolable, for in due time he won a no less estimable 
partner in the person of Miss Mary Grosvenor, the grand- 
daughter of Colonel Reuben Sikes, who years afterwards 
became the wife of Mr. Stephen Salisbury. Mr. Samuel 
Jennison found in Miss Ann Ellery a fitting companion. 
Mr. Simeon Burt paid his address to Miss Ann Robinson 
and was accepted. Dr. John Green found a prize in Miss 
Dolly Curtis. Austin Denny led to the altar Miss Burbank. 
Mr. Otis Pierce bore Miss Sarah D. Fiske away to Dor- 
chester. Henry Wheeler was accepted by Miss Mary 
H. Thaxter, and later William Duncan Wheeler drew 
from her home in Dan vers Miss Eliza C. Poole. 

Some confusion has arisen latterly about the person 
whom Mr. Bangs married. Mr. Caleb A. Wall, in his 
"Reminiscences," page 256, says she was the daughter 
of Rev. Ebenezer Grosvenor of Harvard. My uncle Charles 
in his diary says she was the granddaughter of Col. Reuben 
Sikes. He ought to have known from his intimate ac- 
quaintance with both parties. Were these females one 
and the same person? They were not. Here is the proof. 
Mary Grosvenor, the daughter of Rev. Ebenezer and 
Elizabeth (Clark) Grosvenor, the eighth child of a family 
of nine children, was born April 3, 1777; was married, 
April 13, 1796, to Dr. Henry Parker of Worcester, who 
died in 1802 at Batavia, West Indies; she died May 8, 
1802, and had been dead twenty-two years when Mr. 
Bangs was married. 

Mary Grosvenor, the granddaughter of Reuben Sikes, 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 3 ( J1 

and daughter of Moses and Mary (Sikes) Grosvenor of 
Pomfret, Ct., was born in 1800, and was married, April 
12, 1824, to Edward D. Bangs; he died April 1, 1838, and 
his widow was married, June 2, 1856, to Stephen Salis- 
bury; she died Sept. 25, 1864. Edward Dillingham Bangs 
was the son of Judge Edward Bangs and Hannah (Lynde) 
of Worcester, and grandson of Benjamin and Desire (Dil- 
lingham) of Brewster. The first emigrant was Edward. 

Doctor John Green, alluded to, was the distinguished 
physician whose familiar figure, seated in his open gig, 
jogging along with his head hanging to one side and covered 
with a broad brimmed hat, is well remembered by many. 
It used to be said that his neck was unable to support 
upright a head so full of learning. The genial face of the 
Doctor can be seen any day looking down from his ele- 
vated seat in the Public Library, of which he was the 
prime founder. Another of that name, a relative, Squire 
Green of Green Hill, was also at one time a familiar per- 
sonage in town. The father of a numerous family, his 
fondness for children was not limited to his own. In the 
winter season the appearance of his sleigh on the street 
was the signal for every boy in sight to catch on, so that 
speedily the horse was drawing along a mass of laughing, 
wriggling youngsters, covering up the Squire, who enjoyed 
the fun as much as the boys. Of his several sons, one, 
Andrew H., has been prominent in the affairs of the city 
of New York for many years and is spoken of as the Father 
of Greater New York. Another, Oliver B., has had much 
to do with the growth of the Queen City of the West. A 
third, William N., held the office of Justice of the Police 
Court in Worcester a long time. Another, Samuel, was 
the lovable medical missionary to the people of Ceylon. 
During a visit at home he saw his sisters mending stockings 
and suggested an easier and quicker way. "How is it?" 
they asked. With a twinkle of his eye, inherited from 
his father, he replied, "When the article is badly worn I 



392 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

take it to the window and, throwing it out, say, 'Go, and 
be darned you old stocking !'" 

Before leaving the diary from which a portion of this 
information is derived, a few items of historic interest 
man be culled. 

June 12, 1823. " Waldo's Meeting House raised (nick- 
named ' Gospel Factory')." 

Under date of Sept. 3, 1824, the record reads, "I was 
introduced by Judge Lincoln to & shook hands with the 
Marquis Lafayette. I said to him, 'May you, sir, live 
to see all the World as free & happy as we are.' " 

June 15, 1825. "Sold a bottle of Saratoga Water for 
General Lafayette. Shook hands with Lafayette & showed 
him a 24 p d shot fired at Bunkers Hill." 

Dec. 7, 1825. "Saw Horace Carter hung between 11 & 
12 o'c. He was hung in the hollow east of the first hill 
on the Boston & Wor. Turnpike; north of the Turnpike. 
[Calvin Willard, Sheriff.] A great many spectators. Wor. 
Light Infy. Company Guard." A full account of the 
trial of Carter may be found in the Mgis and Spy of Oct. 
12, 1825. Some one of the many buildings in that locality 
is probably located on that fatal spot. Very few persons 
have been hung in this place within the recollection of 
any one of us. We hear it said occasionally that such 
and such a one ought to be hung. It would hardly be 
thought that the homeliest man ought to suffer such a 
penalty, even for his ugly looks. I am reminded of this 
incident, told me by one of the persons connected with 
it. A teacher in one of the public schools of the town 
resigned his position at the close of a service of several 
years. His successor was introduced to the school by a 
member of the committee. The retiring teacher, meeting 
one of his former pupils afterward, asked him what he 
thought of the new teacher. He replied, "Judging by 
his appearance he ought to have been hung long ago." 

July 4, 1826. "Ex-President John Adams died." 



A New England House One Hundred Years Ago. 393 

The 5th. " Stores closed, bells tolPd abo* 6 o'c. ev g ." 

The 4th. " Ex-President Thomas Jefferson died." 

The 10th. "Stores closed, bells toll'd 7 o'c. ev B ." 

July 8, 1826. "Canal begun here/' 

Oct. 10, 1826. "His Ex* the President of the U. S. 
arrived in town." 

Charles Wheeler possessed an antiquarian taste and 
had in one room of the first house herein described a col- 
lection of a varied nature, which he called his museum. 
Under date of May 30, 1825, he made entry in his diary, 
"Moved Museum to the Am antiquarian Society's building." 
June 22, 1813, he "gave the Boston Athanseum a U. States 
Cent for every year from 1793 to 1812 inclusive." He 
was instrumental in the formation of the Worcester Ly- 
ceum of Natural History, an early meeting of the Society 
being held "at my store." He owned a collection of 
valuable books, as appears from a letter of President Jere- 
miah Day of Yale College, addressed to him, under date 
of June 1st, 1822, as follows: "Be pleased to accept my 
thanks for the offer of access to the rare and valuable 
collection of books in your possession. Treasures of this 
kind are not often to be met with in this country. But 
a taste for deep literary research seems to be springing 
up here and there and diffusing its influence. We are 
under peculiar obligations to such gentlemen as gener- 
ously provide the means of facilitating original and pro- 
found research." 

It is time to bring this rambling paper to an end. I 
have already trespassed on your patience too long. Yet 
we would linger around the scenes and incidents connected 
with this history, some of which have been told so im- 
perfectly. The house which had stood for a century 
witnessed the growth of the small town to a large city. 
Could it have spoken how much would it have disclosed 
of persons and things which we search for in vain! All 
those who once made its walls echo with merriment, with 



394 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

song, with kindly greetings, with counsel and encourage- 
ment, with high aims and noble aspirations, are gone. 
Many of those who met within its walls bore well their 
part in the affairs of town and state. The imaginary 
disaster to the house of Joseph Lynde narrated in these 
pages, became a catastrophe to this one at last, and its 
career unfortunately was closed by fire. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Wheeler's paper, remarks 
were offered by Charles A. Chase, Esq. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-EIGHTH MEETING, 
TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 1, 1903. 



President Ely in the chair. Others present: Messrs. 
Arnold, Bill, Crane, Darling, Davidson, Eaton, Gould, 
Harrington, M. A. Maynard, Geo. Maynard, Paine, G. M. 
Rice, Salisbury, Stiles, Wheeler, Williamson, Mrs. Darling, 
Mrs. Hildreth, Miss Moore, Miss May, Mrs. Maynard, 
Miss M. A. Waite, Mrs. Bennett, Mr. Hildreth, Mr. Newton, 
Mr. Samuel Parsons and Mrs. Stiles. 

The Librarian reported receipts for the past month : three 
hundred and seventy-seven bound volumes, one thousand 
four hundred and fifty-seven pamphlets, four hundred and 
fifty-nine papers and ten articles for the museum. 

Attention was called to a rare collection of war en- 
velopes, 1861 to 1865, over four hundred in number, which 
had been purchased for the Society with money contributed 
by its members and friends; also the donations from Mrs. 
Alphonso Taft; the Colonel Wetherell estate; G. Stuart 
Dickinson; Richard O'Flynn; and S. K. Robbins. 

On nomination by the Standing Committee, Reuben 
H. Southgate was elected an active member of the Society. 

On motion of M. A. Maynard, it was voted that the 
various committees for department work be allowed to 
report in print. * 

The following paper was then read by George Maynard:— 

SOLOMON PARSONS, 
A Memorial Sketch. 

It is the purpose of this paper to furnish accurate and 
trustworthy information concerning the life and career of 



396 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

a former citizen of Worcester, whose unique personality 
caused him in life to be widely known and much written 
about, but not always in a truthful vein; a man whose 
idiosyncrasies have been greatly magnified or distorted in 
the popular imagination and at the hands of versatile 
newspaper writers; and whose real aims and purposes in 
life were very generally misunderstood or misjudged by his 
contemporaries. 

Solomon Parsons was born in the closing year of the 
eighteenth century, Oct. 18, 1800, less than a year after 
the death of Washington, in the northerly part of Leices- 
ter, Mass., on what isnow known as Marshall street, about 
a quarter of a mile from the Paxton line, in the house 
then owned by his father, but which has long since dis- 
appeared, leaving only a ruined site. 

The father, whose remains now repose in the old North 
Cemetery near by, was a brave soldier of the Revolution, 
who was severely wounded at the battle of Monmouth; 
and whose remarkable escape from death and survival of 
the conflict have been told by himself in that intensely 
interesting diary, which has been so often quoted, and 
some portion of which, at least, it is hoped, our Society 
may soon be permitted to publish in its Proceedings. 

For fifty-three years afterwards, the elder Solomon 
Parsons lived, and often suffered intensely from the effects 
of his wounds, — so much so that at times his mind was 
affected and he felt deep depression of spirits in religious 
matters. 

Descended from a long line of pious ancestry, he was 
by nature a deeply religious man, and this trait was trans- 
mitted to his son Solomon, the subject of this sketch, 
in large degree, with possibly something of that peculiar 
mental state which found its expression in ways which 
largely attracted the attention of his fellow citizens, who 
after the manner of men the world over, believed that it 



Solomon Parsons — A Memorial Sketch. 397 

was the first duty of every man to model his life after the 
" regulation way." 

Born upon a New England farm, Mr. Parsons' long life 
was devoted to the cultivation of the soil, an occupation 
in which he took especial delight and, as would naturally 
be the case, conducted most successfully. 

In 1812, his father bought of a Mr. Harwood the farm 
near Valley Falls, in Worcester, which has since been in 
the possession of the Parsons family, and which at one 
time was of great extent, the outer boundary being three 
miles and twenty rods in length. 

A pen and ink sketch of the old house, still standing 
in a considerably altered form, made by a great-grand- 
daughter of the Revolutionary hero, Miss Caroline E. 
Bennett, from paintings made in the olden time, and oral 
descriptions of those who can remember it in its former 
condition, accompanies this paper. 

In front of the house to-day there stands a gigantic elm 
tree, the remaining one of a pair which were set out there 
probably a century and a half ago, and which bids fair to 
flourish for a century to come. 

Previously to Mr. Harwood's occupation of the farm, 
it had been owned by Asa Hamilton, and before that by 
his father, Reuben Hamilton. Here both the elder Solo- 
mon Parsons and his son spent the remainder of their 
lives, and the latter's son, Mr. Samuel B. Parsons, still 
occupies the place. 

Mr. Parsons married, April 16, 1828, Sarah Hasey Child, 
of Cambridge, Mass. She died at their home on Apricot 
street, Aug. 27, 1876. Shy was the daughter of Samuel 
Child, of Cambridge, who married Elizabeth Fluker, or 
as the name was originally spelled, Fricke. She was the 
daughter of Johannes Christian Wilhelm Fricke, who came 
from Bremen, Germany, it is believed, with the Hessian 
troops, who were sent here during the Revolution, 
married for his wife Jemima Hasey, of Cambridge. He 



398 Worcester Society of Antiquity, 

was the ninth son of one of the king's body guard, and 
was a man of high education. One year after the birth 
of his daughter Elizabeth, he accompanied Judge Dana, 
American Minister to Russia, as interpreter. On his re- 
turn the ship in which he sailed was lost and he was never 
heard from again. 

The subject of this sketch, in his later life, had a strong 
aversion to war, and everything connected with it; but 
in his veins ran patriotic blood that has never failed to 
manifest itself in every generation of this good old Worces- 
ter family. Not only was his father a soldier of sterling 
worth, but his grandfather, Dr. Solomon Parsons, who 
lies buried in the old cemetery in Paxton Centre, was a 
surgeon in the American army, even prior to the Revolu- 
tion, while his maternal grandfather, Samuel Wesson, of 
Shrewsbury, and his son Samuel were both killed while 
scaling the walls of Quebec. It is therefore no wonder that 
in his youthful years he took enough interest in military 
matters to join the militia of that day, and, from 1821 to 
1831, he was an officer in the Worcester Light Infantry, — 
first a sergeant and afterwards as lieutenant, — his com- 
mission as lieutenant being dated June 9, 1827, and signed 
by Governor Levi Lincoln. 

It was while serving in the former capacity that he 
acted as one of the military guards that, on Friday, Sept. 
4, 1824, escorted General Lafayette through Worcester, 
and had the honor of shaking hands with that great and 
noble man, as did also his father, who was warmly wel- 
comed by the General, who remembered some circum- 
stance of which they had both been eye-witnesses in the 
war. A ribbon badge, worn on that occasion, and bearing 
a fine likeness of Lafayette and the outline of Bunker 
Hill monument, is still preserved as a memento in the 
family. 

Solomon Parsons, the Revolutionary soldier, and his wife, 
whose maiden name was Rebecca Coburn Wesson, were 



Solomon Parsons — A Memorial Sketch. 399 

original members of the First Baptist Church in Worcester, 
organized under somewhat stormy circumstances, by Elder 
Bentley, in 1812; and she was the first person baptized by 
immersion in Worcester, which event occurred Sunday, 
May 21, 1812. 

Their son Solomon, the subject of this sketch, was, later 
on, one of the founders of the First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, whose first house of worship stood at the corner 
of Exchange and Union streets, and which was destroyed 
by fire, Feb. 19, 1844. The first meetings of this church, 
prior to the erection of the church edifice, were held in 
the Town Hall, and the first pastor of the church was Rev. 
John T. Burrill, his successors being Rev. James Porter, 
Rev. Jotham Horton, Rev. Moses L. Scudder and Rev. 
Minor Raymond, who closed his ministrations in 1843, 
presumably at about the time that Mr. Parsons severed 
his connection with that church. Concerning the cir- 
cumstances which led to this act on his part, we need not 
particularly inquire, but one thing is certain, that Mr. 
Parsons' strong desire for freedom in matters of religion 
did not find complete satisfaction in the church of which 
he had been a pillar. The liberal ideas of modern days 
had not then permeated the church to any great extent, 
and the freedom of thought and speech which now char- 
acterizes all church organizations would then have been 
frowned upon. Those were the days when the doctrine 
of the second appearing of Christ in the immediate future 
was beginning to be preached by men who felt the truth 
of what they taught. Miller and his followers were sound- 
ing the alarm that the end was nigh, and that the world 
must prepare for the coming of the Lord. It is doubtful 
if Mr. Parsons ever fully accepted the ideas of this new 
sect of Christians, but certain it is, that in their meetings 
he found what he so ardently desired, that religious liberty 
which was the keynote of his whole religious life, and, 
for this reason, he was, for a time, more or less allied with 



400 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

them; but even here he perhaps found some uncongenial 
restrictions ; and we now come to a phase of his life which, 
by an unsympathetic world, has been greatly misunder- 
stood. 

Somewhere in the years between 1840 and 1850, Mr. 
Parsons purchased of William G. Hall, of Worcester, a 
tract of ten acres of land, on the eastern slope of what is 
known as Rattlesnake Hill, in the western part of Worces- 
ter, near the Leicester line. This land, then mostly covered 
with forest, was one of those beauty spots of Nature, of 
which poets sing, and amid whose sylvan aisles the devout 
soul can fitly seek communion with its Maker. Here the 
subject of this sketch erected a " Forest Sanctuary," unique 
in design and purpose, and upon that spot, for nearly 
half a century thereafter, it was his wont to worship God 
according to the dictates of his conscience. There, through 
the long hours of every pleasant Sabbath, might have been 
heard the sounds of prayer and praise or earnest exhorta- 
tion to a higher life; and of the thousands who in those 
long years visited that forest shrine, I believe there were 
not a few who felt their spirits uplifted from the sins and 
sorrows of earth to a brighter and holier atmosphere. 
Irreverent tongues sometimes disturbed the sanctity of the 
place, and vandal hands wrought destruction; but with 
a patient trust in God he forgave their trespasses and 
repaired the wreck and ruin. 

Hither he came, till his steps were too feeble to climb 
the well-worn path; and when they had forever ceased 
from coming, some who knew him best in life looked with 
a pang of regret upon the scene so soon to be transformed 
to other uses. 

In after years the land was purchased by the late Mr. 
Swan Brown, and upon the site of that well known " Tem- 
ple," now stands the summer residence which he erected. 
But one unique memorial of its former owner has been 
allowed to remain, and this is the deed of the land, which 



Solomon Parsons — A Memorial Sketch. 401 

ran not to Mr. Parsons, but to God, and which was in- 
scribed upon a large flat rock, by the side of a fine, cool 
spring near at hand. This unique document has been 
often copied and printed, and has been the subject of 
much comment; but in these days, when wealth lays 
claim to about every inch of territory which God ever 
created, it is refreshing to find one ten-acre lot which the 
owner thought its Creator should have some claim to. 

It is said that somewhere upon this hill, in ancient times, 
dwelt an Indian Sachem, with his followers, a hundred 
or more in number; and I question if this little plateau 
on the hillside, with its fine spring of water, were not the 
site of the Indian village. 

Mr. Parsons was, through a large part of his life, a 
thoroughgoing and consistent vegetarian, and was never 
weary of advocating his views on that subject; and the 
good old age to which he attained and his remarkable 
bodily vigor till nearly the time of his death, would seem 
to indicate that such a mode of life is in no wise detri- 
mental to physical strength and longevity. 

Mr. Parsons, in his prime, was a strong supporter of 
the anti-slavery cause, and played an honorable and note- 
worthy part in the great movement which did so much for 
downtrodden humanity. At his home, anti-slavery meet- 
ings were held, and the old house was often the asylum 
of those who were escaping from bondage to freedom. 
And here were frequently welcomed and entertained the 
noted men in that movement. Among his guests, one 
frequent visitor was the noted Sojourner Truth. A story 
is told of how he rescued Rev. Orrin Scott from a mob in 
the old Town Hall, where the minister attempted to de- 
liver an anti-slavery address, and the pro-slavery people 
headed by one or two wild young fellows, tried to break 
up the meeting. Mr. Parsons got him away uninjured 
and brought him safely home, where he was fittingly 
entertained. 



402 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

These were not the only sacrifices he made for freedom, 
for when the day of temporizing with the slave power had 
ended, and the Civil War came upon the land, he gave up 
his son, named after himself, to the service of his country; 
and to that fate which, however much of honor it might 
bring to the soldier's name, brought no less sorrow to 
loving hearts at home, who saw their hopes forever dis- 
sipated by the blow. 

Mr. Parsons had a great liking for travel, and besides 
his travels in this country, he made during his life several 
voyages to foreign lands, which he much enjoyed. This 
he was enabled the more readily to do, as he was part 
owner of a vessel commanded by his son-in-law Captain 
Angus Henderson, whose home was near his own, at what 
was in the olden time known as the Jones Tavern, at the 
junction of Main and Apricot streets, and where his widow 
and family still continue to reside. 

In February, 1865, Mr. Parsons sailed for the West 
Indies, visiting the island of San Domingo and other 
places. 

In the winter of 1869-70 he made what one might call 
a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, fulfilling a long-felt desire 
to visit the places made memorable by the great events 
of Bible history. He left home on the first day of October, 
and was gone three or four months. His son-in-law, 
Captain Henderson, was in command of the vessel, and 
Mrs. Henderson accompanied them. On their arrival in 
Palestine, Mr. Parsons went up from Jaffa to Jerusalem, 
across the Plain of Sharon, on up the long road, through 
the rocky hills, once pressed by the feet of the crusaders 
in their victorious march. Arriving safely at his desti- 
nation he spent several days in the Holy City and vicinity, 
while the vessel was unlading. 

With reverent feet he trod the soil once hallowed by the 
footsteps of Christ and his apostles, and felt much satis- 
faction in gazing upon the scenes he had so often read 



Solomon Parsons — A Memorial Sketch. 403 

about in the Sacred Volume. In after life he used to talk 
very entertainingly of his experiences on that trip, and 
never seemed weary of so doing. 

In the summer of 1877, when long past the age of three- 
score and ten, he made another long ocean trip to South 
America, going to Pernambuco and Para, in Brazil. 

From all these voyages he brought home many inter- 
esting souvenirs, especially from the Holy Land, from 
which he brought among other curiosities the seeds of 
many different plants, with which he afterwards experi- 
mented, but found our climate unfavorable to the growth 
of most of them. 

At length there came a time when his earthly wander- 
ings were to forever cease, and he was to enter upon that 
longer and final journey destined for all humanity. Even 
his strong and robust frame gradually lost its wonted 
vigor as the years rolled by; and on the 16th of December, 
1893, his death occurred at the old homestead where his 
life had been mainly passed. He had lived to see his 
ninety-third birthday, and most of the friends whom he 
had known in his youthful prime had gone to the grave 
before him. 

To-day, in the quiet shades of Hope Cemetery, he sleeps 
by the side of his wife and son, departed, but not for- 
gotten. 

Solomon Parsons,— " Uncle Solomon/' as he was fa- 
miliarly known by hundreds who were in no wise related 
to him by ties of kinship,— was a man of kindly spirit, 
who loved Peace and loathed the passions, the waste and 
the miseries of war. Like the great Prophet of old, he 
saw the vision of the Messiah's peaceable kingdom, when 
the lion and the lamb should lie down together and the 
battleflags of earth forevermore be furled. And believ- 
ing that the vision would one day come true, he labored, 
so far as in him lay, to hasten the coming of that grand 
event. He labored and prayed and his prayers were 



404 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

fraught with the simple eloquence of an earnest soul, and 
who shall say that they did not reach the throne of Grace? 



It is done! life's toils are o'er; 

Its weary journey past; 
Its burden dropped forevermore; 

Its rest is found at last. 

Rest for the pilgrim feet, 

That the long path have trod; 
Rest where the faithful ones shall meet 

Around the throne of God. 

To earth closed are his eyes, 

That, in the long gone years, 
Beheld those sacred towers arise, 

The Holy City bears. 

• 
But fairer than that sight, 

The New Jerusalem, 
Whose heavenly mansions know no night, 

Is shining now for them. 

The bells of earth may toll, — 

But those of Heaven will ring, 
The advent of another soul 

To glory welcoming. 

This earth was not his home; 

Its transient glories fade; 
Its pleasure to an end must come; 

Its treasures lie decayed. 

But he has found, above, 

A never ending bliss, 
Enduring wealth and changeless love 

In fairer worlds than this. 

This being the annual meeting, at the close of the read- 
ing of the paper, the following officers were elected to 
serve for the ensuing year: — 

President. — Lyman A. Ely. 
First Vice-President. — Mander A. Maynard. 
Second Vice-President. — Mrs. Georgia Kent. 
Secretary. — Walter Davidson. 



Proceedings. 405 

Librarian. — Ellery B. Crane. 

Standing Committee on Nominations. —Geo. M. Rice. 

The Treasurer not being present to make his annual 
report, the election of that officer was postponed, and 
on motion of Mr. Paine, it was voted that when the meet- 
ing adjourn it be for two weeks, to enable the Treasurer 
to formulate and present his report, and that the election 
of that officer be deferred until that time. 

Mr. M. A. Maynard stated that the Shrewsbury His- 
torical Society was to dedicate their rooms in the new 
Public Library Building in Shrewsbury, on the evening 
of December 11th, and that Society would be pleased if 
this Society could be represented by a number of delegates 
on that occasion. 

Attention was called to the large collection of Indian 
relics displayed in the library room, the property of Richard 
O'Flynn; and at the adjournment of the meeting, the 
members were invited to inspect them. 



Tuesday evening, December 15, the meeting was called 
to order at eight o'clock, p. m., President Ely in the chair. 
Others present: Messrs. Arnold, Bill, Crane, Davidson, 
Darling, Gould, M. A. Maynard, Geo. Maynard, Paine, 
Raymenton, Stiles, Mrs. M. A. Maynard and Miss Moore. 

The Librarian reported that eight hundred and eleven 
bound volumes, two thousand five hundred and seventy- 
seven pamphlets, six hundred and eighty-six papers and 
thirty-six articles for the museum had been contributed 
during the past year. He also stated that the books and 
pamphlets in the library had been rearranged and clas- 
sified according to subjects; that considerable many du- 
plicates had been found, a list of which had been made 
and which were read for the benefit of members who might 
wish to purchase copies from the Librarian. 
28 



406 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

On motion of Mr. Paine, it was voted that the report 
of the Librarian be accepted and published in the Pro- 
ceedings, excepting the list of duplicates. 

The Treasurer being absent, his report was read by- 
Mr. Paine, and after some discussion, on motion of Mr. 
Bill, the report was received and is to be placed on file. 

The next business in order was the election of a Treas- 
urer, and on motion of Mr. Bill, Frank E. Williamson 
was placed in nomination as a candidate for that office, 
and he was unanimously elected. 

A communication from Mrs. Georgia Tyler Kent was 
then read by the Secretary, stating that, owing to con- 
tinued ill health, she felt obliged to decline the honor of 
First Vice-President, to which office she had been re- 
elected at the previous meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Paine, the resignation of Mrs. Kent 
was accepted. Mr. M. A. Maynard presented the name 
of Miss Adeline May of Leicester, as a candidate to fill 
the vacancy and she was unanimously elected First Vice- 
President for the ensuing year. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1903. 



Receipts. 
November 30, 1903. 
Balance forward Investments, Securities. 

" Northern Pacific Bonds $2 903.17 

" R. K. Sheppard, Mortgage 3,000.00 

" " Savings Banks 149 35 

" cash ;; 360 ;i7 

Income from investments $295.23 

Assessments 726.00 

Rent. . . . 457.25 

Miscellaneous 81.78 



Payments. 

Salary of Librarian ($166.66 for 1902) $516.66 

Heat and light 237.11 

Printing 515.15 

Hall and Library 84.06 

Taxes 95.60 

Walter Davidson, payment on salary 15.00 

Postage 52.96 

Miscellaneous 230.45 



$1,560.26 
$8,032.95 



November 30, 1903. 

Balance forward Investments, Securities. 

" Northern Pacific Bonds $2,963.17 

" " R. K. Sheppard, Mortgage. . 3,000.00 

" Savings Banks 170.09 

Cash ;.:.' 152.70 








$6,285.96 




BENJAMIN THOMAS I 




$8,032.95 
IILL, 

Treasurer. 



I have verified the correctness of the accompanying report by de- 
tailed examination of vouchers for receipts and payments: also the 
securities $5,963.17, and the bank balances $322.79. 

LEWIS C. MUZZY, 

For the Board of Auditors. 
Worcester, 15th December, 1904. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 



Since the last annual report of the Librarian, the Society 
has received in contributions eight hundred and fifty-four 
bound volumes, two thousand five hundred and seventy- 
seven pamphlets, six hundred and eighty-six papers for 
the library and thirty-six articles for the museum. 

Among those who have made the most generous con- 
tributions we notice the following names: — 

The American Antiquarian Society, 157 bound volumes 
and 1485 pamphlets. 

Mrs. Alphonso Taft, 158 bound volumes and 591 pamphlets. 

G. Stuart Dickinson, 150 bound volumes and 87 
pamphlets. 

The Drew Allis Co., 109 bound volumes. 

Col. Wetherell Estate, 65 bound volumes. 

Herbert Wesby, 47 bound volumes, 61 pamphlets. 

W. A. Farnsworth, 23 bound volumes and 20 pamphlets. 

Mary R. Colton, 17 bound volumes and 5 pamphlets. 

The Society has also enjoyed the benefits from the usual 
list of exchanges, the profits from which we trust have 
been mutual. 

Within the past year there have been two new book 
stacks put up in the library room, giving an increase of 
over four hundred lineal feet of shelf room. Not including 
the wall cases we now have 3800 lineal feet of shelving. 
The entire library has been handled over and the books 
and pamphlets assembled as to subjects, under the fol- 
lowing heads or classification: — 
Stack No. 1 contains works on 

American History (prior to 1775) and General History. 

Ancient History. 

Agriculture and Horticulture. 

Bibles and Bible History. 



Report of the Librarian. 409 

Archaeology, Antiquities, etc. (Have been given sepa- 
rate cases.) 

Stack No. 2. 

Biography, Memorials, Obituary Notices. 

Church and Religious History, Sermons, etc. 
Stack No. 3. 

Civil War, also Indian, French and Indian Wars, Revolu- 
tionary War, War of 1812, Mexican War and Spanish War. 

Education, College Catalogues, etc. 

Ethnology, Men and Races. (Special case.) 

Family History, Genealogy. 

Histories of Towns. 

Fiction. 

Stack No. 4. 

Hymn Books, Song Books, Music Books and Poetry. 

Geography, Maps, Travel, etc. 

Mechanics, Mining, Engineering, Electricity, etc. 

Medical and Surgical Works. 

Massachusetts History, State, County, Legislative Docu- 
ments, Law Books, etc. 
Stack No. 5. 

History of the New England States, Registers, Manuals, 
etc. 

Miscellaneous History, Accidents, Amusements, Events, 
Games, Plays, etc. 

Natural Science, Cyclopedias, Dictionaries, Addresses, 
Lectures, Periodicals, Magazines, etc. 
Stack No. 6. 

Sociology, Developments in Human History, Masonry, 
Oddfellowship, Orations, Public Addresses. 
Stack No. 7. 

School Books, Text Books. 

Various State Documents and Publications. 

Stack No. 8. 

United States Documents and Publications. 



410 Worcester Society of Antiquity . 

Stack No. 9. 

Worcester Matters. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity Publications and the 
Transactions of Kindred Societies. 

The first step taken before bringing these books together 
into their several classes was to mark each volume in the 
Downes and the George Allen Libraries, by placing upon 
the inside of the cover of every book a gummed label 
bearing the name of Downes or Allen as the case might be, 
with its proper consecutive number in that collection; 
then they were classed with the other books and pamphlets. 

The letting of the Hall for various purposes interferes 
materially with the work of the Librarian among the books, 
so that much less has been accomplished in that depart- 
ment than we had hoped for. During the coming season 
it is to be expected that a more careful classification may 
be made, and at least a beginning started in the prepara- 
tion of a catalogue. We are glad to say however that 
considerable has been already accomplished toward plac- 
ing the library in proper condition for consultation. 

I am sure all are aware that a library consisting of twenty 
thousand bound volumes and more than thirty thousand 
pamphlets, with additions quite regularly coming in, must, 
in order to keep it in perfect trim, require more time than 
one person can give who has other cares assigned him, 
calling heavily upon his time; therefore the writer is also 
confident that his labors will receive your charitable con- 
sideration, for you may feel assured that he fully appreciates 
a well-ordered library, and will strive for its accomplish- 
ment with all the strength and ability that has been given 
him for the work. A library of any magnitude, however 
generously supplied with valuable books, without classifica- 
tion and a proper catalogue, may be compared to the 
miser's gold, locked up in a chest and hid away beyond 
the reach of all men save one, whose only enjoyment may 
be in fingering the precious coin and congratulating himself 
that he is the sole possessor. 



GIFTS TO THE LIBRARY. 



Abbot, William F.— One volume; and collection of pamphlets and 
papers. 

Academy of Science, St. Louis, Mo.— Transactions, as issued. 

Amherst College. — Five pamphlets. 

American Antiquarian Society.— One hundred and fifty-seven vol- 
umes; one thousand four hundred and eighty-five pamphlets; six 
hundred and twenty-eight papers. 

American Congregational Society, — One volume. 

American Geographical Society. — Bulletins, as issued. 

American Irish Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

American Museum of Natural History. — Bulletin, as issued. 

Barton, Edmund M. — Articles for the museum. 

Bill, Hon. Ledyard. — Articles for the museum. 

Blacker, F. W. — Articles for the museum. 

Boston City Registry Dept. — One volume. 

Boston Transit Commission. — Reports, as issued. 

Bowdoin College. — Reports and catalogues. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. — One volume. 

Canadian Institute. — Two pamphlets. 

Chase, Charles A. — One pamphlet. 

Colton, Miss Mary R. — Seventeen volumes; five pamphlets. 

Cogswell, Miss Mary L. T. — Articles for the museum and pamphlets. 

Colorado College. — One pamphlet. 

Concord Antiquarian Society. — One pamphlet. 

Connecticut Historical Society. — Collections, as issued. 

Currier, Leicester C. — One volume. 

Cutting, George H. — Articles for the museum. 

Davis, Charles E. — Seventy pamphlets; fifteen papers. 

Dedham Historical Society. — Publications, as issued. 

Department of Agriculture, U. S. — Reports. 

Department of State, U. S. — Six volumes; five pamphlets; Con- 
sular reports, as issued. 

Department of the Interior, U. S. — Education. 

Dickinson, G. Stuart. — One hundred and fifty volumes; eighty- 
seven pamphlets. 

Downs, Harry F. — Articles for the museum. 

Drew Allis Company. — One hundred and nine volumes. 

Eliot Historical Society, Me. — One pamphlet. 

Essex Institute. — Collections, as issued. 



412 Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Farnsworth, W. A. — Twenty-three volumes; twenty pamphlets; 
eight papers. 

Fay, Harriet E. — Articles for the museum. 

Fitchburg, City of. — One volume. 

Fletcher, Hon. Edward F. — One pamphlet. 

Gates, Carrie A. S. — Articles for the museum. 

Goddard, Lucius P. — Articles for the museum. 

Gould, Mrs. and Mrs. Sears. — Articles for the museum 

Green, Hon. Andrew H. — One pamphlet. 

Green, Martin. — Articles for the museum. 

Harrington, Chauncy. — Articles for the museum. 

Harrington, H. Augustus. — Articles for the museum. 

Hildreth, Mrs. Isaac. — Articles for the museum. 

Historical Society op Pennsylvania. — Four pamphlets. 

Hoar, Mrs. George F. — Articles for the museum. 

Hobbs, William H. — One pamphlet. 

Holy Cross College. — The "Purple," as issued. 

Hyde Park Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

Iowa State Historical Society. — One volume; one pamphlet. 

Johns Hopkins University. — Studies, as issued. 

Kansas State Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

Kent, Daniel. — One volume. 

Lancaster Library. — One pamphlet. 

Lawton, Mrs. S. Reed. — Eight papers. 

Manchester Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

Manitoba Historical Society. — Three pamphlets. 

Massachusetts Record Commission. — One volume. 

Maynard, Mander Alvan. — Two volumes. 

McAleer, George. — One pamphlet. 

McCready, G. W. — One pamphlet. 

Messenger and Observer Company. — Paper, as issued. 

Moore, Anna M. — Three volumes. 

Murray, Thomas H. — One volume. 

National Sound Money League. — One volume. 

New England Catholic Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Society. — Publica- 
tions, as issued. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

New Hampshire State Library. — One pamphlet. 

New Jersey Historical Society. — One volume. 

New York State Historical Society. — One volume. 

New York State Library. — Twenty-three volumes; thirty-one pam- 
phlets. 

Nourse, Henry S. — One volume. 

Nutt, Charles. — One volume. 

O'Flynn, Richard. — Twenty-one volumes; six pamphlets; articles 
for the museum. 



Gifts to the Library. 413 

Oneida Historical Society. — One pamphlet. 

Ontario Historical Society. — Three pamphlets. 

Paine, Nathaniel.— Collection of letters, pamphlets and papers. 

Parks Commission, Worcester. — Two pamphlets. 

Peabody Museum. — One pamphlet. 

Plummer, Osgood. — One pamphlet. 

Putnam, Eben. — One pamphlet. 

Rheutan, A. A. — One pamphlet. 

Rhode Island Historical Society. — One volume; two pamphlets. 

Rice, George H. — Articles for the museum. 

Robbins, S. K. — Articles for the museum. 

Roe, Hon. A. S. — One pamphlet. • 

Salisbury, Hon. Stephen. — Collection of pamphlets. 

Secretary of the Commonwealth. — Twenty volumes. 

Sheldon, Hon. George. — One pamphlet. 

Smithsonian Institution. — Three volumes. 

Southgate, Reuben H. — Articles for the museum. 

Spooner, William B. — Article for the museum. 

State Historical Society of Iowa. — Three volumes; one pamphlet. 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin. — One pamphlet. 

State Library of Pennsylvania. — Twenty-six volumes; one pam- 
phlet. 

St. Louis Academy of Science. — Publications, as issued. 

Stiles, Major F. G. — Articles for the museum. 

Stoutenburgh, Henry A. — One pamphlet. 

Swan, Robert T., Record Commissioner — Reports, as issued. 

Taft, Mrs. Alphonso. — One hundred and fifty-eight volumes; five 
hundred and ninety-one pamphlets; twenty papers. 

Taylor, Marvin M. — Two pamphlets. 

Thompson, F. M. — One pamphlet. 

Wesby, Herbert. — Forty-seven volumes; sixty-one pamphlets; one 
paper. 

Watherell, Col. J. W., Estate. — Sixty-five volumes. 

Wheeler, Henry M. — One pamphlet. 

Wheeler, Misses S. E. and M. E. — Picture, Wheeler House. 

Wilder, Harvey B. — Eight pamphlets. 

Worcester Art Society. — One pamphlet. 

Worcester Board of Health. — Reports, as issued. 

Worcester Board of Trade. — "Worcester Magazine," as issued. 

Worcester, City of. — Reports, as issued. 

Worcester Natural History Society. — One volume. 

Yale University Library. — Two volumes. 

Young, J. W.— File of "The All Saints Parish." 

ELLERY B. CRANE, 

Librarian. 



GENERAL INDEX TO VOL. XIX. 



Adams, David, 


188 


Adams, Herbert L., 


69 


Adams, Horace C, 


189 


Adams, Nelson, 


117 


Albee, Ichabod, 


177-183 


Allen, John, 


183 


Allen, Nathan, 


178 


Amusements in Worcester 


in 


Former Days, 


251 



Annual Field-Day, 168-169 

A New England House One 

Hundred Years Ago, 358 

Avery House, Groton, 223 

Baldwin, Christopher C, "Let- 
ters," 235 
Ball, Mr. and Mrs., 210 
Bigelow, Mrs. H. H., 117 
Beginnings of New England, 263 
Bennett, Mrs. Samuel H. T., 69 
Bill, Frederick, 219, 221-225 
Bill, Hon. Ledyard, 169, 227, 262, 

405, 406 

Boynton, Caleb, 177 

Boy den, David, 178 

Brown and Butman Tavern, 79 

Brown, Rev. J. P., 224 

Burbank, Captain Charles E., 289 

Burton, Rev. Warren, 235 

Burleigh, Charles H., 169 

Central Hotel, 74 
Chapin, Jesse, 183 
Chapin, Simeon, 178, 183 
Champlain's Voyages, 11 
Chase, Charles A., 394 
Chickering, Oliver, 178 
Clap, Rufus, 178 
Cogswell, Mary L. T., 245 
Colton, Mary R., 169 
Committees, 1903, 4-5-6 
Committees, Rice Family Exer- 
cises, 287, 299, 326 



Corbett, Ichabod, 170, 178, 186 

Corbett Family, 186 

Corbett, Otis B., 189 

Corbett, Robert, 186 

Corrections in Account of "Old 

Worcester," 256 

Crane, Mrs. Barbara, 69 

Crane, Ellery B., 11, 226, 232, 263 
Crane, Rev. John C, 317 

Craggin, Captain Samuel, 171-180 
Cudwith, Timothy, 178 

Curious Natural Feature in 

Worcester, 259 

Curtis, John, Tavern, 76 



Daniels, Eleazer, 

Darling, Denis, 

Descendants of Edmund Rice, 

Deed, Edward King to Gershom 

Rice, 
Deed to Gershom Rice, 
Deed, Jonas to Gershom Rice, 
Diary of a Revolutionary Sol- 
dier, 



178 
183 
327 

342 
334 

340 

170 
Dickinson, G. Stuart, 69, 117, 262, 

395 
Documents of Rice Family, 330 

Dorr, Pelatiah, 183 

Downs, H. F., 357 

Downs, Mrs. H. F., 357 

Drew Allis Company, 357 



Election of Officers, 
Ely, Lyman A., 
Erecting Statues, 
Esty, Edward T., 
Esty, Pegram, 
Exchange Hotel, 



404 
225, 288, 294 
193 
117 
117 
80, 125 



Expedition against Quebec, 24 

Farnsworth, William A., 117 

Ferret, Jesse, 178 

Ferret, John, 178 



Index. 



415 



Field-Day, 
Fish, Simeon, 
Fiske, Daniel, 
Flagg Family, 
Flag, U. S., 



211 
183 
183 
194 
192 



Fleet of Sir William Phips, 28 
Fletcher, His Honor Mayor 

Edward F., 295 

Forbes, Judge William T., 306 

Forgotten Bridge, 118 

Founding of Montreal, 11 

Founding of Quebec, 11 

Fuller, John, 178 

Gifts to the Society, 411 
Groton Monument, 220 
Groton and New London Field- 
Day, 211 

Hale, Nathan, 232 

Hancock Arms Tavern, 79 

Harthorn, John, 178 

Haws, Daniel, 183 

Haws, Colonel, 171 

Haywood, David, 183 

Haywood, Jacob, 177 

Haywood Tavern, 73 
Hempstead House, New London, 231 

Henchman Tavern, 70 

Hinman, Mrs. A. H., 324 

Holbrook, Darius, 178 
Home of John Chandler the 

Refugee, 163 

Home of Judge John Chandler, 164 



Jennison Tavern, 
Jones Tavern, 

Kent, Daniel, 
Kent, Georgia Tyler, 



76 

77,78 

357 

406 



Letter, Mrs. Balcom to Eliza- 
beth Rice, 337 

Letter, Edward King to his 

Uncle, 345 

Librarian's Report, 7, 34, 69, 117, 
169, 192, 209, 245, 357, 395, 405, 
408 



Librarian's Annual Report, 408 

Lincoln, Governor, 5g 

Lion, Alpheus, 178 

List of Members, 59 

Livermore, Mrs. Mary A., 322, 326 

Mahan, Hon. B. F. ; 224 

Marble, Arthur J., 118, 169 

Marble, Charles F., 169 

Marble, Mrs. Charles F., 169 

Marston, Frank A., 117 

Marsh, Jesse, 183 

Maynard, George, 210, 313, 395 

Maynard, Mander A., 192, 395, 405, 

406 
May, Adeline, 406 

Meetings, 7-34, 69, 117, 165, 169, 

192, 209, 245, 262, 357, 395, 

404, 405 
Membership List, 59 

Memorial Sketch of Solomon 

Parsons, 395 

Mill at New London, Conn., 229 
Morse, Benonie, 178 

Morse, Simeon, 183 

Munro, Lemuel, 183 

Nelson, Captain Gershom, 171 
Nelson, John, 178 
Nelson, Joseph, 178 
Nelson, Josiah, 183 
Nelson, Samuel, 177, 183 
Newcomb, Frederick S., 219 
New London and Groton Field- 
Day, 211 
Nourse, Henry S., 209 

Officers, 1903, 3 

O'Flynn, Richard, 395, 405 

Old Court House, New London, 211 
Old Pine Meadow Bridge, 118 

Old Pine Meadow Road, 119 

Old Time Taverns in Worcester, 70 
Old Town Mill, New London, 

Conn., 229 

Original Rice Family Papers, 330 
Owen, David, 178 



416 



Worcester Society of Antiquity. 



Page, Ebenezer, 


178 


Sheldon, Hon. George, 


193 


Paine, Nathaniel, 35, 234, 


404, 405, 


Shrewsbury Street, 


122 


406 




Shrewsbury Historical Society, 405 


Parker, Charles E., 


169 


Sikes Coffee House, 


81 


Parsons, Solomon, 


395 


Sikes Stage House, 


81 


Perrin, Mrs. Salina, 


330 


Sketch of the Chandler Family 


Perry, Lot, 


178 


in Worcester, 


129 


Phips, Sir William, 


24 


Sprague, James, 


178 


Pine Meadow Road, 


119 


Stearns Tavern, 


74 


Power of Attorney to Gershom 


Strate, Isaac, 


183 


Rice, 


333 


Streeter, Eleazer, 


178 


President's Address, 


8 


Sturgis, Mrs. E. O. P., 


128-245 


Prince, Rev. Thomas, 354 


, 355, 356 


Sumner, Darius, 


177 


Quebec, Attack on, 


24 


Taft, Mrs. Alphonso, 


395 






Thayer, Nathan, 


178 


Reed, Colonel Joseph, 


171 


Thomas Street School House, 69-82 


Reminiscences of Thomas Street 


Thomas Temperance Exchange, 81 


School, 


82 


Times of the Old Mass. 


Bay 


Report of Treasurer, 


407 


Province, 


165 


Rheutan, Abram A., 


262 


Tinker, Hon. George F., 


219-224 


Rice, Charles I., 


357 


Titus, Rev. Anson, 


165 


Rice, Darius, 


207 


Treasurer's Report, 


407 


Rice Family, 


286-327 


Trip to New London and 


Gro- 


Rice Family Reunion, 


296 


ton, 


169-211 


Rice, General Edmund, 


327 


Trumbull, Jonathan, 


223, 228 


Rice, George H., 


208-285 


Twitchell, Benjamin, 


178 


Rice, George M., 


169-297 


Tyler, Captain John, 


171 


Rice, Gershom, 331, 332, 


333, 340, 


United States Arms Tavern 


80 


346, 351, 352, 354 








Rice, Jonas, 331 


, 332, 333 


Waite, Emma F., 


70 


Rice, Moses, Tavern, 


71 


Ward, Phineas, 


183 


Rice, Thomas C, 


299, 357 


Ward, Samuel, 


184 


Rice Boulder, 


295 


Ware, Lieut. Hezekiah, 


171 


Rob, Benjamin, 


183 


Warfield, Samuel, 


177, 178 


Robbins, S. K, 


395 


Warren, Moses, 


183 


Roe, Hon. Alfred S., 


227 


Washington's Headquarters, New 


Rockwood, Joseph, 


178 


London, 


232 


Rogers, Ernest E., 


225 


Wesby, Herbert, 


357 


Russell, Colonel E. J., 


169 


Wetherell, Colonel, Estate, 


395 






Wheeler, Henry M., ' 


82, 358 


Salisbury, Hon. Stephen, 


193, 226, 


Williams, Duane B., 


117 


245, 260 




Williamson, Frank E., 


406 


School-Day Reminiscences 


! , t>y 


Wings Tavern, 


71 


Nathaniel Paine, 


35 


Wood, Timothy, 


183 


Schools for Girls in Former 


Days 


Wright, Seth, 


178 


in Worcester, 


245 


Wood, Joshua, 


183 



37?9